Open P2P Design: A Metadesign methodology for Open Design Projects @Iaac


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Presentation about Open P2P Design applied to Open Design projects at the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia,

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  • Massimo, you will find more about G. Fischer research at the Center for Lifelong Learning and Design (L3D) site:
    Their best papers on metadesign can be found here: including their proposal for a meta-design process - the SER process.

    I don´t think Fischer's metadesign process and yours p2p method conflict, but they are certainly diferent approachs to the design of colaborative systems.

    I'm starting a master degree research on Metadesign where i will compare both proposals.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hi Pedro, thanks for your comment! Yes, I remember Typeforge, even if I haven’t followed it recently. How is the project going on?

    My researches started with my master degree thesis in 2005-2006, but since then is not really an academic group (but, an investigation group, yes), even if I may take an academic direction in the future. You may find most of the materials on or on Scribd here:

    I will publish a report and the materials from the Singapore workshop soon.
    I did not know Gerard Fischer, are there any resources on the web? I learnt something about Metadesign while at University, but there it was only a concept without a great theoretic background (I wil try to study the subject more in the future). Why do you think Metadesign conflicts with P2P?

    It looks like we should talk more in the future! :-)
    My e-mail is info @
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Massimo:

    It's a very interesting presentation, or should I say curious? Can you post some more details? Is this an academic project/investigation group?

    Also, you are using the term P2P and the Metadesign methodology. Are you referring to Gerard Fischer's Meta-Design perspective of participation? Don't they conflict?

    And finally.. it's great to see other people interested in participatory design approaches. I am pursuing further academic investigation on the theme (I'm the one who started Typeforge)

    Keep up the good work. Hope to hear from you soon.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
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Open P2P Design: A Metadesign methodology for Open Design Projects @Iaac

