Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Attribution: Department of Neurology, 2009License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms...
Citation Key                          for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicyUse + Share + Ada...
Hypothalamus   The Anatomy of the Nervous System: From the Standpoint of   Development and Function, SW RansonM1 CNS Head ...
Lecture Outline•  Hypothalamus, localization and adjacent structures (Brief)•  Development•  Regional organization of nucl...
Important Terms•    Diencephalon            •    Suprachiasmatic Nuc.•    Thalamus                •    Periventricular Nuc...
Hypothalamus           Essential FunctionsControl of the pituitary gland (Endocrine)Control of the autonomic nervous syste...
Midsagittal view                                                            In the adult brain the diencephalon is        ...
The HypothalamusA unique area of the brain thatsends and receives hormonaland other molecular signalsvia the vascular syst...
Development   HypothalamusPart of prosencephalonContinuous with alar plate        PituitaryPosterior Lobe (Parsnervosa) Ar...
The hypothalamus is a matrix of nuclei.                                            Netter’s image ofIt is described as fou...
The Preoptic Area                             MPOA (medial preoptic area)                             regulates:          ...
The Supraoptic Area                                      The paraventricular and supraoptic                               ...
The Supraoptic Area                             Cells in the suprachiasmatic nuclei are                             circad...
Periventricular and Arcuate neurons                                                                   express receptors fo...
The Tuberal Area                       Ventromedial nucleusNetter’s image of      •  neurons express estrogen,            ...
The Mammillary Area                                          The mammillary bodies                                        ...
The Lateral Hypothalamic Area                                                                 (LHA)                       ...
Real Sections      Supraoptic       Tuberal      Mammillary                   Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic a...
Hypothalamus:     Endocrine FunctionParaventricular and supraopticnuclei: regulate water balance,produce Antidiuretic Horm...
ENDOCRINE FUNCTION          1. DIRECT: From supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei via -hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract - sec...
Nucleus              Releasing Hormone                      Pituitary HormoneMedial Preoptic        Gonadotropin-releasing...
Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-5
Hypothalamus: Autonomic Function:Anterior Nucleus: thermalregulation (dissipation),stimulation ofparasympathetic NS,destru...
AUTONOMIC                                                                                                     FUNCTION    ...
Limbic Function:                                                                                                     Dorso...
LIMBIC FUNCTION:                                                                                                     Regul...
MAJOR CONNECTIONS OF HYPOTHALAMUSI. LIMBIC SYSTEM1. MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLEseptal nuclei, olfactory regions   HYPOTHALAMUS...
AUTONOMIC CONNECTION5. DORSAL (posterior) LONGITUDINAL FASCICULUSHypothalamus                       Brain Stem Reticular F...
Source Undetermined
The hypothalamus is supplied with blood by                           small branches of the Circle of WillisHaines, Fundame...
Additional Source Information                                  for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/Citati...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

