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Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative
Document Title: Approach to the Dyspenic Adult Patient
Author(s): Randall ...
Attribution Key
for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy
Use + Share + Adapt
Make Your Own A...
Randall Ellis, MD MPH
Adjunct Professor
Department of Emergency Medicine
Vanderbilt University
3
Case 1
24 year old female with a history of asthma presents with
shortness of breath for 2 hours and wheezing
Afebrile, BP...
Case 2
75 year old diabetic male with shortness of breath for 4
days. Has history of COPD and CHF. No fever or chest
pain....
Case 3
32 year old female with no past medical history reports
gradual onset of mild shortness of breath for 2 days. No
fe...
Functions of the Cardiorespiratory
System
 Bring O2 into the body
 Remove CO2 from the body
 Deliver O2 to the tissues
...
Main Causes of Dyspnea
1. Respiratory
2. Cardiac
3. Blood
4. Metabolic Acidosis
8
RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS
 Upper Airway
 Lower Airway
 Lung Tissue
 Lung Vasculature
 Restriction of Lung Expansion
9
Upper Airway Problems
 Foreign Body
 Tumors
 Swelling
 Inhalation Injury
 Anaphylaxis
 Angioedema
 Infections of th...
Lower Airway Problems
 Foreign Body (including mucous, vomitus, and blood)
 Tumors
 Asthma
 COPD
11
Lung Tissue Problems
 Infections
 Pneumonia
 Tuberculosis
 Abscess
 COPD
 Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema
 Non-Cardioge...
Lung Vasculature Problems
 Pulmonary Hypertension
 Pulmonary Embolism
 Acute Chest Syndrome in Sickle Cell Disease
13
Problems Restricting Lung
Expansion
 Pneumothorax and Pneumomediastinum
 Pleural effusions
 Severe scoliosis
 Abdomina...
CARDIAC PROBLEMS
 Rhythm
 Vasculature
 Pump
 Extrinsic to the Heart
15
Cardiac Rhythm Problem
 Atrial Fibrillation
 Second Degree Block – Type II
 Third Degree Block
 Bradycardia
 Supraven...
Cardiac Vascular Problems
 Acute Coronary Syndrome
17
Cardiac Pump Problem
 Low Output Heart Failure
 Cardiomyopathy
 Valve Problem
 Myocarditis
 High Output Heart Failure...
Problems Extrinsic to the Heart
 Cardiac Effusion
 Cardiac Tamponade
 Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
19
BLOOD PROBLEMS
 Acute Severe Anemia
 Hemoglobin Toxins
 Carbon Monoxide
 Methemoglobinemia
20
METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
 Ketoacidosis
 Lactic acidosis
 Salicylates
21
MEDICAL HISTORY
 Use a systematic approach to address possible
respiratory problems, cardiac problems, blood
problems, an...
MEDICAL HISTORY
 Ask about sudden or gradual onset
 Ask what makes it worse and what makes it better
 Ask about fever
...
PHYSICAL EXAM
 Again, use a systematic approach.
 How do they look? Do they need immediate
interventions before the H&P
...
INITIAL STABILIZATION
AND MONITORING
This may be the first thing to address prior to the H&P
 Minimal
 O2 by nasal cannu...
ASSESSMENT
 Chest X-ray
 ECG
Also consider:
 White Blood Count
 Hemoglobin/Hematocrit
 Renal Function
 Liver Functio...
ULTRASOUND EXAM OF THE
SEVERELY DYSPNEIC PATIENT
There are many different protocols out there:
• BLUE Protocol (Chest 2008...
ULTRASOUND EXAM OF THE
SEVERELY DYSPNEIC PATIENT
Common features of most dyspnea US protocols:
1. Cardiac: pericardial eff...
Case 1
24 year old female with a history of asthma presents with
shortness of breath for 2 hours and wheezing
Afebrile, BP...
Case 1
She was given nebulizer treatments and steroids with
only mild improvement. The next day a medical student
intervie...
Case 2
75 year old diabetic male with shortness of breath for 4
days. Has history of COPD and CHF. No fever or chest
pain....
Case 2
 WBC 12,000
 CXR shows LLL infiltrate
 ECG shows new onset atrial fibrillation
 Troponin was elevated
Diagnoses...
Case 3
32 year old female with no past medical history reports
gradual onset of mild shortness of breath for 2 days. No
fe...
Case 3
The patient had a normal CXR and ECG. Her anion gap was
18. ABG revealed a pH of 7.28, pCO2 26, pO2 110 on room air...
Key Points
 Use a systematic approach when evaluating the dyspneic
patient or you will miss something
 The systematic ap...