  1. 1. Open P2P Design A Metadesign methodology for Open Design Projects Massimo Menichinelli February 1st 2010 Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia
  2. 2. 01. Open P2P Design and where do they come from?
  3. 3. Where do and Open P2P Design come from? * March 2005 * a young student started his master degree thesis in industrial design (actually it became service design soon) * Design researchers were studying Design+Locality: * Spark! Design and Locality (Europe) * Me.Design (Italy) --> How can we design projects for a locality and its community? --> How can we enable the participation of a community in the design process?
  4. 4. Free Software/Open Source and P2P were just breaking into other disciplines... * Open Source Everywhere * Open Publishing * Open Content * Open Biotechnology * Open Source Religion * Open Cola / Open Beer * Open Design * (...and more coming later) Fre Software, Open Source and P2P as promising way to organise communities
  5. 5. Designing Open Collaborative projects: Thinkcycle (now closed) Source: This is... Open Design!
  6. 6. Facilitating a P2P system: Open Health by RED (British Design Council) Source: This is... P2P Service Design!
  7. 7. April 2006, Master Degree Thesis: Reti Collaborative. Il design per una auto-organizzazione Open Peer-to-Peer (Collaborative Networks. Design for an Open Peer-to-Peer self-organization) Tutor: Ezio Manzini Politecnico di Milano, Faculty of Design You can download it here:
  8. 8. 02. Open P2P Design: enabling Open Systems
  9. 9. What is Open P2P Design? Open Design (design of an open project) + P2P Design (design of a peer-to-peer system) = the co-design of Open P2P social systems A promising way to design with/for a Community and its Locality
  10. 10. Why Open / P2P forms are promising? * Open Source is based on Communities * Communities are Complex Systems * Bazaar style enables parallel projects, then evolution, self- organization and emergence * Complex Systems can solve Complex Problems Complex Open P2P communities could: --> solve complex problems --> design complex projects --> design complex collaborative activities Open P2P forms as a Ko Kuwabara design project and a “Linux: A Bazaar at the design tool Edge of Chaos”
  11. 11. Open Source projects as Complex Systems? Just look at the following pictures...
  12. 12. Innovation in a closed, hierarchical, proprietary, linear project Source:
  13. 13. In an Open P2P non- linear project Source:
  14. 14. What is Open P2P Design? Open tools + Open process = Enabling Open Systems --> a proposal for a design methodology Designers become then Enablers, Facilitators... of distributed creativity
  15. 15. What does Open P2P Design do? an open design process + a collaborative activity self-organized by a community = an open metadesign / service design project
  16. 16. Design and collaborative activities A collaborative activity: * can be designed as a service design project * should be co-designed with users (community) * it's a complex project, so we need complex processes (like open p2p ones) * we should let it evolve and let the community modify it Daniela Sangiorgi, Service Design + Activity Theory
  17. 17. Where does Open P2P Design come from? Open Source Software + Activity Theory + Service Design (+ Activity Theory) + Action Planning + Social Network Analysis + ... ...and also the Source Code comes from them!
  18. 18. Why Open P2P Design? * mass-collaboration/crowdsourcing/distributed creativity force a change in the role of designers --> designers become enablers of distributed creativity
  19. 19. Why Open P2P Design? * it's about mass collaboration-based or community-based activities (and Open Design is an example) --> designers can find a role even outside design projects
  20. 20. Why Open P2P Design? * communities generate innovations as the outcome of collaborative activities --> a designer becomes an enabler of innovation and change
  21. 21. 03. Why Open P2P Design for Open Design projects?
  22. 22. Where should we use Open P2P Design? * works well where there are active participants * within an organization (community, enterprise, public institution), for its own processes --> Open Innovation, Enterprise 2.0, Open Government, … * when an organization (community, enterprise, public institution) enables another one --> Open Marketplaces, Open Innovation, Enterprise 2.0, Open Government, … * for community-based services / businesses * for Open Design projects
  23. 23. What is Open Design? a project published with a license that facilitates its sharing and that can be “compiled” or “manufactured” locally * sharing * collaboration * open licenses * code --> artifact Open Design refers to every kind of design projects that can be shared in a digital format over a network
  24. 24. What kind of open design projects? Open Web Design repositories: And all the open source software themes, templates, Frameworks, libraries... It's Open Web Design! GPL, LGPL, CC, ...
  25. 25. What kind of open design projects? Open Fonts libraries: (Free as in Free Beer, and sometimes Free Speech) It's Open Font Design!
  26. 26. What kind of open design projects? Open Processing sketches repository: ... And all the projects that uses Arduino or Processing and are released under an open license: ... It's Open Interaction Design! GPL, LGPL, CC, ...
