Author(s): Rachel Glick, M.D., 2009License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms ofthe ...
Citation Key                          for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicyUse + Share + Ada...
Somatoform Disorders, Factitious     Disorder and Malingering            Rachel Lipson Glick, M.D.                Clinical...
Somatization Disorder•  A chronic syndrome in which the patient,   usually a woman, has multiple physical   complaints ass...
Somatization Disorder          Epidemiology•  Prevalence in women 1-2%•  Ratio of women to men as high as 20 to 1•  5-10% ...
Somatization Disorder Etiology•  Unknown•  Adoption studies suggest both genetic and   environmental factors•  Theories  –...
American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV criteria, 1994.
Somatization Disorder:         Clinical Features•  Psychological distress•  Interpersonal problems•  Alcohol or substance ...
Somatization Disorder:      Differential Diagnosis•  Medical disorders•  Factitious Disorder•  Other psychiatric disorders
Somatization Disorder:         Course and Prognosis•    Chronic•    Increased complaints in times of stress•    Prognosis ...
Conversion Disorder•  A disorder characterized by neurological   symptom(s) that cannot be explained by a   known neurolog...
Conversion Disorder:          Epidemiology•  Annual incidence as high as 22/100,000•  Ratio of women to men as high as 5 t...
Conversion Disorder:    Epidemiology, continued•  More common in:  –  Rural populations  –  Those with little education  –...
Conversion Disorder: Etiology•  Psychoanalytic theory•  Biological factors
Conversion Disorder:          Clinical Features•  Symptoms:  –  Sensory  –  Motor  –  Special senses  –  Seizures  –  Mixe...
Conversion Disorder:       Differential Diagnosis•  Medical or neurological disease:  –  25-50% of patients initially thou...
Conversion Disorder:      Course and Prognosis•  In 90% of cases symptoms resolve in a   few days or less than a month•  2...
American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV criteria, 1994.
Hypochondraisis•  A disorder in which the patient’s   inaccurate interpretation of physical   symptoms or sensations leads...
Hypochondraisis: Epidemiology•  Six-month prevalence of 4-6% in general   medical patients•  Ratio of women to men: 1 to 1...
Hypochondraisis: Etiology•  Several theories  –  Symptom amplification  –  Learned behavior  –  Symptom of another psychia...
Hypochondraisis:          Clinical Features•  Specific diseases are feared•  Over time, fear can shift from one disease   ...
Hypochondraisis:          Clinical Features•  High risk of complications, from   diagnostic, or possibly, therapeutic   pr...
Hypochondraisis:          Differential Diagnosis•    Medical illness•    Other Somatoform Disorders•    Factitious Disorde...
Hypochondraisis:       Course and Prognosis•  Episodic, with episodes occurring at   times of stress•  1/3 to 1/2 of patie...
Body Dysmorphic Disorder•  A rare disorder in which the patient   becomes preoccupied with a bodily defect   that is eithe...
Management of Somatoform         Disorders•  Provide care, rather than aiming for cure -   focus on the psycosocial proble...
Management of Somatoform     Disorders, continued•  Establish one physician to manage care   and schedule regular brief bu...
Management of Somatoform     Disorders, continued•  Minimize the use of psychotropic drugs  –  No medication has been show...
Management of Somatoform     Disorders, continued•  Minimize medical diagnostic tests and   procedures to reduce expense a...
Factitious Disorder•  A disorder in which the patient   intentionally produces signs of illness and   misrepresents his or...
Factitious Disorder: Epidemiology•  Prevalence unknown•  Occurs in women more than men•  Patients frequently have medical ...
Factitious Disorder: Etiology•  Psychodynamic theories  –  Hospital seeking  –  Difficulty recognizing self-boundaries, th...
Factitious Disorder:          Clinical Features•  Symptoms can be physical, psychological,   or both•  May occur by proxy:...
Factitious Disorder:       Differential Diagnosis•  Medical Illness•  Somatoform Disorders•  Malingering
Factitious Disorder:        Course and Prognosis•  Onset in early adulthood, often after an   illness or loss•  Increasing...
