William Shakespeare   Widely regarded as the  greatest writer in English          Literature
Shakespeare• 1563-1616• Stratford-on-Avon, England• wrote 37 plays• about 154 sonnets• started out as an actor
Stage Celebrity• Actor for Lord Chamberlain’s  Men (London theater co.)• Also > principal playwright for  them• 1599> Lord...
Shakespeare wrote:• Comedies• Histories• Tragedies
Romeo and Juliet• Written about 1595• Considered a tragedy• West Side Story (Movie)  based on R&J
The Theater• Plays produced for the general  public• Roofless>open air• No artificial lighting• Courtyard surrounded by 3 ...
Spectators• Wealthy got benches• “Groundlings”>poorer people  stood and watched from the  courtyard (“pit”)• All but wealt...
Staging Areas• Stage>platform that extended into  the pit• Dressing & storage rooms in  galleries behind & above stage• se...
Differences• No scenery• Settings > references in  dialogue• Elaborate costumes• Plenty of props• Fast-paced, colorful>2 h...
Actors• Only men and boys• Young boys whose voices had not  changed play women’s roles• Would have been considered  indece...
Elizabethan (QE1) Words•   An,and:   If•   Anon:     Soon•   Aye:      Yes•   But:      Except for•   E’en:     Even•   E’...
QE1 Words (contin.)• Haply:   Perhaps• Happy:   Fortunate• Hence:   Away, from her• Hie:     Hurry• Marry:   Indeed
QE1 Words (contin.)• Whence:      Where• Wilt: Will, will you• Withal:  In addition to• Would:   Wish
Blank Verse• Much of R & J is written in it:  – unrhymed verse  – iambic (unstressed, stressed)  – pentameter( 5 “feet” to...
Prose• Ordinary writing that is not  poetry, drama, or song  – Only characters in the lower    social classes speak this w...
Plot•The sequence of events in a literary work
Exposition• The plot usually begins with  this:   –introduces>>>>     • setting     • characters     • basic situation
Inciting Moment• Often called “initial incident”  – the first bit of action that occurs    which begins the plot  – Romeo ...
Conflict• The struggle that develops –man vs. man –man vs. himself –man vs. society –man vs. nature
Crisis• The point where the  protagonist’s situation will  either get better or worse –protagonist>good guy –antagonist>ba...
Climax• The turning point of the  story>everything begins  to unravel from here –Thus begins the falling  action
Resolution•The end of the central conflict
Denouement• The final explanation or  outcome of the plot –If this is included in  literature, it will occur after  the re...
Tragedy (Shakespearean)• Drama where the central character/s  suffer disaster/great misfortune  – In many tragedies, downf...
Theme• Central idea or >>• Insight about life  which explain the  downfall
Metaphorical Language• Comparison of unlike things >  – Paris standing over the “lifeless    body” of Juliet, “Sweet flowe...
Dramatic Foil• A character whose  purpose is to show off  another character –Benvolio for Tybalt   • look for others in R ...
Round characters• Characters who have  many personality  traits, like real people.
Flat Characters• One-dimensional, embodying  only a single trait – Shakespeare often uses them to   provide comic relief e...
Static Characters• Characters within a story  who remain the same. They  do not change. They do not  change their minds,  ...
Dynamic Character• Characters that change  somehow during the  course of the plot. They  generally change for the  better.
Monologue• One person speaking on stage  > may be other character on  stage too – ex > the Prince of Verona   commanding t...
Soliloquy• Long speech expressing the  thoughts of a character alone  on stage. In R & J, Romeo  gives a soliloquy after t...
Aside• Words spoken, usually  in an undertone not  intended to be heard  by all characters
Pun• Shakespeare loved to use them!!!  – Humorous use of a word with    two meanings > sometimes    missed by the reader b...
Direct Address• Words that tell the reader who is  being addressed:• “A right fair mark, fair coz, is  soonest hit.”• “Ah,...
Dramatic Irony• A contradiction between  what a character thinks  and what the  reader/audience knows to  be true
Verbal Irony• Words used to suggest  the opposite of what is  meant
Situational Irony• An event occurs that  directly contradicts the  expectations of the  characters, the reader, or  the au...
Comic Relief• Use of comedy within literature  that is NOT comedy to provide  “relief” from seriousness or  sadness.• In R...
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Brickey shakespeare

