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Open (P2P) Design @ Pixelversity, Helsinki (16/09/2011)


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Open (P2P) Design @ Pixelversity, Helsinki (16/09/2011)

  1. 1. Open (P2P) DesignMassimo Menichinelli---------------------------------------------------------------------------September 16th 2011Pixelversity – Pixelache, Helsinki available at:
  2. 2. 01.Internet and mass-collaboration(and Design)
  3. 3. Web 2.0: User-generated content + commentSource:,9171,1570810,00.html
  4. 4. Web 2.0: User-generated content + commentSource:
  5. 5. Peer-to-Peer: A new architecture of interactionsSource:
  6. 6. Peer-to-Peer: A new kind of service (design)Source:
  7. 7. Peer-to-Peer: A new kind of service (design) (See video on next slide)Source:
  8. 8. Crowdsourcing: Outsourcing to the online crowdSource:
  9. 9. Crowdsourcing: Outsourcing to the online crowdSource:
  10. 10. Mobile: Single user designing, no collaborationIts not only about the tool (PC / Mobile, Hand / Digital)...Source:
  11. 11. Mobile: Smart Mobs, Ubiquitous Computing (See video on next slide)We could even (re)build a design from noncoordinated usersSource:
  12. 12. Mobile: Smart Mobs, Ubiquitous ComputingWe could even (re)build a design from noncoordinated usersSource:
  13. 13. Open Source: Open Collaborative software developmentSource:
  14. 14. Open Design: Open Source Design (under construction)Source:
  15. 15. And hybrid models... like OpenIDEOCrowdsourcing 50% + Web 2.0 30% + Open Source 20%Source:
  16. 16. 02.Open Source:Mass collaboration everywhere
  17. 17. What is Open Source (Software)? A generic definitionA (software) project published with a license that facilitatesits access + modifying + sharing in a collaborative way.A (software) project developed collaboratively by acommunity, based not on hierarchy but on reputation.
  18. 18. Why Open Source in Software?Source Code (human readable) --> Binary Code (machine readable)Source:
  19. 19. Why Open Source in Software?Source Code (human readable) --> Binary Code (machine readable)Source:
  20. 20. Why Open Source in Software?Source Code (human readable) --> Binary Code (machine readable)Source:
  21. 21. History of Open Source: the beginningFew big computers: Software given as free, time andcollaboration are the great resource people share.Source:
  22. 22. History of Open Source: closed and Free software80s: Software becomes closed for making business, and anhacker tries to make it Open (or, Free) again.Source:,16641,19840416,00.html
  23. 23. History of Open Source: Linux and Open Source software90s-...: Linux is created thanks to Internet, and even withthe Free/Open term war Open Source becomes successful.Source:
  24. 24. Open Source Softwares (just few examples)
  25. 25. Open Source Everywhere...“Software is just the beginning … open source is doing formass innovation what the assembly line did for massproduction. Get ready for the era when collaboration replacesthe corporation.”Thomas Goetz, Wired November 2003 Open Source and P2P as promising way to organise communities
  26. 26. Open Source Everywhere... Open Drinks (marketing)Source:
  27. 27. Open Source Everywhere... Open Biotechnology Open Source and P2P as promising way to organise communitiesSource:
  28. 28. Open Source Everywhere... Open Movies + VideogamesDone with and for Blender (Open Source 3D modeling software)Source:
  29. 29. Open Source Everywhere... Open Money Open Source and P2P as promising way to organise communitiesSource:
  30. 30. Open Source Everywhere... Open HardwareSource:
  31. 31. 03.Open Design: Open Projects
  32. 32. What is Open Design? A generic definitiona project published with a license that facilitates its sharingand that can be “compiled” or “manufactured” locally.* sharing* collaboration* open licenses* code --> artifactOpen Design refers to every kind of design projects that canbe shared in a digital format over a network.