Factitious Disorder:              Management•    Recognition•    Verification of past medical history•    Minimize procedu...
Malingering•  A disorder in which the patient intentionally   produces symptoms for some sort of   secondary gain. The pat...
Disorder   Mechanism    Motivation           of Illness   for Illness           Production   Behavior
Additional Source Information                             for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPol...
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10.28.08(d): Somatoform Disorders, Factitious Disorder and Malingering

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10.28.08(d): Somatoform Disorders, Factitious Disorder and Malingering

  1. 1. Author(s): Rachel Glick, M.D., 2009License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms ofthe Creative Commons Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use,share, and adapt it. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt thismaterial.Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions,corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content.For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/education/about/terms-of-use.Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or areplacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to yourphysician if you have questions about your medical condition.Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers.
  2. 2. Citation Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicyUse + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (17 USC § 105) Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation LicenseMake Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (17 USC § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (17 USC § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair.
  3. 3. Somatoform Disorders, Factitious Disorder and Malingering Rachel Lipson Glick, M.D. Clinical Professor Department of PsychiatryFall 2008
  4. 4. Somatization Disorder•  A chronic syndrome in which the patient, usually a woman, has multiple physical complaints associated with frequent medical help seeking
  5. 5. Somatization Disorder Epidemiology•  Prevalence in women 1-2%•  Ratio of women to men as high as 20 to 1•  5-10% of all ambulatory primary care patients•  Familial pattern•  Medical expenses 9X higher than the average patient•  Lower socioeconomic class
  6. 6. Somatization Disorder Etiology•  Unknown•  Adoption studies suggest both genetic and environmental factors•  Theories –  Psychosocial –  Behavioral –  Biologic
  7. 7. American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV criteria, 1994.
  8. 8. Somatization Disorder: Clinical Features•  Psychological distress•  Interpersonal problems•  Alcohol or substance abuse often coexists•  Depression, anxiety, and personality disorders are often present•  Dramatic presentations•  Poor historians
  9. 9. Somatization Disorder: Differential Diagnosis•  Medical disorders•  Factitious Disorder•  Other psychiatric disorders
  10. 10. Somatization Disorder: Course and Prognosis•  Chronic•  Increased complaints in times of stress•  Prognosis is poor; cure unlikely•  Goal of treatment is to decrease medical procedures
  11. 11. Conversion Disorder•  A disorder characterized by neurological symptom(s) that cannot be explained by a known neurologic or medical disorder. Psychological factors must be associated with the initiation or exacerbation of the symptom(s).
  12. 12. Conversion Disorder: Epidemiology•  Annual incidence as high as 22/100,000•  Ratio of women to men as high as 5 to 1•  Onset most often in adolescence or young adulthood
  13. 13. Conversion Disorder: Epidemiology, continued•  More common in: –  Rural populations –  Those with little education –  Lower socioeconomic groups –  Medically unsophisticated•  Commonly associated with: –  Major Depression –  Anxiety Disorders –  Schizophrenia –  Personality Disorders
  14. 14. Conversion Disorder: Etiology•  Psychoanalytic theory•  Biological factors
  15. 15. Conversion Disorder: Clinical Features•  Symptoms: –  Sensory –  Motor –  Special senses –  Seizures –  Mixed•  Primary and/or secondary gain•  Symptoms may be unconsciously modeled•  Symptoms are often not medically accurate
  16. 16. Conversion Disorder: Differential Diagnosis•  Medical or neurological disease: –  25-50% of patients initially thought to have Conversion Disorder are eventually found to have a “real” illness•  Other Somatoform Disorders•  Factitious Disorder or Malingering
  17. 17. Conversion Disorder: Course and Prognosis•  In 90% of cases symptoms resolve in a few days or less than a month•  25% have a recurrence at some point•  Longer the symptoms last, the poorer the prognosis for ever recovering
  18. 18. American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV criteria, 1994.
  19. 19. Hypochondraisis•  A disorder in which the patient’s inaccurate interpretation of physical symptoms or sensations leads to preoccupation and fear that he or she has a serious illness, even though no medical evidence of illness can be found.
