Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative
Document Title: COPD in the Emergency Department
Author(s): Frank Madore (...
Attribution Key
for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy

Use + Share + Adapt
{ Content the ...
COPD

in the emergency department

Frank Madore, MD
Hennepin County Medical Center
Minneapolis, MN, USA

3
BACKGROUND

4
epidemiology
n 

one of the top causes of death worldwide

n 

7th most common cause of disability by 2030

n 

n 

n...
pathophysiology
n 

chronic airway inflammation as in asthma
— 
— 

n 

COPD: neutrophils, CD8+ lymphocytes, &
macrophag...
chronic bronchitis
n 

n 

n 

progressive scarring and narrowing of airways
→ obstruction
increase in globlet cells → ...
emphysema
n 

destruction of alveoli

n 

loss of elasticity

n 

collapse of small airways

n 

chronic air trapping/...
natural course
n 

n 
n 

chronic bronchitis + emphysema → decreased
size of pulmonary vascular bed → capacity for
gas ...
etiology
n 

n 

n 

smoking, pollution (incl indoor cooking),
occupational exposures, genetic factors
negatively affec...
staging
n 

stage I – mild
— 

n 

stage II – moderate
— 

n 

FEV1 50-80%, shortness of breath on exertion,
occasional...
CLINICAL

12
physical exam
n 

chronic bronchitis - “blue bloater”
— 

— 

n 

cyanosis, facial plethora, edema, JVD, frequent
cough
...
exacerbation
n 

acute and unusual change in baseline dyspnea,
cough, or sputum production

n 

warrants change in basel...
comorbidities
n 

patients with COPD are also at much higher
risk for:
— 
— 

pulmonary embolism (sedentary)

— 

pneumon...
diagnostic approach
n 

pulse oximetry – compare to baseline

n 

ABG – limited utility, mgt guided by exam
— 

acute re...
imaging
n 

n 

CXR – atelectasis, PNA, CHF, pneumothorax,
bullae, pericardial/pleural effusions, pulmonary
fibrosis, et...
MANAGEMENT

18
long term
n 

chronic inhaled steroids

n 

albuterol as needed

n 

influenza and pneumonia vaccines

n 

home oxygen...
case
n 

n 

63 yo M with a history of COPD p/w shortness
of breath, cough
started out as a cold with worsening over 3
d...
acute exacerbation
n 

A – airway
— 

n 

intubation if obtunded, severe respiratory distress,
or clinically tiring out ...
airway
n 

indications for intubation
— 
— 

agitation, obtundation

— 

fails NIPPV

— 

shock

— 

n 

severe respirat...
breathing
n 

oxygen (as little as possible for sat ~90%)
— 

n 

albuterol 2.5 mg neb, titrate to effect
— 

n 

beta ...
circulate medications
n 

corticosteroids
— 
— 

n 

60 mg prednisone PO x1, 40 mg daily x4
125 mg solumedrol IV x1

ant...
disposition
n 

significant worsening from baseline

n 

poor response to ED treatment

n 

significant co-morbid disea...
SUMMARY

26
in conclusion...
n 
n 

it's not always “just” a COPD exacerbation
treat with beta agonists, anticholinergics, and
stero...
QUESTIONS

28
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

GEMC- COPD in the Emergency Department- Resident Training

578 views

Published on

This is a lecture by Dr. Frank Madore from the Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative. To download the editable version (in PPT), to access additional learning modules, or to learn more about the project, see http://openmi.ch/em-gemc. Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
578
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