03.18.09(b): Hypothalmus

704 views

Published on

Slideshow is from the University of Michigan Medical
School's M1 CNS sequence

View additional course materials on Open.Michigan:
openmi.ch/med-M1CNS

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

03.18.09(b): Hypothalmus

  1. 1. Attribution: Department of Neurology, 2009License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution–Non-commercial–Share Alike 3.0 License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use,share, and adapt it. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt thismaterial.Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions,corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content.For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/education/about/terms-of-use.Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or areplacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to yourphysician if you have questions about your medical condition.Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers.
  2. 2. Citation Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicyUse + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (USC 17 § 105) Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation LicenseMake Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (USC 17 § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ { Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (USC 17 § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair.
  3. 3. Hypothalamus The Anatomy of the Nervous System: From the Standpoint of Development and Function, SW RansonM1 CNS Head and Neck March 18, 2009
  4. 4. Lecture Outline•  Hypothalamus, localization and adjacent structures (Brief)•  Development•  Regional organization of nuclei –  Preoptic –  Supraoptic –  Tuberal –  Mammillary•  Functionally related nuclei –  Endocrine –  Autonomic –  Behavioral•  Hypothalamus and its connections to other brain areas and systems•  Blood Supply
  5. 5. Important Terms•  Diencephalon •  Suprachiasmatic Nuc.•  Thalamus •  Periventricular Nuc.•  Third Ventricle •  Arcuate Nuc.•  Internal Capsule •  Mammillary Bodies•  Optic Chiasm •  Medial Forebrain Bundle•  Anterior Pituitary •  Fornix•  Posterior Pituitary •  Stria Terminalis•  Medial Zone •  Mammillothalamic Tract•  Lateral Zone •  Dorsal Longitudinal•  Medial Preoptic Area Fasciculus•  Lateral Preoptic Area •  Hypothalamo- hypophyseal Tract•  Paraventricular Nuc. •  Tuberoinfundibular Tract•  Supraoptic Nuc.
  6. 6. Hypothalamus Essential FunctionsControl of the pituitary gland (Endocrine)Control of the autonomic nervous systemControl of a variety of behaviors that are essentialfor survival (of the individual and of the species):eating, drinking, sleep, sexual behavior, parentalbehavior, and aggression.
  7. 7. Midsagittal view In the adult brain the diencephalon is completely surrounded by the telencephalon. Together they form the “forebrain.” Anterior commissure Corpus callosum B A miRegions of the Diencephalon: CA. Epithalamus (pineal gland and habenula)B. Dorsal ThalamusC. HypothalamusD. Ventral thalamus (or subthalamus) (not visible in this midline section)E. Posterior pituitary Lamina terminalis Emi. massa intermedia - adhesion between dorsal thalami The Anatomy of the Nervous System: From the Standpoint of Development and Function, SW Ranson
  8. 8. The HypothalamusA unique area of the brain thatsends and receives hormonaland other molecular signalsvia the vascular system,as well as neural signals Netter’s image ofAbout 4gm of the 1500gm hypothalamusmass of the brain removedMajor functions:•  Control of the pituitary gland (both anterior and posterior)•  Control of the autonomic nervous system•  Control of a variety of behaviors that are essential for survival (of the individual and of the species): eating, drinking, sleep, sexual behavior, parental behavior, and aggression.
  9. 9. Development HypothalamusPart of prosencephalonContinuous with alar plate PituitaryPosterior Lobe (Parsnervosa) Arises from thefloor of the developingdiencephalon.Anterior Lobe(Adenohypophysis) Arisesfrom the roof of thedeveloping oral cavity =Rathke’s pouch Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, Elsevier
  10. 10. The hypothalamus is a matrix of nuclei. Netter’s image ofIt is described as four areas (preoptic, hypothalamussupraoptic, tuberal, mamillary) each withnuclei that have distinctive functions. removed
  11. 11. The Preoptic Area MPOA (medial preoptic area) regulates: •  male sexual behavior •  parental behaviorNetter’s image of preoptic area MPOA neurons removed •  express estrogen & androgen receptors •  controlled by endocrine feedback from testes, ovaries, and adrenals LPOA (lateral preoptic area) •  important in thermoregulation, both behavioral (panting) and autonomic heat dissipation; vasodilation, sweating
  12. 12. The Supraoptic Area The paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei contain magnocellular neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin.Netter’s image of Their axons release these peptides onto supraoptic area the capillaries of the posterior pituitary. removed PVN SON posterior pituitary optic chiasm Source Undetermined
  13. 13. The Supraoptic Area Cells in the suprachiasmatic nuclei are circadian oscillators that entrain endocrine functions and behaviors to the 24-hour light-dark cycle.Netter’s image of supraoptic area removed pineal gland norepinephrine regulates melatonin synthesis SCN sympathetic retina preganglionic neurons in superior IML cervical ganglion Source Undetermined
  14. 14. Periventricular and Arcuate neurons express receptors for a variety of hormones and provide feedback regulation through a portal venous system to the trophic-hormone- producing cells of the anterior pituitary. (list of factors to follow) Netter’s image of tuberal area periventricular nuclei removed arcuate nucleus anterior pituitary Source Undeterminedunlike many other endocrine tissues, the ant. pit. is so dependent on the hypothal that it is not tansplantable
  15. 15. The Tuberal Area Ventromedial nucleusNetter’s image of •  neurons express estrogen, androgen and progesterone tuberal area receptors removed •  control female sexual behavior and aggression.
  16. 16. The Mammillary Area The mammillary bodies receive input from the hippocampus via the fornix. They project to the anterior nucleus of theNetter’s image of thalamus throughmammillary area the mammillothalamic tract. removed Damage to the mammillary bodies and their connections with the hippocampus produces anterograde amnesia (as seen in Korsakoff’s syndrome). Mammillary nuclei (bodies) part of limbic system
