Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Complication of cataract surgery

1,906 views

Published on

Published in: Science
  • Doubled or Tripled in 5 weeks! Would recommend to anyone. ●●● https://tinyurl.com/semenax101
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Complication of cataract surgery

  1. 1. COMPLICATION OF CATARACT SURGERY MADE BY : SWATI PANARA FROM : BHARTIMAIYA COLLEGE OF OPTOMETRY 2nd YEAR 4th SEMESTER
  2. 2. TYPES PREOPRATIVE COMPLICATION OPERATIVE COMPLICATION EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATION LATE POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATION IOL RELATED COMPLICATION
  3. 3. PREOPERATIVE COMPLICATION ANXIETY NAUSEA & GASTRITIS ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS CORNEAL ABRASION LOCAL ANAESTHESIA
  4. 4. • 1 ANXIETY : due to fear & apprehension of operation. Anxiolytic drugs such as diazepam 2 to 5 mg at bed time usually alleviate such symptoms. • 2 NAUSEA & GASTRITIS : due to preoperative medicines such as acetazolamide &/or glycerol. • Oral antacids & omission of further dose of such medicines usually relieve the symptoms
  5. 5. ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS • It is irritative. • It may occur in some patients due to preoperative topical antibiotic drops. • Postponing the operation for 2 days along with withdrawal of such drugs required.
  6. 6. CORNEAL ABRASION • due to inadvertent injury during schiotz tonometry. • Patching with antibiotic ointment for a day and postponement of operation for 2 days is required.
  7. 7. COMPLICATION DUE TO LOCAL ANAESTHESIA • (1) Retrobulbar haemorrhage may occur due to retrobulbar block. • Immediate pressure bandage after instilling one drop of 2% pilocarpine and postponement of operation for a week is advised.
  8. 8. • (2) Oculocardiac reflex, which manifests as bradycardia and/or cardiac arrhythmia, has also been observed due to retrobulbar block. • An intravenous injection of atropine is helpful. • (3) Perforation of globe may also occur sometimes. • To prevent such catastrophy, gentle injection with blunt-tipped needle is recommended. Further, peribulbar anaesthesia may be preferred over retrobulbar block.
  9. 9. • (4) Subconjunctival haemorrhage is a minor complication observed frequently, and does not need much attention. • (5) Spontaneous dislocation of lens in vitreous has also been reported during vigorous ocular massage after retrobulbar block. • The operation should be postponed.
  10. 10. OPERATIVE COMPLICATION • SUPERIOR RECTUS MUSCLE LACERATION • EXCESSIVE BLEEDING • INCISION RELATED COMPLICATION • INJURY TO THE CORNEA , IRIS & LENS • ANTERIOR CAPSULORHEXIS • POSTERIOR CAPSULAR RUPTURE • VITREOUS LOSS • ZONULAR DEHISCENE • NUCLEAR DROP IN TO THE VITREOUS CAVITY • POSTERIOR LOSS OF LENS FRAGMENT • EXPULSIVE CHOROIDAL HAEMORRHAGE • SUPRACHOROIDAL HAEMORRHAGE
  11. 11. (1) Superior rectus muscle laceration and/or haematoma, may occur while applying the bridle suture. • Usually no treatment is required. (2). Excessive bleeding may be encountered during the preparation of conjunctival flap or during incision into the anterior chamber. Bleeding vessels may be gently cauterized.
  12. 12. • 3. Incision related complications depend upon the type of cataract surgery being performed. • i. In conventional ECCE there may occur irregular incision. • In manual SICS and phacoemulsification following complications may occur while making the self- sealing tunnel incision. • Button holing of anterior wall of tunnel can occur because of superficial dissection of the scleral flap (Fig. 8.27B).
  13. 13. A, correct incision; B, Buttonholing of anterior wall of the tunnel;
  14. 14. • Premature entry into the anterior chamber can occur because of deep dissection (Fig. 8.27C). • Once this is detected, dissection in that area should be stopped and a new dissection started at a lesser depth at the other end of the tunnel. • C, Premature entry into the anterior chamber
  15. 15. • Scleral disinsertion can occur due to very deep groove incision. • In it there occurs complete separation of inferior sclera from the sclera superior to the incision (Fig. 8.27D). • Scleral disinsertion needs to be managed by radial sutures.
  16. 16. • 4. Injury to the cornea (Descement's detachment), iris and lens may occur when anterior chamber is entered with a sharp-tipped instrument such as keratome or a piece of razor blade. • A gentle handling with proper hypotony reduces the incidence of such inadvertent injuries. • 5. Iris injury and iridodialysis (tear of iris from root) may occur inadvertently during intraocular manipulation.