GEMC- COPD in the Emergency Department- Resident Training

  1. 1. Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative Document Title: COPD in the Emergency Department Author(s): Frank Madore (Hennepin County Medical Center), MD 2012 License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, and adapt it. These lectures have been modified in the process of making a publicly shareable version. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content. For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/privacy-and-terms-use. Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers. 1 1
  2. 2. Attribution Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy Use + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC § 105) Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation License Make Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair. 2 2
  3. 3. COPD in the emergency department Frank Madore, MD Hennepin County Medical Center Minneapolis, MN, USA 3
  4. 4. BACKGROUND 4
  5. 5. epidemiology n  one of the top causes of death worldwide n  7th most common cause of disability by 2030 n  n  n  billions of dollars per year in treatment and lost productivity under-reported (only 50% see a physician for an exacerbation) 2% of all hospitalizations, 20% >65 years 5
  6. 6. pathophysiology n  chronic airway inflammation as in asthma —  —  n  COPD: neutrophils, CD8+ lymphocytes, & macrophages lung parenchyma damaged by TNF, leukotriene B4, & interleukin 8 —  n  asthma: eosinophils hence, poorer response to anti-inflammatory treatments than asthma COPD = chronic bronchitis + emphysema 6
  7. 7. chronic bronchitis n  n  n  progressive scarring and narrowing of airways → obstruction increase in globlet cells → mucus plugs epithelial damage → mucociliary impairment → decreased clearing of bacteria and mucus 7
  8. 8. emphysema n  destruction of alveoli n  loss of elasticity n  collapse of small airways n  chronic air trapping/hyperinflation n  prolonged expiratory phase —  decreased FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) 8
  9. 9. natural course n  n  n  chronic bronchitis + emphysema → decreased size of pulmonary vascular bed → capacity for gas exchange chronic hypercapnia and hypoxemia result lung vessels thicken, hemoglobin increases → increased pulmonary vascular resistance → pulmonary hypertension → R-sided heart failure 9
  10. 10. etiology n  n  n  smoking, pollution (incl indoor cooking), occupational exposures, genetic factors negatively affect body's natural oxidant/ antioxidant and protease/antiprotease balances secondary effects: —  weight loss, muscular wasting, metabolic derangement, depression etc. 10
  11. 11. staging n  stage I – mild —  n  stage II – moderate —  n  FEV1 50-80%, shortness of breath on exertion, occasional exacerbations stage III – severe —  n  FEV1 > 80% predicted, little to no symptoms FEV1 30-50%, shortness of breath at rest, frequent exacerbations stage IV – very severe —  FEV1<30%, ↓pO2,↑pCO2, cor pulmonale 11
  12. 12. CLINICAL 12
  13. 13. physical exam n  chronic bronchitis - “blue bloater” —  —  n  cyanosis, facial plethora, edema, JVD, frequent cough emphysema - “pink puffer” —  n  chronic respiratory failure, cor pulmonale, polycythemia, hypoxia thin, anxious, dyspneic, barrel chested, uses accessory muscles, pursed lip exhalation (autoPEEP) most patients exhibit elements of both 13
  14. 14. exacerbation n  acute and unusual change in baseline dyspnea, cough, or sputum production n  warrants change in baseline medication n  more common in winter —  n  suggests relation to seasonal viruses (RSV, coronavirus, influenza, rhinovirus) bacteria isolated in 50% of exacerbations —  also isolated in a similar proportion of COPD patients without exacerbation 14
  15. 15. comorbidities n  patients with COPD are also at much higher risk for: —  —  pulmonary embolism (sedentary) —  pneumonia (decreased ciliary function) —  congestive heart failure (R-sided) —  pneumothorax (ruptured bullae) —  n  CAD/acute coronary syndrome (smoking) arrhythmias (atrial tachy) be careful to avoid premature closure —  “just a COPD exacerbation” 15
  16. 16. diagnostic approach n  pulse oximetry – compare to baseline n  ABG – limited utility, mgt guided by exam —  acute resp acidosis, compensatory metabolic alkalosis – values don't predict outcome n  ECG – ACS, arrhythmia n  CBC – limited value (↑WBC, ↑Hb) n  BNP – may help rule out CHF n  d-dimer – may help rule out PE 16
  17. 17. imaging n  n  CXR – atelectasis, PNA, CHF, pneumothorax, bullae, pericardial/pleural effusions, pulmonary fibrosis, etc. US – CHF, PE, pericardial effusion, pneumothorax, pleural effusion —  n  careful with interpretation of large RV CT – definitive diagnosis of PE, bullae vs. pneumothorax, atx vs. PNA, etc. in unclear clinical situations 17
  18. 18. MANAGEMENT 18
  19. 19. long term n  chronic inhaled steroids n  albuterol as needed n  influenza and pneumonia vaccines n  home oxygen when necessary n  smoking cessation 19
  20. 20. case n  n  63 yo M with a history of COPD p/w shortness of breath, cough started out as a cold with worsening over 3 days n  increasingly productive cough n  more frequent albuterol use n  VS: P104, BP166/94, R26, T37.4, 89% RA —  appears anxious, dyspneic —  poor air movement on auscultation 20
  21. 21. acute exacerbation n  A – airway —  n  intubation if obtunded, severe respiratory distress, or clinically tiring out (RSI vs. nasal) B – breathing —  —  non-invasive positive pressure ventilation —  n  inhaled albuterol/ipatropium oxygen C – circulate medications —  —  antibiotics corticosteroids 21
  22. 22. airway n  indications for intubation —  —  agitation, obtundation —  fails NIPPV —  shock —  n  severe respiratory distress respiratory arrest methods of intubation —  RSI – takes away respiratory drive, familiar —  nasal – preserves ventilation, less familiar 22
  23. 23. breathing n  oxygen (as little as possible for sat ~90%) —  n  albuterol 2.5 mg neb, titrate to effect —  n  beta 2 agonist → bronchodilation ipatropium 0.5 mg neb, repeat x3 —  n  monitor respiratory rate, intervene if slow anticonlinergic → inhibits smooth muscle contraction, decreases secretions non-invasive positive pressure ventilation —  provides extrinsic PEEP to ↓work of breathing 23
  24. 24. circulate medications n  corticosteroids —  —  n  60 mg prednisone PO x1, 40 mg daily x4 125 mg solumedrol IV x1 antibiotics —  objective evidence of pneumonia —  increased sputum production —  critically ill patients (ventilated) 24
  25. 25. disposition n  significant worsening from baseline n  poor response to ED treatment n  significant co-morbid diseases n  hypoxia n  unable to care for self —  can they get around their house? —  can they keep down fluids? —  who will call for help if they get worse? 25
  26. 26. SUMMARY 26
  27. 27. in conclusion... n  n  it's not always “just” a COPD exacerbation treat with beta agonists, anticholinergics, and steroids n  try NIPPV before intubating n  re-evaluate frequently n  make then prove to you that they can go home 27
  28. 28. QUESTIONS 28

×