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GEMC- Approach to the Dyspneic Patient- Resident Training

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This is a lecture by Randall Ellis, MD MPH from the Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative. To download the editable version (in PPT), to access additional learning modules, or to learn more about the project, see http://openmi.ch/em-gemc. Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.

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GEMC- Approach to the Dyspneic Patient- Resident Training

  1. 1. Project: Ghana Emergency Medicine Collaborative Document Title: Approach to the Dyspenic Adult Patient Author(s): Randall Ellis, MD MPH (Vanderbilt University) License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike-3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, and adapt it. These lectures have been modified in the process of making a publicly shareable version. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content. For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/privacy-and-terms-use. Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers. 1
  2. 2. Attribution Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/AttributionPolicy Use + Share + Adapt Make Your Own Assessment Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation License Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC § 105) Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair. { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } 2
  3. 3. Randall Ellis, MD MPH Adjunct Professor Department of Emergency Medicine Vanderbilt University 3
  4. 4. Case 1 24 year old female with a history of asthma presents with shortness of breath for 2 hours and wheezing Afebrile, BP 112/62, P 122, RR 28, O2 saturation 92% on room air Alert, tachypnea, good air movement with bilateral expiratory wheezing 4
  5. 5. Case 2 75 year old diabetic male with shortness of breath for 4 days. Has history of COPD and CHF. No fever or chest pain. Worse lying down or with exertion. Improved sitting up. Dry cough. T38, BP 158/92, P 92, RR 18, O2 saturation on room air 89% Alert, no distress, irregular pulse, good air movement with crackles at the left base 5
  6. 6. Case 3 32 year old female with no past medical history reports gradual onset of mild shortness of breath for 2 days. No fever, cough, chest pain. Afebrile, BP 118/58, P 84, RR 26, O2 saturation on room air 100% Alert, no respiratory distress, normal lung and heart sounds 6
  7. 7. Functions of the Cardiorespiratory System  Bring O2 into the body  Remove CO2 from the body  Deliver O2 to the tissues  Maintain the pH of the body Shortness of breath will be felt if you interrupt any of these functions 7
  8. 8. Main Causes of Dyspnea 1. Respiratory 2. Cardiac 3. Blood 4. Metabolic Acidosis 8
  9. 9. RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS  Upper Airway  Lower Airway  Lung Tissue  Lung Vasculature  Restriction of Lung Expansion 9
  10. 10. Upper Airway Problems  Foreign Body  Tumors  Swelling  Inhalation Injury  Anaphylaxis  Angioedema  Infections of the pharynx and neck  Epiglottitis  Peritonsillar abscess  Retropharyngeal abscess  Deep space neck infections 10
  11. 11. Lower Airway Problems  Foreign Body (including mucous, vomitus, and blood)  Tumors  Asthma  COPD 11
  12. 12. Lung Tissue Problems  Infections  Pneumonia  Tuberculosis  Abscess  COPD  Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema  Non-Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (ARDS) 12
  13. 13. Lung Vasculature Problems  Pulmonary Hypertension  Pulmonary Embolism  Acute Chest Syndrome in Sickle Cell Disease 13
  14. 14. Problems Restricting Lung Expansion  Pneumothorax and Pneumomediastinum  Pleural effusions  Severe scoliosis  Abdominal distention  Abdominal pain  Neuromuscular Problems  Severe Hypokalemia  Guillain-Barre  Myasthenia gravis  ALS 14
  15. 15. CARDIAC PROBLEMS  Rhythm  Vasculature  Pump  Extrinsic to the Heart 15
  16. 16. Cardiac Rhythm Problem  Atrial Fibrillation  Second Degree Block – Type II  Third Degree Block  Bradycardia  Supraventricular Tachycardia  Ventricular Tachycardia 16
  17. 17. Cardiac Vascular Problems  Acute Coronary Syndrome 17
  18. 18. Cardiac Pump Problem  Low Output Heart Failure  Cardiomyopathy  Valve Problem  Myocarditis  High Output Heart Failure  Hyperthyroidism  Beriberi  AV Fistula 18
  19. 19. Problems Extrinsic to the Heart  Cardiac Effusion  Cardiac Tamponade  Restrictive Cardiomyopathy 19
  20. 20. BLOOD PROBLEMS  Acute Severe Anemia  Hemoglobin Toxins  Carbon Monoxide  Methemoglobinemia 20