  33. 33. GentiumABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzÈÉÊËĒĔĖĘĚȄȨȆḔḖḘḚḜẸẺẼỀẾỂỄỆèéêěèéêëēĕėęěȅȩȇḕḕḗḗḙḛḝẹẻẽềếểễềếểễo̊őo̍o̖o̗o̘o̙o̜o̹o̝o̞o̟o̠ọo̤o̥o̦o̧ǫo̩o̪o̫o̬o̭o̮o̯o̰o̱o̼ȏo̒o̓“‹«.:?!©*¶§&/(‖)[¦]{|}€†‡@®™¿¡;,»›”¤¢$£€¥₡₢₣₤#01234567891⁄41⁄23⁄4%₦₧₨₭₮₯The first open source font (2001) by Victor Gaultney, with a specific license:SIL Open Font License (OFL)
  34. 34. Open Design: also Fashion DesignSource:
  35. 35. Open Design: also Open Architecture (less developed)Source:
  36. 36. Open Design: also Open Architecture (less developed)Source:
  37. 37. OpenMoko: a completely open productThe first product sold (2007-2009) with:* Open Source Software* Open Hardware* Open DesignSource:
  38. 38. OpenMoko: a completely open productThe first product sold (2007-2009) with:* Open Source Software* Open Hardware* Open DesignSource:
  39. 39. OpenMoko: product hackingIt was even sold with atoolkit for product hacking!Source:
  40. 40. OpenMokos failure“OpenMoko found that the cost of producing 3G smartphones wasprohibitively high for independent device makers and it was simplynot possible to do without using proprietary firmware.”“The mobile industry is increasingly embracing open source, [...]but the motivation is faster and cheaper development, not userempowerment.”--> An Open project cant go alone without:* building a collaborative system with other players (even “not open” ones)* decide to open only when its the best optionSource: (
  41. 41. BugLabsA more successful example (approaching $ 1.000.000 in revenue in 2010, est.)Source:
  42. 42. BugLabs + FordSource:
  43. 43. Sketch Chair: Open Design as codeSource:
  44. 44. Sketch Chair: Open Design as codeSource:
  45. 45. Close relatives: Makers / DIYSource: Scott Beale / Laughing Squid http://laughingsquid.com
  46. 46. Close relatives: Product hacking / PiracySource:
  47. 47. The current status of Open Design: going mainstreamSource:
  48. 48. The current status of Open Design: going mainstreamSource:
  49. 49. The current status of Open Design: going mainstreamSource:
  50. 50. The current status of Open Design: going mainstreamSource:
  51. 51. The current status of Open Design* single persons or small groups design a project and then just publish it online* lack of new tools, processes, systems that enable designers and users in developing open design projects--> where is the collaboration?--> where are the open processes?--> where are the communities?
  52. 52. The current status of Open DesignFrom: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds)Newsgroups: comp.os.minixSubject: What would you like to see most in minix?Summary: small poll for my new operating systemMessage-ID:Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMTOrganization: University of HelsinkiHello everybody out there using minix -Im doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, wont be big andprofessional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewingsince april, and is starting to get ready. Id like any feedback onthings people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat(same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons)among other things).Ive currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work.This implies that Ill get something practical within a few months, andId like to know what features most people would want. Any suggestionsare welcome, but I wont promise Ill implement them :-) Linus (
  53. 53. … the experience of a user of Open Source softwareSource:
  54. 54. … the big picture of Open Source software: the process (See video on next slide)Source:
  55. 55. … the big picture of Open Source software: the processSource:
  56. 56. … so Open Source communities are much more! Open Source --> Communities --> --> Complex Systems --> Complex Problems--> collective intelligence--> solve complex problems--> design complex projectsSee: Ko Kuwabara “Linux: A Bazaar at the Edge of Chaos”
  57. 57. Innovation in a closed processSource:
  58. 58. In Open Source!Source:
  59. 59. A more systemic definition of Open DesignA collaborative distributed system of design &manufacturing* sharing* collaboration* open licenses* open / distributed projects with commons based peer production governance* open and distributed manufacturing technologiesA system of agents that:* use* design* manufacture* market* distribute* manage the end-of-life* ...
  60. 60. What can we do for Open Design projects? Metadesign Metadesign is the design of the design tools, processes and systems * research and share design knowledge * research and share business models * research and share financial and environmental sustainability * design and share design tools * design and share design processes * facilitate design & manufacturing & end-of-life systems * facilitate the distributed creativityFor designers For communities For users For enterprises
  61. 61. Sourcemap: open source metadesign exampleVisualize and share supply chains : open source + APISource:
  62. 62. How do we design such Metadesign projects? --> Open P2P DesignHow do we research, develop and offer them in a Strategic Design project? -->
  63. 63. 04.Open P2P Design:metadesign of open and p2psystems
  64. 64. Open P2P Design and come from...* March 2005, Milan (Polytechnic)* a master degree thesis in industrial + service design* Design researchers were studying Design+Locality: * Spark! Design and Locality (Europe) * Me.Design (Italy)> How can we design for a locality and its community?--> How can we enable the participation of a community in the design process?