  17. 17. • 6. Complications related to anterior capsulorhexis. Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for opening the anterior capsule for SICS and phacoemulsification. Following complications may occur: • Escaping capsulorhexis i.e., capsulorhexis moves peripherally and may extend to the equator or posterior capsule. • Small capsulorhexis. It predisposes to posterior capsular tear and nuclear drop during hydrodissection. • It also predisposes to occurrence of zonular deshiscence. Therefore, a small sized capsulorhexis should always be enlarged by 2 or 3 relaxing incisions before proceeding further. • Very large capsulorhexis may cause problems for in the bag placement of IOL. • Eccentric capsulorhexis can lead to IOL decentration at a later stage.
  18. 18. Small Capsulorhexis
  19. 19. • 7. Posterior capsular rupture (PCR). • It is a dreaded complication during extra capsular cataract extraction. • In manual SICS and phacoemulsification PCR is even more feared because it can lead to nuclear drop into the vitreous. • The PCR can occur in following situations: • During forceful hydrodissection, • By direct injury with some instrument such as • Sinskey's hook, chopper or phacotip, and • During cortex aspiration
  20. 20. • (8) Zonular dehiscence- during nucleus prolapse into the anterior chamber in manual SICS. • (9) Vitreous loss.- occur following accidental rupture of post. Capsule during any technique of ECCE.
  21. 21. zonular dehiscence
  22. 22. • To decrease vitreous volume: Preoperative use of hyperosmotic agents like 20 percent mannitol or oral glycerol is suggested. • To decrease aqueous volume: Preoperatively acetazolamide 500 mg orally should be used and adequate ocular massage should be carried out digitally after injecting local anaesthesia. • To decrease orbital volume adequate ocular massage and orbital compression by use of superpinky, Honan's ball, or 30 mm of Hg pressure by paediatric sphygmomanometer should be carried out.
  23. 23. • Better ocular akinesia and anaesthesia decrease the chances of pressure from eye muscle. • Minimizing the external pressure on eyeball by not using eye speculum, reducing pull on bridle suture and overall gentle handling during surgery. • Use of Flieringa ring to prevent collapse of sclera especially in myopic patients decreases the incidence of vitreous loss.
  24. 24. • When IOP is high in spite of all above measures and operation cannot be postponed, in that situation a planned posterior-sclerotomy with drainage of vitreous from pars plana will prevent rupture of the anterior hyaloid face and vitreous loss.
  25. 25. • (10) Nuclear drop into the vitreous cavity. – it occurs phacoemulsification , less frequently with manual SICS. • It is a dreadful complication which occur due to sudden & large PCR. Management.- ant. Vitrectomy & cortical clean up.
  26. 26. • (11) Post. Loss of lens fragments- into the vitreous cavity may occur after PCR or zonular dehiscence during phaco. - Result in glaucoma, chronic, uveitis, chronic CME, RD. - Management.- pars plana Vitrectomy & removal of nuclear fragment.
  27. 27. • (12) Expulsive choroidal haemorrhage.- • It is one of the most dramatic and serious complications of cataract surgery. • It usually occurs in hypertensive and patients with arteriosclerotic changes. • It may occur during operation or during immediate postoperative period. • Its incidence was high in ICCE and conventional ECCE but has decreased markedly with valvular incision of manual SICS and phaco emulsification technique. - Characterized by spontaneous gaping of the wound followed by expulsion of the lens, vitreous, retina, uvea, & finally a gush of bright red blood.
  28. 28. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATION HYPHAEMA IRIS PROLAPSE STRIATE KERATOPATHY FLAT ANTERIOR CHAMBER POSTOPERATIVE ANTERIOR UVEITIS TOXIC ANTERIOR SEGMENT SYNDROME BACTERIAL ENDOPHTHALMITIS
  29. 29. • (1) Hyphaema – collection of blood in ant. Chamber may occur from conjunctival or scleral vessels due to minor ocular trauma. • Treatment. Most Hyphaema absorb spontaneously and thus need no treatment. Sometimes hyphaema may be large and associated with rise in IOP.
  30. 30. Hyphaema  Early / Late  Early: Immediate postoperative period  Origin: Incision / Iris  Mild resolves spontaneously  Mixed with blood / viscoelastic – resolution longer  Late: Months / years after surgery  Origin: wound vascularization / erosion of vascular tissue by lens implant
  31. 31. Hyphema
  32. 32. • (2) Iris prolapse – by inadequate suturing of the incision after ICCE & conventional ECCE. • This complication is not known with manual SICS and phacoemulsification technique. • Management: A small prolapse of less than 24 hours duration may be reposited back and wound sutured. • A large prolapse of long duration needs abscission and suturing of wound.
  33. 33. Iris prolapse
  34. 34. • (3) Striate keratopathy.- by mild corneal oedema with descement's fold is a common complication observed during immediate postoperative period. - Due to endothelial damage during surgery. • Management : Mild striate keratopathy usually disappears spontaneously within a week. Moderate to severe keratopathy may be treated by instillation of hypertonic saline drops (5% sodium chloride) along with steroids.