  21. 21. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS  Ketoacidosis  Lactic acidosis  Salicylates 21
  22. 22. MEDICAL HISTORY  Use a systematic approach to address possible respiratory problems, cardiac problems, blood problems, and consider whether there is any concern about metabolic acidosis.  Start with the airway and work through all the systems needed for O2 delivery 22
  23. 23. MEDICAL HISTORY  Ask about sudden or gradual onset  Ask what makes it worse and what makes it better  Ask about fever  Ask about chest pain  Ask about cough 23
  24. 24. PHYSICAL EXAM  Again, use a systematic approach.  How do they look? Do they need immediate interventions before the H&P  Start with the lips and oropharynx (swelling, masses)  Examine neck (JVD, swelling or masses, stridor)  Examine lungs (work of breathing, air movement, breath sounds, symmetry, cough)  Examine the heart and peripheral pulses  Examine blood related problems (pale conjunctiva, any source of bleeding, consider stool hemacult) 24
  25. 25. INITIAL STABILIZATION AND MONITORING This may be the first thing to address prior to the H&P  Minimal  O2 by nasal cannula  Sit the patient up  Start IV  Put the patient on a monitor  Maximal  100% nonrebreather mask  BIPAP  Intubate the patient 25
  26. 26. ASSESSMENT  Chest X-ray  ECG Also consider:  White Blood Count  Hemoglobin/Hematocrit  Renal Function  Liver Function  Cardiac Enzymes  Arterial Blood Gas  BNP  D-dimer 26
  27. 27. ULTRASOUND EXAM OF THE SEVERELY DYSPNEIC PATIENT There are many different protocols out there: • BLUE Protocol (Chest 2008) by Lichtenstein and Meziere • ETUDES Protocol (Academic EM 2009) by Liteplo and Marill • RADiUS Protocol (Ultrasound Clinics 2011) by Manson and Hafez 27
  28. 28. ULTRASOUND EXAM OF THE SEVERELY DYSPNEIC PATIENT Common features of most dyspnea US protocols: 1. Cardiac: pericardial effusion, look at contractility 2. Pulmonary: pneumothorax, pleural effusion, consolidation, COPD vs CHF 3. Inferior Vena Cava: look for IVC distention and collapsibility Some protocols look for DVT in both legs 28
  29. 29. Case 1 24 year old female with a history of asthma presents with shortness of breath for 2 hours and wheezing Afebrile, BP 112/62, P 122, RR 28, O2 saturation 92% on room air Alert, tachypnea, good air movement with bilateral expiratory wheezing 29
  30. 30. Case 1 She was given nebulizer treatments and steroids with only mild improvement. The next day a medical student interviewing the patient learned that she had a family history of pulmonary emboli. A chest CT showed multiple pulmonary emboli. Further testing revealed that she had Protein C deficiency. Diagnoses: Pulmonary Emboli Hypercoagulable State secondary to Protein C deficiency 30
  31. 31. Case 2 75 year old diabetic male with shortness of breath for 4 days. Has history of COPD and CHF. No fever or chest pain. Worse lying down or with exertion. Improved sitting up. Dry cough. T 38, BP 158/92, P 92, RR 18, O2 saturation on room air 89% Alert, irregular pulse, good air movement with crackles at the left base 31
  32. 32. Case 2  WBC 12,000  CXR shows LLL infiltrate  ECG shows new onset atrial fibrillation  Troponin was elevated Diagnoses: Pneumonia New Onset Atrial Fibrillation Non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction 32
  33. 33. Case 3 32 year old female with no past medical history reports gradual onset of mild shortness of breath for 2 days. No fever, cough, chest pain. Afebrile, BP 118/58, P 84, RR 26, O2 saturation on room air 100% Alert, no respiratory distress, normal lung and heart sounds 33
  34. 34. Case 3 The patient had a normal CXR and ECG. Her anion gap was 18. ABG revealed a pH of 7.28, pCO2 26, pO2 110 on room air. Blood glucose was normal. Urine and serum acetone was positive. After further questioning, patient reveals that she is trying to loose weight and has only had water for the past 48 hours. Patient eats in the ED and receives IVF. Four hours later her tachypnea, shortness of breath, and acidosis have resolved. She is discharged to home. Diagnosis: Ketoacidosis secondary to starvation 34
  35. 35. Key Points  Use a systematic approach when evaluating the dyspneic patient or you will miss something  The systematic approach in the pediatric patient is the same. The differential diagnoses are slightly different and respiratory problems predominate.  Consider more than one diagnosis, especially in older patients  Consider that prior diagnoses may be wrong  Be aggressive in early airway management. It is easier to deal with airway issues earlier, rather than wait for things to worsen and doing crash airway management during a code. 35

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