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Figu
which w
Laborat
Fig
at the
Cairo.
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Country
Egypt
France
Greece
Italy
Jordan
Malta
Morocco
Spain
Syria
Turkey
Czech R.
C-R Masters
/Ph.D.
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
N...
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University
Academy of Fine Art
in Prague
Institute of Chemical
Technology in Prague
Silesian University
in Opava
Masary...
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43...
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Definition
Amount of metal remaining
Type of corrosion products
Affecting Factors
Burial environment
Conditions after e...
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Amount of Metal Remaining
no metal core
little metal core
metal core
Total
Valid
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumula...
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TOOLS-INSTRUMENTS
ACCESSORIES OF DOORS  FURNITURE
DECORATIVE ARTIFACTS
VESSELS
FIGURINES-STATUETTES
WEAPONS
Scrapers, s...
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SIMPLE COPPER ALLOY NAILS
Body Shank Head's shape
Circular
21
/
/
/
/
/
Rectangular
0
48
/
/
/
/
Flat
14
34
48
/
/
/
Co...
89
NO
COULD BENEFIT
YES
Total
Valid
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
45
150
129
324
13,9
46,3
39,8
100,0...
90
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Location
Showcases
Walls
Reserve collection
Total
Number of artifacts
201
119
1025
1345
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Types
Breastplates
Backplates
Full arms
Pauldrons
Couters
Helmets
Tassets
½ full armours
Vambraces
Gorgets
Showcases
(r...
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Palace Armoury Collection
Coating Type
Number of objects surveyed
Number of objects with corrosion
General corrosion
Lo...
98
Figu
showing
conditio
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Calatrava
El Saucedo
Type of object
Various
Blacksmith workshop
Total
~150
~125
Conserved
40
44
Dates (origin)
9th to 1...
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standard
deviation
11.5
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.8
3.6
0.1
0.5
0.9
0.1
0.2
14.0
0.1
Average
wt. %
19.8
0.5
0.8
1.2
1.7
4.7
0.5
1....
106
Coin
number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Corrosion
Forms
Uniform general tarnish layer mainly composed of silver
sulfide with ...
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Location
Exhibition hall entrance
Exhibition hall
Inside show case
Outside museum
Outside museum
H2
S (average)
(ppt)
...
108
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C+
: 600 ppb,
Ar++
: 1000 ppb
CO2
++
: 20 ppb
C2
H2
+
: 30 ppb
NO+
: 100 ppb
C3
H3
+
: non detectable
C3
H5
+
: non de...
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Materials
Silver
Electrum
number of objects
52
9
Period
Roman (3rd – to 6th Century AD )
Ptolemaic (305 – 30 BC)
Perio...
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Object no.
J.e:70766
Sr:3881
J.e:70776
J.e:70771
Chemical analysis
Ag,Au,Cu,Si,Fe,Al,Mg,Ca,P,Fe,Ti,Cl,Br
Ag,Au,Cu,Pb,C...
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Damascus national museum
metals artifacts on display
Pre- historical department
Classical department
Islamic departmen...
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Scans
1
2
3
Step
(mm)
0.1
0.1
1
Area
(mm2 )
0.5 x 0.5
0.5 x 0.5
5 x 5
No of spots
36
36
36
Mean Values and their corre...
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Standard Deviation of the Mean Value (STDMV %)
of the elemental intensities measured from line scans
Area
Bare metal
B...
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Materials/objects
Metals and metal alloys
(bulk metal and corrosion)
Pottery
(slip and body)
Stone and marble
(incl. e...
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Iik
ω
= Ns
hω gi
Aik
exp(-Ei/kB
T)
8π2
Ζ(T)
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Object
Mirror M4
Scraper S2
Weapon W2
Fe
0.7
0.6
0.2
Cu
71.4
87.1
82.1
As
0.3
0.3
0.3
Sn
23.1
11.9
6.9
Sb
0.17
0.15
0....
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Partner / Country
TEI / GR
HM / MT
IBN-DC / MO
ALP-ME / SY
EMMC / EG
SVUOM / CZ
RSS / JO
YU-FAA / JO
NTUA / GR
POLITO ...
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Solutions
HC10
HC10
HC12
HC12
HC14
HC14
Concentration
30g/L
30g/L
30g/L
30g/L
30g/L
30g/L
Oxidizing agent
H2
O2
(0.1M)...
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Partner
HM
TEI / NILES / CSIC
LRMH
IBN-DC
ALP-ME
SVUOM
YU-FAA
NTUA
NRC-EC
POLITO
Metal alloy
steel
steel / bronze
stee...
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Macro-photograph
(initial state)
Micro-photograph
(during accelerated ageing)
Weight change %
versus number of cycles
...
198
Micro-photograph
(during accelerated ageing)
Weight change %
versus number of cycles
After 8 cycles: new corrosion on
...
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ance of
without
nation
xposed
resence
% and
(ca 8
oratory
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Protectionsystemtype
CI
CI
CI
CI
Coating
Coating
Coating
CI
CI
CI
CI
CI
Coating
Coating
Coating
Coating
Coating
Coatin...
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Protection system
Paraloid B72® or B44
Paraloid B72® + M435
Paraloid B72® + M109
Poligen ES 91009 ®
Poligen ES 91009 ®...
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Major/minor elements
I 0-3
I 3-6
I 6-9
I 9-12
C 0-3
C 0-6
C 0-9
C 0- 12
M
Ca
Ca
Ca, Si
Si, Al
Ca
Ca
Ca, Cl
Ca, Si, Cl,...
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Partners
TEI
HM
LRMH
YU-FAA
RSS
POLITO
NTUA
CSIC
NRC-EC
IBN-DC
EGE-PNEA
Object(s) to test
Objects from the Islamic col...
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Protection system applied
“Caucasian” like daggers type A)
Knives with a J shaped handle / small (type B)
Knives with ...
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Protection system applied
Paraloid B72®
Poligen ES 91009® + M 370
Paraloid B72® + M109
Paraloid B72® + M435
Reference ...
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Coin 0 (non protected)
Coin 1 (FPTS)
Coin 2 (FPTS)
Coin 3 (silane A)
Coin 4 (silane A)
Cu
85.14
85.23
88.11
89.44
90.4...
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Conservation-restoration
protocol
Conservation-restoration requirements
(by the curator)
This document in general prov...
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Year
1.Statebudget
2.Otherpublicsources
3.Privatesources
Total
capital
2000
500
3
2503
other
11000
167
17
11184
capita...
252
museum ownership
Ministry of Culture
Regional and local municipalities
National institute for CH care
Bishopric conser...
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Conventions
European Cultural Convention, 1954
Convention for the Protection of Cultural
Property in the Event of Arme...
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URL
http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/T51040.htm
http://www.abgs.gov.tr/tarama/tarama_files/01/SC01EXP_Cultural%20goods-...
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Charters Adopted by ICOMOS National Committees
The Burra Charter for the Conservation
of Places of Cultural Significan...
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Metals and Museums in the Mediterranean, Protecting, Preserving, and Interpreting