  20. 20. Hypochondraisis: Epidemiology•  Six-month prevalence of 4-6% in general medical patients•  Ratio of women to men: 1 to 1•  Usual age of onset is 20’s to 40’s
  21. 21. Hypochondraisis: Etiology•  Several theories –  Symptom amplification –  Learned behavior –  Symptom of another psychiatric disorder –  Psychodynamic theory: Deserved punishment
  22. 22. Hypochondraisis: Clinical Features•  Specific diseases are feared•  Over time, fear can shift from one disease to another•  Multiple medical opinions are sought•  Complaints about care received are common
  23. 23. Hypochondraisis: Clinical Features•  High risk of complications, from diagnostic, or possibly, therapeutic procedures•  Depression or Anxiety Disorders often coexist
  24. 24. Hypochondraisis: Differential Diagnosis•  Medical illness•  Other Somatoform Disorders•  Factitious Disorder or Malingering•  Other Psychiatric Disorders: If hypochondraisis develops for the first time in an elderly patient, suspect depression.
  25. 25. Hypochondraisis: Course and Prognosis•  Episodic, with episodes occurring at times of stress•  1/3 to 1/2 of patients improve with time
  26. 26. Body Dysmorphic Disorder•  A rare disorder in which the patient becomes preoccupied with a bodily defect that is either imagined entirely, or is a greatly exaggerated distortion of a true, but minor, defect.
  27. 27. Management of Somatoform Disorders•  Provide care, rather than aiming for cure - focus on the psycosocial problems not the physical ones –  Do not try to completely eliminate symptoms –  Focus on coping and functioning strategies
  28. 28. Management of Somatoform Disorders, continued•  Establish one physician to manage care and schedule regular brief but frequent visits•  Establish an empathetic relationship to minimize doctor-shopping
  29. 29. Management of Somatoform Disorders, continued•  Minimize the use of psychotropic drugs –  No medication has been shown to be useful in Somatoform Disorders –  These patients may tend to become dependent upon drugs easily, particularly sedative- hypnotics –  Do provide psychotherapy
  30. 30. Management of Somatoform Disorders, continued•  Minimize medical diagnostic tests and procedures to reduce expense and iatrogenic complications –  Review old records before ordering tests –  Consider benign remedies
  31. 31. Factitious Disorder•  A disorder in which the patient intentionally produces signs of illness and misrepresents his or her history to assume the patient role. The patient is aware that the behavior is intentional, but the motivation for the behavior is unconscious, and not easily controlled.
  32. 32. Factitious Disorder: Epidemiology•  Prevalence unknown•  Occurs in women more than men•  Patients frequently have medical backgrounds•  Patients may travel from place to place, assuming different names, and simulating different illnesses
  33. 33. Factitious Disorder: Etiology•  Psychodynamic theories –  Hospital seeking –  Difficulty recognizing self-boundaries, thus taking on patient role –  Seeking painful procedures for self- punishment
  34. 34. Factitious Disorder: Clinical Features•  Symptoms can be physical, psychological, or both•  May occur by proxy: A parent (usually the mother) simulates illness in a child
  35. 35. Factitious Disorder: Differential Diagnosis•  Medical Illness•  Somatoform Disorders•  Malingering
  36. 36. Factitious Disorder: Course and Prognosis•  Onset in early adulthood, often after an illness or loss•  Increasing frequency of episodes•  Incapacitation results from the patient’s own illness behavior as well as from untoward reactions to treatments•  Chronic with a poor prognosis
  37. 37. Factitious Disorder: Management•  Recognition•  Verification of past medical history•  Minimize procedures•  One primary physician•  ? Confronting the patient•  Psych consultant’s main role may be in helping medical staff deal with their own countertransference to these patients
  38. 38. Malingering•  A disorder in which the patient intentionally produces symptoms for some sort of secondary gain. The patient knows that he or she is producing the symptoms, and knows why he or she is doing it.
  39. 39. Disorder Mechanism Motivation of Illness for Illness Production Behavior
  40. 40. Additional Source Information for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicySlide 7: American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV criteria, 1994.Slide 18: American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV criteria, 1994.

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