  65. 65. Designing Open Collaborative projects: ThinkcycleFirst open and collaborative design process (2000-2007)Source: (now closed)
  66. 66. P2P Service Design: Open Health (RED - Design Council)First p2p public services by design (2004-2006)Source: (now inactive)
  67. 67. April 2006, Master Degree ThesisReti Collaborative.Il design per una auto-organizzazioneOpen Peer-to-Peer(Collaborative Networks.Design for an Open Peer-to-Peerself-organization)Tutor: Ezio ManziniPolitecnico di Milano, Faculty of DesignYou can download it here:
  68. 68. September 2008, a shorter bookTheres also a short (and updated) versionin English (and Spanish and Italian) too!openp2pdesign.org_1.1
  69. 69. Where should we use Open P2P Design?* for community-centered projects* for community-based services / businesses* for projects that are distributed in a territory / locality* for complex projects* for participatory processes* for open processes and projectsIn Open Design, Open Innovation, Open Business, OpenGovernment...
  70. 70. Why Open P2P Design?* mass-collaboration/crowdsourcing --> change in the role of designers* being subjected to mass collaboration --> designing it* communities generate innovations --> more opportunities for designers--> designers can be enablers / facilitators of distributed creativity--> designers still have more knowledge and expertise, just now they are part of collaborative networks--> designers could even adopt open strategies
  71. 71. And the Design research and practice is changingDesign by author -->Design by marketing -->User-centred Design -->User-experience Design -->Activity-centred Design -->Co-Design --> …* Researching how to design better projects for the people that use them
  72. 72. What does Open P2P Design design? }Activity Theory +Service Design (+ Activity Theory) + ActivityAction Planning (Urbanism) +Social Network Analysis +...--> Open Source Software development process + P2P dynamicsSelf-reflexive (metadesign): activity self-analysis + design -->* analyse and design the design activity itself* easier to participate and to suggest changes* shared understanding of the collaborative process
  73. 73. Activity TheoryActivity theory is an approach in psychology that aims to understandindividual / social entities, through an analysis of the genesis, structure, andprocesses of their activities.Source:
  74. 74. Metadesign with Open P2P Design ? } Analysis + Design process: Concept design + A systemic activity Prototyping + comprising set of Manufacturing + actions (sub- Distribution + activities), with Support + their own tools, End of life + roles, rules ...
  75. 75. What about the source code for Open P2P Design?Participation matrix + } Process DesignActivity analysis +Social Network Analysis + } Community analysis }Storyboard +System map +Service blueprint + Activity DesignMotivation matrix +Activity description +…Design project + } Open Design
  76. 76. Open P2P Design Process (Participation Matrix)
  77. 77. A toolkit for the Open P2P Design methodologyDownload it here:
  78. 78. What is not a startup (yet) but an open source community underdevelopment.International (English language) with projects in Italy, Spain,Finland, Germany, South Korea, Singapore, Mexico so far… So far: 1 master degree thesis Next: 1 paper + 1 book Research at Media Lab - Aalto 9 workshops Books 4 panels / lectures Events / workshops 1 keynote speech Open source softwares 1 commissioned report A larger network
  79. 79. Make Magazine: Strategic Design for Metadesign* Make Magazine* Maker Faire* “Makers” Book (not Doctorows one!)* Make: television* Make Controller Kit* Craft Magazine Just an example of what it could be... on a smaller scale maybe :-)Source:
  80. 80. 05.Open P2P Design:An example
  81. 81. Open P2P Design Workshop, Singapore, NTUWith Roger Pitiot25-27 November 2009, NTU UniversitySingapore Design Festival
  82. 82. 01. Community Analysis
  83. 83. 02. Participation Matrix “First version of the Participation Matrix, we do everything by ourselves” “Second version, now the students manufacture and manage the product, we just help them distributing it”
  84. 84. 03. Open Design Activity
  85. 85. 04. System Map rev. 20 “Feedback from students and survey results from customers, now available to read by concept designers.”
  86. 86. 04. System Map rev.21 “everyone gets paid now!”
  87. 87. 05. Open Design Activity Poster
  88. 88. 06.Research and other futureprojects
  89. 89. Current ResearchDoctoral Candidate in the Media Lab – Aalto University – TAIK (Helsinki)"A digital open source design methodology for enablingcomplex distributed systems with open, collaborative and p2pdynamics"--> Further researching and testing the methodology (tools, processes, roles)with participatory action research* software analogy with design (code, open source, coding)* complexity of open and p2p systems (analysis + simulation)* design and complexity* information and design* visualization of collaboration and communities* democratization of process design tools
  90. 90. The future of openp2pdesign.org* Moving to Drupal and co-redesign with Open P2P Design process--> open community for open, collaborative, complex projects You can co-design it* mapping existing resources (tools, places, ...) and then participate* develop books / workshop / projects in it! :-)* ...
  91. 91. Any question or comment?
  92. 92. Thank you!Massimo