  35. 35. FLAT ANTERIOR CHAMBER  Shallow or flat anterior chamber  Wound leak  Choroidal detachment or hemorrhage  Pupillary block  Ciliary block
  36. 36. WOUND LEAK It Is associated with hypotony. It is diagnosed by Seidel's test. • In this test, a drop of fluorescein is instilled into the lower fornix and patient is asked to blink to spread the dye evenly. • The incision is then examined with slit lamp using cobalt- blue filter. • At the site of leakage, fluorescein will be diluted by aqueous. In most cases wound leak is cured within 4 days with pressure bandage and oral acetazolamide. • If the condition persists, injection of air in the anterior chamber and resuturing of the leaking wound should be carried out.
  37. 37. • CILIOCHOROIDAL DETACHMENT : It may or may not be associated with wound leak. • In most cases choroidal detachment is cured within 4 days with pressure bandage and use of oral acetazolamide. • PUPIL BLOCK : Pupil block due to vitreous bulge after ICCE leads to formation of iris bombe and shallowing of anterior chamber.
  38. 38. • (5) Postoperative anterior uveitis can be induced by instrumental trauma, undue handling of uveal tissue, reaction to residual cortex or chemical reaction induced by viscoelastics, pilocarpine etc. • Management includes more aggressive use of topical steroids, cycloplegics.
  39. 39. • Bacterial endophthalmitis- dreadful complication with an incidence 0.2 to 0.5%. - Sorce of infection- contaminated solution, instruments, surgeon’s hands, pt’s own flora from conjunctiva, eyelids, & air-borne bacteria. - Sign & symptom : ocular pain , diminished of vision , corneal oedema
  40. 40. Signs of mild endophthalmitis • Mild pain and visual loss • Anterior chamber cells • Small hypopyon • Fundus visible with indirect ophthalmoscope
  41. 41. LATE POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATION • CYSTOID MACULAR OEDEMA • DELAYED CHRONIC POSTOPERATIVE ENDOPHTHALMITIS • PSEUDOPHAKIC BULLOUS KERATOPATHY • RETINAL DETACHMENT • EPITHELIAL INGROWTH • FIBROUS DOWNGROWTH • AFTER CATARACT • GLAUCOMA
  42. 42. • CME- collection of fluid in the form of cystic loculi in the henle’s layer of macula is a frequent complication of cataract Surgery. - On fundoscopy it gives a honeycomb appearance. - On FA- typical flower petal patterns due to leakage of dye from perifoveal capillaries.
  43. 43. FFA
  44. 44. • Delayed chronic postoperative endophthalmitis is caused when an organism of low virulence becomes trapped within the capsular bag. • It has an onset ranging from 4 weeks to years (mean 9 months) postoperatively.
  45. 45. • Delayed chronic postoperative endophthalmities-
  46. 46. • Pseudophakic bullous keratopathy(PBK)- postoperative corneal oedema produced by surgical or chemical insult to a healthy or compromised corneal endothelium.
  47. 47. RETINAL DETACHMENT • This serious postoperative complication is, fortunately, rare but is more common in myopic (shortsighted) patients after intra operative complications.
  48. 48. • Epithelial ingrowth- rarely conjunctival epithelial cells may invade the ant. Chamber through a defect in the incision.
  49. 49. • Fibrous down growth- into the ant. Chamber may occur very rarely when the cataract wound apposition is not perfect. - May cause secondary glaucoma, phthisis bulbi.
  50. 50. • After cataract- (secondary cataract) • “It is the opacity persists or develop after ECCE.” • TYPES : Present as thickened post. Capsule or dense membranous after cataract. • Soemmering’s ring –thick ring of after cataract formed behind the iris, enclosed between the two layers of capsule. • Elshning’s pearls- vasculated sub capsular epithelial cells are clustered like soap bubbles along the post. Capsule.
  51. 51. After cataract- (secondary cataract) (PCO)
  52. 52. A, dense membranous; B, Soemmering's ring; C, Elschnig's pearls.
  53. 53. Capsule or dense membranous Elshning’s pearls- Soemmering’ ring
  54. 54. ILO RELATED COMPLICATION MALPOSITION OF IOL PUPILLARY CAPTURE OF THE IOL TOXIC ANTERIOR SEGMENT SYNDROME
  55. 55. • Complications like- • CME, corneal endothelial damage, uveitis, secondary glaucoma are seen. • UGH syndrome- uveitis, glaucoma. Hyphema. Occur with rigid ACIOL. • Pupillary capture of the IOL - postoperative iritis • Toxic lens syndrome- uveal inflammation excited by either ethylene gas used for sterilising IOLs or by the lens materials
  56. 56. • Malposotion of IOL – decentration, subluxation, & dislocation. • Sun-set syndrome- infer. Subluxation of IOL • Sun- rise syndrome-sup. Subluxation of IOL • Lost lens syndrome- IOL into the vitreous cavity • Windshield wiper syndrome- IOL is places vertically in the sulcus.

×