  27. 27. What kind of open design projects? Open Architecture for markets: Open Architecture for Humanity It's Open Architecture! CC, ...
  28. 28. What kind of open design projects? Open Cinema / Open Movie: ... It's Open Movie Design! ...and also Open Game Design! CC
  29. 29. Open Design: Ronen Kadushin Open Design from a single Designer
  30. 30. Open Design: OpenMoko / Source: Open Design from an enterprise
  31. 31. Open Design: OpenMoko / Source: It's also Open Source Software!
  32. 32. Open Design: OpenMoko / It's even Open Source: Hardware!
  33. 33. Open Design: Bug Labs It's Open Design, It's Open Design! Source ...and a Meta- Hardware, Software product
  34. 34. Open Design: Bug Labs Source: It's Open Design, It's Open Design! ...and a Meta- Hardware, Software product
  35. 35. Open Design: Bug Labs Source: It's Open Design, It's Open Design! ...and a Meta- Hardware, Software product
  36. 36. So Open Design is... * a lot of different kind of projects * in its first steps * starting from, using and including Open Source Software / Open Hardware * working well when project and artifact are code/digital * still developing tools, business models, processes and systems when the artifact is a physical good * limited to share a finished project rather than designing it collaboratively right now
  37. 37. What is Open Design, for rival goods? a distributed system of design & manufacturing based on: * sharing * collaboration * open licenses * open and distributed projects * open and distributed manufacturing technologies A system of agents that: * use * distribute * design * manage the * manufacture end-of-life * market * ...
  38. 38. Current approach to Open Design projects * very few single designers initiatives and designers interested * recent communities (very few succesful ones) * enterprises, hackers more interested in the hardware * fabbing technologies developed by hackers --> let people design a project and then just publish it online --> lack of new tools, processes, systems that enable designers and users in developing open design projects Is it just publishing a file online?
  39. 39. What we can still do for Open Design projects is Metadesign Metadesign is the design of the design tools, processes and systems * research and share design knowledge * design and share design tools * design and share design processes * facilitate design & manufacturing & end-of-life systems * facilitate the distributed creativity For communities For users For enterprises For designers
  40. 40. Open Design actually is Metadesign * a community is designing, not just a single designer * the process is open, and therefore out of control * the process ideally never stops --> We need Metadesign within single Open Design projects --> We need Metadesign for making Open Design possible Shift of focus: from Product Design to Metadesign
  41. 41. Three Layers of Metadesign * Metadesign of Collaborative Activities: co-design a collaborative activity that will actually design the goal * Metadesign of Collaborative Activities that design tools: co-design a collaborative activity that will actually design the tools and processes for other Open Projects * Metadesign of Collaborative Activities that design the Metadesign process: co-design a collaborative activity that will actually redesign the Metadesign process itself (1) for Open (2) for tools for Projects Open Processes (3) for rededesigning itself
  42. 42. Sourcemap as an Open Source Metadesign example * sharing supply chains * open source * API --> Research --> Visualize --> Share --> Design Source: For Open Design we need Metadesign initiatives
  43. 43. Open Hardware / Fabbing as a Metadesign example * Hardware (Arduino, ...) * Fabbing (RepRap, ...) --> Ecosystem --> Reuse/Remix --> Share --> Design Source: For Open Design we need Metadesign initiatives
  44. 44. How do we design such Metadesign projects? --> Open P2P Design How do we offer them in a Strategic Design project? -->
  45. 45. What is It's the Strategic Design project for the development of Open P2P Design and its projects It's not a startup (yet) but an hub in the Open Design network So far: Next: 1 master degree thesis 3 books 1 paper 1 Open Everything event (?) 1 book 1-2 open source softwares (?) 7 workshops More workshops 1 keynote speech A larger network
  46. 46. Make Magazine as Metadesign and Strategic Design example * Make Magazine * Maker Faire * “Makers” Book * Make: television * Make Controller Kit * Craft Magazine --> Tools, Knowledge, and Systems for DIY --> Metadesign projects offered within a whole Strategic Design project For Open Design we need Strategic Design and Metadesign initiatives
  47. 47. 04. Open P2P Design: a Metadesign methodology proposal
  48. 48. 01. First, let's organize the design process Design the Participation Matrix (01): * choose the steps of the design process * analysis * concept design * project design * project communication * prototyping / testing * manufacturing / production * ... It's a tool that we can modify!
  49. 49. A proposal of an Open P2P Design Participation Matrix
  50. 50. 02. Let's analyze the Community we design with/for: Activity Analisys of the Community Choose one main specific activity and try to define: * subject (the community we design with/for) * object (of the activity developed by the community) * rules [parte de la plataforma] * roles (division of labour) [parte de la plataforma] * artifacts (physical, immaterials, cognitives tools) [parte de la plataforma] * larger community (with which our community interacts) * kind of participation: * top-down * bottom-up * marketplace In order to understand * reputation levels with whom we design with/for
