CellSDN: Software-Defined Cellular Core networks

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Xin Jin
Princeton University

Research Track Part 1

ONS2015: http://bit.ly/ons2015sd
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Watch the talk (video) on ONS Content Archives: http://bit.ly/ons-archives-sd

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CellSDN: Software-Defined Cellular Core networks

  1. 1. CellSDN: Software-Defined Cellular Core networks Xin Jin Princeton University Joint work with Li Erran Li, Laurent Vanbever, and Jennifer Rexford
  2. 2. Cellular Core Network Architecture access core Packet Data Network Gateway Serving Gateway Internet Serving Gateway Base Station User Equipment 1
  3. 3. • Most functionalities are implemented at Packet Data Network Gateway – Application identification, content filtering (DPI), monitoring and billing, … • This is not flexible Cellular core networks are not flexible Packet Data Network Gateway 2 Combine functionalities from different vendors Easy to add new functionality Only expand capacity for bottlenecked functionality
  4. 4. Cellular core networks are not scalable access core Packet Data Network Gateway Serving Gateway Internet Serving Gateway Base Station User Equipment 3 A lot of processing and state!
  5. 5. Cellular core networks are not cost-effective access core Packet Data Network Gateway Serving Gateway Internet Serving Gateway Base Station User Equipment 4 Capex & Opex $/GB time Unit Revenue & Unit Cost Trends Revenue Network cost Figure from S. Elby, “Carrier vision of SDN and future applications to achieve a more agile mobile business,”, Keynote at the SDN & OpenFlow World congress, October 2012.
  6. 6. Can we make cellular core networks like data center networks? 5 ✔ Flexible ✔ Scalable ✔ Cost-Effective
  7. 7. Can we make cellular core networks like data center networks? 6 ✔ Flexible ✔ Scalable ✔ Cost-Effective Yes! With CellSDN!
  8. 8. Characteristics of Cellular Core Networks 1. Fine-grained and sophisticated policies 2. “North south” traffic pattern: in cellular core networks, most traffic is from/to the Internet – In data centers, 76% traffic is intra data center traffic. [Cisco Global Cloud Index] 3. Asymmetric edge: low-bandwidth access edge vs. high- bandwidth gateway edge 7 with diverse needs!
  9. 9. 8 No change Internet No change Controller Commodity hardware CellSDN Overview + CellSDN software
  10. 10. video traffic to gold plan customer to go through a firewall then a video transcoder 9 balance the load among all transcoders and firewalls in the network!” “ I want and Fine-grained and sophisticated policies
  11. 11. video traffic to gold plan customer to go through a firewall than a video transcoder 10 balance the load among all transcoders and firewalls in the network!” Decouple the problem “ I want and
  12. 12. 11 balance the load among all transcoders and firewalls in the network Decouple the problem Service Policy: meet customer demand application type + subscriber attributes  an ordered list of middleboxes
  13. 13. application type + subscriber attributes  an ordered list of middleboxes 12 network resource allocation: e.g. load balance among multiple middlebox instances Decouple the problem Service Policy: meet customer demand Traffic Management Policy: meet operational goal
  14. 14. Challenge: Scalability • Packet Classification: decide which service policy to be applied to a flow – How to classify millions of flows? • Path Implementation: generate switch rules to implement paths given by traffic management policy – How to implement millions of paths? 13
  15. 15. “North south” Traffic Pattern 14 Internet ~1K devices ~10K flows ~1 Gbps ~1 million devices ~10 million flows ~400 Gbps – 2 Tbps • Low link speed • Small number of active flows • High link speed • Huge number of active flows Too expensive to do packet classification at Gateway Edge! Access Edge Gateway Edge
  16. 16. Asymmetric Edge: Packet Classification 15 Internet Simple Forwarding hardware Packet Classification software • Encode classification results in packet header • Classification results are implicitly piggybacked in header Opportunity: Most traffic initiates from the access edge! Access Edge Gateway Edge
  17. 17. Challenge: Scalability • Packet Classification: decide which service policy to be applied to a flow – How to classify millions of flows? • Path Implementation: generate switch rules to implement paths given by traffic management policy – How to implement millions of paths? 16
  18. 18. Multi-Dimensional Aggregation • Use multi-dimensional tags rather than flat tags • Selectively match on one or multiple dimensions – Supported by TCAM in today’s switches Policy Tag BS ID UE ID 17 Aggregate flows going to the same (recently- moved) device Aggregate flows going to the same (group of) base stations Aggregate flows that share a common policy (even across UEs and BSs)
  19. 19. Policy Consistency Under UE Mobility • UE Mobility: frequent and unplanned • Policy consistency: crucial for stateful middleboxes – All packets of a flow go through the same middlebox instances even in the presence of mobility – Multi-dimensional tags ensures policy consistency in a scalable way 18 BS 1 Old flow Old Flow New Flow New Flow BS 2Handover Transcoder 1 Transcoder 2
  20. 20. Control Plane Load Internet Packet classification Handle every flow Frequent switch update Policy path setup Handle every policy path Infrequent switch update 19
  21. 21. Hierarchical Controller Controller Internet LA LA LA LA • Local agent (LA) at each base station • Offload packet classification to local agents 20
  22. 22. Implementation & Evaluation Controller Internet LA LA LA LA • Prototype based on Floodlight 21 Calculate ~3.4K new policy paths/minHandle ~3 million new flows/min Support ~1K service policies for ~1K base station with no more than 2K TCAM entries
  23. 23. Conclusion • CellSDN uses commodity switches and middelboxes to build flexible and cost-effective cellular core networks • CellSDN supports fine-grained service policies and traffic management policies • CellSDN achieves scalability with – Novel asymmetric edge design – Novel selectively multi-dimensional aggregation – Novel hierarchical controller design 22
  24. 24. Thanks! 23 Contact xinjin@cs.princeton.edu for more information!
  25. 25. CellSDN separates control plane from data plane 24 Packet Data Network Gateway
  26. 26. CellSDN separates control plane from data plane 25 Data Plane Control Plane Packet Data Network Gateway
  27. 27. CellSDN separates control plane from data plane 26 ✔ easy to manage ✔ easy to change Data Plane Controller Packet Data Network Gateway
  28. 28. CellSDN distributes data plane functionality to commodity switches and middleboxes 27 ✔ easy to manage ✔ easy to change ✔ mix-match ✔ up-/down-scale ✔ cheap Packet Data Network Gateway Controller
  29. 29. Control Plane Load Controller Internet Handle every flow Frequent switch update Handle every policy path Infrequent switch update 28
  30. 30. 29 Solve the problem Step 1: Packet classification based on service policy .......... .......... .......... .......... video traffic + gold plan customer: firewall  video transcoder .......... .......... .......... .......... firewall  video transcoder Packet classification when packets arrive at the network edge Service Policy

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