  17. 17. The Lateral Hypothalamic Area (LHA) Sympathetic autonomic function: Lateral and posterior hypothalamus Parasympathetic autonomic function: Medial and anterior hypothalamus Netter’s image of hypothalamus removedThe MFB•  runs through the LHA•  contains both ascending and descending fibers.•  connects limbic areas, hypothalamus, and brain stem (includes parasympathetic connections)•  some fibers reach spinal cord sympathetic neurons
  18. 18. Real Sections Supraoptic Tuberal Mammillary Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, Elsevier
  19. 19. Hypothalamus: Endocrine FunctionParaventricular and supraopticnuclei: regulate water balance,produce Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH, a.k.a. vasopressin) andoxytocin. Destruction causesDiabetes InsipidisPreoptic Nuclei: Containsexually dimorphic nuclei,regulate release ofgonadotropic hormoneArcuate Nuclei (Tuberal Nuclei):produce hypothalamic releasingfactors, contains dopaminergicneurons that inhibit prolactinrelease, contains betaendorphin – a role in opiate Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-5analgesia
  20. 20. ENDOCRINE FUNCTION 1. DIRECT: From supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei via -hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract - secretion of neuroendocrine products (OXYTOCIN, VASOPRESSIN)into general circulation via vasculature of posterior pituitary. 2. INDIRECT: From Tuberal nuclei (arcuate) via tuberoinfundibular tract-Secretion of releasing hormones (e.g. GHRF, LRF) into portal plexus which influences release(of other substances -GH, LH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, PROLACTIN,) by anterior pituitary. Source Undetermined
  21. 21. Nucleus Releasing Hormone Pituitary HormoneMedial Preoptic Gonadotropin-releasing h. Gonadotropins Thyrotropin-releasing h. Thyrotropin Corticotrophin-releasing h. Corticotropin Growth hormone-releasing inhibitor h. Inhibits release of Growth HormoneAnterior Growth hormone-releasing inhibitor h. Inhibits release of Growth HormoneSupraoptic Corticotrophin-releasing h. Oxytocin and Vasopressin CorticotropinParaventricular Thyrotropin-releasing h. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Corticotrophin-releasing h. Thyrotropin Growth hormone-releasing h. Corticotropin Growth hormone-releasing inhibitor h. Growth Hormone Inhibits release of Growth HormoneVentromedial Growth hormone-releasing h. Growth HormoneDorsomedial Growth hormone-releasing h. Growth Hormone Thyrotropin-releasing h. ThyrotropinArcuate Gonadotropin-releasing h. Gonadotropins Growth hormone-releasing h. Growth Hormone Prolactin-releasing inhibition h. Prolactin InhibitionLateral Hypothalamic Thyrotropin-releasing h. Thyrotropin Zone Growth hormone-releasing h. Growth Hormone Growth hormone-releasing inhibitor h. Inhibits release of Growth Hormone
  22. 22. Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-5
  23. 23. Hypothalamus: Autonomic Function:Anterior Nucleus: thermalregulation (dissipation),stimulation ofparasympathetic NS,destruction results inhyperthermiaPosterior Nucleus:thermal regulation(conservation of heat)stimulation of sympatheticNS, destruction results ininability to thermoregulateSuprachiasmatic Nucleus: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rdreceives input from retina, edition, 2005, Fig. 30-5mediates circadianrhythms
  24. 24. AUTONOMIC FUNCTION "Head Ganglion" of autonomic system: Regulates almost all autonomic functions such as: body temperature (preoptic area), heart rate, blood pressure, bladder contraction, hunger (paraventricular). Connections to reticular system and raphe nuclei of brainstem – Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus. Dorsal (posterior) Longitudinal FasciculusHaines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-9
  25. 25. Limbic Function: Dorsomedial nucleus: emotional behavior, stimulation results in obesity and savage behavior (sham rage) Ventromedial nucleus: satiety center, destruction results in obesity and savage behavior, stimulation inhibits feeding. Lateral nucleus: feeding center, stimulation induces eating. Destruction results in loss of appetite, anorexia, starvation Mammillary nucleus: input from hippocampal formation, lesions result in memory deficits. Projects to anterior nucleus of the thalamusHaines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-9
  26. 26. LIMBIC FUNCTION: Regulation of emotional behavior (anger, rage, sexual activity, etc.). Pathways to and from parts of limbic system parallel each other: 1. AMYGDALA via stria terminalis 2. HIPPOCAMPUS & SUBICULUM via fornix (to and from mammillary bodies) 3. SEPTAL NUCLEI, OLFACTORY CORTEX, SUBICULUM via medial forebrain bundle (MFB) 4. THALAMUS - Mammillo-thalamic tractHaines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-8
  27. 27. MAJOR CONNECTIONS OF HYPOTHALAMUSI. LIMBIC SYSTEM1. MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLEseptal nuclei, olfactory regions HYPOTHALAMUS & brain stem2. FORNIXHippocampal Complex Mammillary Bodies of Hypothalamus3. STRIA TERMINALIS Amygdala Hypothalamus4. MAMMILLOTHALAMIC TRACT Hypothalamus Thalamus (anterior nucleus
  28. 28. AUTONOMIC CONNECTION5. DORSAL (posterior) LONGITUDINAL FASCICULUSHypothalamus Brain Stem Reticular FormationHypothalamus Brain Stem Nuc (e.g. vagus) Intermediolateral Cell ColumnENDOCRINE CONNECTIONS6. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal TRACTHypothalamus Neurohypophysis7. Tuberoinfundibular Tract Tuberal Nuclei Sinusoids, Portal Veins Adenohypophysis
  29. 29. Source Undetermined
  30. 30. The hypothalamus is supplied with blood by small branches of the Circle of WillisHaines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-7
  31. 31. Additional Source Information for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicySlide 3: The Anatomy of the Nervous System: From the Standpoint of Development and Function, SW RansonSlide 7: The Anatomy of the Nervous System: From the Standpoint of Development and Function, SW RansonSlide 9: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, ElsevierSlide 12: Source UndeterminedSlide 13: Source UndeterminedSlide 14: Source UndeterminedSlide 18: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, ElsevierSlide 19: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-5Slide 20: Source UndeterminedSlide 22: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-5Slide 23: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-5Slide 24: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-9Slide 25: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-9Slide 26: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-8Slide 29: Source UndeterminedSlide 30: Haines, Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications, 3rd edition, 2005, Fig. 30-7

×