  51. 51. 03. Social Network Analysis Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of network theory consisting of nodes and ties. Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are the relationships or flows between the actors. Social Network Analysis brings visual and mathematical tools to study very kind of relationship, being able then to discover the weak connections and the strong ones in a community. We look for: * nodes, links * direction, weight * structure In order to understand with whom we design with/for
  52. 52. 03. Social Network Analysis Source:
  53. 53. 04. Let's develop a Concept of the Collaborative Activity Choose one main specific activity and try to define: * subject (the community we design with/for) * object (of the activity developed by the community) * rules [parte de la plataforma] * roles (division of labour) [parte de la plataforma] * artifacts (physical, immaterials, cognitives tools) [parte de la plataforma] * larger community (with which our community interacts) * kind of participation: * top-down * bottom-up * marketplace For Open Design, the * reputation levels collaborative activity is Design Design a new activity or (+Manufacturing, open up a new one Distribution, ...) making it collaborative!
  54. 54. 05. Let's design the System Map La Mapa del Sistema sirve para diseñar y visualizar las interacciones y los flujos entre los actores. Los elementos son * material flows * information flows * financial flows * actors * system boundary In order to design/visualize flows between actors
  55. 55. 05. Sytem Map
  56. 56. 06. Let's design the Offering Map The Offering Map is used for designing / visualizing the whole structure of the Collaborative Activity with this hierarchical structure: * Activity * Actions * Operations In order to design / visualize the whole Collaborative Activity where the interactions take place
  57. 57. 06. Offering Map
  58. 58. 07. Let's design the Motivation Matrix The Motivation Matrix is used in order to understand the motivations and the interactions between the actors that drive the Collaborative Activity. In order to design / visualize interactions as motivations Source:
  59. 59. 08. Let's design the Blueprint for the Collaborative Activity Service Blueprints are used in torder to design and visualize processes and specifications of the Collaborative Acitivity when it happens inside an organization (Enterprise, Public Administration, Party ...) or there is a place where it meets people from outside * actions of inside and outside actors * users, front office, back office, support processes * time In order to design and visualize interactions inside-outside within a timeline
  60. 60. 08. Blueprint of the Collaborative Activity
  61. 61. 09. Storyboard Storyboards are graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity. In order to design / visualize interaction through time as an story
  62. 62. 09. Storyboard Source:
  63. 63. 10. Let's design the Reputation Levels Explicit and tacit knowledge is what shapes the Collaborative Activity and the Community: an open and p2p horizontal structure, as the result of the interactions, reputation and their history: information --> knowledge --> action --> reputation --> organization The structure / weight of interactions
  64. 64. 11. Let's choose (or design) a License In order to be able to design or to modify the project of a Collaborative Activity in a collaborative way, we need a legal License that let us: * share and distribute the project * modify the project * create a new project from another one The License is * a legal tool * a social contract that manage the results and the goals In our case we have two possibilities: * Public Domain * Creative Commons
  65. 65. 05. Open P2P Design: An example
  66. 66. Open P2P Design Workshop, Singapore With Roger Pitiot 25-27 November 2009, NTU University Singapore Design Festival,
  67. 67. 01. Community Analysis
  68. 68. 02. Participation Matrix “First version of the Participation Matrix, we do everything by ourselves” “Second version, now the students manufacture and manage the product, we just help them distributing it”
  69. 69. 03. Open Design Activity
  70. 70. 04. System Map rev.18 “Adding the Open Design System Map, the public relation role is at the center of manufacturing and distribution”
  71. 71. 04. System Map rev.19 “put in survey study into sub category market”
  72. 72. 04. System Map rev.20 “Feedback from students and survey results from customers, now available to read by concept designers.”
  73. 73. 04. System Map Last Revision “everyone gets paid now!”
  74. 74. 05. Open Design Activity Poster
  75. 75. 06. Conclusions: Open Design for Distributed Systems
  76. 76. Design for a new, Distributed Scenario Based on: * energy: distributed generation * physical goods: distributed manufacturing * financial resources: open money / local currencies And we need to redefine Design and its: * identity * knowledge * social networks * roles * processes * limits/choices --> Let's redefine and use Design for enabling Distributed Systems
  77. 77. Any questions or comments?
  78. 78. Thank you! Massimo Menichinelli Follow and join us!