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Brickey shakespeare

  1. 1. William Shakespeare Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature
  2. 2. Shakespeare• 1563-1616• Stratford-on-Avon, England• wrote 37 plays• about 154 sonnets• started out as an actor
  3. 3. Stage Celebrity• Actor for Lord Chamberlain’s Men (London theater co.)• Also > principal playwright for them• 1599> Lord Ch. Co. built Globe Theater where most of Sh. Play’s were performed
  4. 4. Shakespeare wrote:• Comedies• Histories• Tragedies
  5. 5. Romeo and Juliet• Written about 1595• Considered a tragedy• West Side Story (Movie) based on R&J
  6. 6. The Theater• Plays produced for the general public• Roofless>open air• No artificial lighting• Courtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries
  7. 7. Spectators• Wealthy got benches• “Groundlings”>poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”)• All but wealthy were uneducated/illiterate• Much more interaction than today
  8. 8. Staging Areas• Stage>platform that extended into the pit• Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage• second-level gallery> upper stage> famous balcony scene in R & J• Trap door>ghosts• “Heavens”> angelic beings
  9. 9. Differences• No scenery• Settings > references in dialogue• Elaborate costumes• Plenty of props• Fast-paced, colorful>2 hours!
  10. 10. Actors• Only men and boys• Young boys whose voices had not changed play women’s roles• Would have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage
  11. 11. Elizabethan (QE1) Words• An,and: If• Anon: Soon• Aye: Yes• But: Except for• E’en: Even• E’er: Ever
  12. 12. QE1 Words (contin.)• Haply: Perhaps• Happy: Fortunate• Hence: Away, from her• Hie: Hurry• Marry: Indeed
  13. 13. QE1 Words (contin.)• Whence: Where• Wilt: Will, will you• Withal: In addition to• Would: Wish
  14. 14. Blank Verse• Much of R & J is written in it: – unrhymed verse – iambic (unstressed, stressed) – pentameter( 5 “feet” to a line) • ends up to be 10 syllable lines
  15. 15. Prose• Ordinary writing that is not poetry, drama, or song – Only characters in the lower social classes speak this way in Shakespeare’s plays – Why do you suppose that is?
  16. 16. Plot•The sequence of events in a literary work
  17. 17. Exposition• The plot usually begins with this: –introduces>>>> • setting • characters • basic situation
  18. 18. Inciting Moment• Often called “initial incident” – the first bit of action that occurs which begins the plot – Romeo and Juliet “lock eyes” at the party
  19. 19. Conflict• The struggle that develops –man vs. man –man vs. himself –man vs. society –man vs. nature
  20. 20. Crisis• The point where the protagonist’s situation will either get better or worse –protagonist>good guy –antagonist>bad guy
  21. 21. Climax• The turning point of the story>everything begins to unravel from here –Thus begins the falling action
  22. 22. Resolution•The end of the central conflict
  23. 23. Denouement• The final explanation or outcome of the plot –If this is included in literature, it will occur after the resolution.
  24. 24. Tragedy (Shakespearean)• Drama where the central character/s suffer disaster/great misfortune – In many tragedies, downfall results from> • Fate • Character flaw/Fatal flaw • Combination of the two
  25. 25. Theme• Central idea or >>• Insight about life which explain the downfall
  26. 26. Metaphorical Language• Comparison of unlike things > – Paris standing over the “lifeless body” of Juliet, “Sweet flower, with flowers thy bridal bed I strew…” – “Thou detestable maw…”Gorged with the dearest morsel of the earth…” Romeo
  27. 27. Dramatic Foil• A character whose purpose is to show off another character –Benvolio for Tybalt • look for others in R & J
  28. 28. Round characters• Characters who have many personality traits, like real people.
  29. 29. Flat Characters• One-dimensional, embodying only a single trait – Shakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy
  30. 30. Static Characters• Characters within a story who remain the same. They do not change. They do not change their minds, opinions or character.
  31. 31. Dynamic Character• Characters that change somehow during the course of the plot. They generally change for the better.
  32. 32. Monologue• One person speaking on stage > may be other character on stage too – ex > the Prince of Verona commanding the Capulets and Montagues to cease feuding
  33. 33. Soliloquy• Long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage. In R & J, Romeo gives a soliloquy after the servant has fled and Paris has died.
  34. 34. Aside• Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by all characters
  35. 35. Pun• Shakespeare loved to use them!!! – Humorous use of a word with two meanings > sometimes missed by the reader because of Elizabethan language and sexual innuendo
  36. 36. Direct Address• Words that tell the reader who is being addressed:• “A right fair mark, fair coz, is soonest hit.”• “Ah, my mistresses, which of you all/ Will now deny to dance?”
  37. 37. Dramatic Irony• A contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be true
  38. 38. Verbal Irony• Words used to suggest the opposite of what is meant
  39. 39. Situational Irony• An event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience
  40. 40. Comic Relief• Use of comedy within literature that is NOT comedy to provide “relief” from seriousness or sadness.• In R & J, look for moments of comic relief that help “relieve” the tragedy of the situation

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