Published based on research undertaken by
The FP6 INCO programme PROMET - Innovative conservation approaches for monitoring and protecting ancient and historic metals collection from the Mediterranean region
Steering Committee:
Vasilike Argyropoulos, Emma Angelini, Christian Degrigny, Mohamed Abdel Harith, Andreas G. Karydas, Gabriel M. Ingo, Ziad Al-Saad and Ahmad Almansour

Metals and Museums in the Mediterranean, Protecting, Preserving, and Interpreting

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  34. 34. 33 Figu which w Laborat Fig at the Cairo. charter1-curves.indd 33 7/15/08 4:48:14 PM
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  60. 60. 59 Country Egypt France Greece Italy Jordan Malta Morocco Spain Syria Turkey Czech R. C-R Masters /Ph.D. Y Y N Y Y Y N Y N Y N Univ. Level 3ormoreyears Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N Y Y Date of Est. 1975 2005 - 1990 2004 2003 - 1981 - 1993 - Date of Est. 1988 1973 1985 1990 2003 1999 - 1942 - 1994 2005 Professional C-R body Y Y Y Y N Y N N N Y Y Date of Est. - 1992 1976 1985 - 2006 - - - 2005 1990 Law C-R Profession Y Y Y Y N Y N N N N Y Date of Est. - 2002 1996 2000 - 2002 - - - - 1987 charter3-curves.indd 59 7/15/08 4:57:45 PM
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  67. 67. 66 University Academy of Fine Art in Prague Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague Silesian University in Opava Masaryk´s University in Brno Technical University in Pardubice Faculty Fine art The Institute of Chemical Technology of Monument Conservation Faculty of Philosophy and Science Faculty of Science Faculty of Restoration, Litomyšl Specification paintings, sculpture – restoration of paintings restoration of stone, wood, paper, metals, glass and ceramics Museology chemistry – conservation – restoration restoration and conservation of stone, fresco, paper, books Foundation 1945, 1990 extendedstudyprogramme 1974, 2005 extendedstudyprogramme 1992 2003 2005 Years of study 6 3, 4 or 5 3 3 4 charter3-curves.indd 66 7/15/08 4:58:00 PM
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  69. 69. 68 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Country CzechRepublic Egypt Egypt France France Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Italy Italy Italy Italy Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Malta Malta Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Syria Syria Syria Syria Syria Syria Turkey Name National Museum Department of Prehistory and Protohistory Coptic Museum Egyptian Museum Musée d’Archéologie Service archéologique départemental des Yvelines Archaeological Museum of Andros Museum of History – Athens Numismatic Museum – Athens Benaki Museum – Athens Criminal Museum – Athens National Archaeological Museum – Athens Archaeological Service, Heraklion Archaeological Site of Kythnos Museum of Ancient Messene Archaeological Museum of Mitilene Byzantine Euphorate of Rhodos Archaeological Site of Pella Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki Archaeological Euphorate /Thessaloniki Private collection –from island Museum of Royal Graves Aigon Prehistorical and Archeological Euphorate of Maggnisia Archaeological Museum of Aianis Archaeological Museum of Myrinas Limnos Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma(Museo Nazionale Romano,Museo Numismatico,MuseodelleTerme) Soprintendenza per I Beni Archeologici per l’Abruzzo Soprintendenza per I Beni Archeologici per le provincie di Cagliari e Oristano Soprintendenza Archeologica per le province di Sassari e Nuoro Department of Antiquities Laboratories Department of Antiquities Laboratories Museum of Jordanian Heritage Department of Antiquities Laboratories - Umm Qais Museum Petra Archaeological Conservation Heritage Malta, Conservation Division(ex-MaltaCentreforRestoration) ReCoop – The Restoration and Conservation Cooperate Musee de la Kasbah Musee dar Jamai Musee Des Oudaya Musee Archaeologique Rabat Arqueologico Regional Madrid Museo Casa De La Moneda Patrimonio Nacional Guggenhem Bilbao Museoa Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico Español Laboratorio de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Museo del Ejercito MuseoNacionaldeArqueologiaMaritmayCentroNacionaldeInvestigacionesArqueologicasSubmarinas The National Damascus Museum The National Damascus Museum Aleppo Museum Al Sweda National Museum Hama National Museum Hama National Museum Ege University Department of Archaeology Type of Organisation Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Private Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Service Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Service Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Private Collection Public Museum Public Service Public Museum Public Museum Public Institutions-Museums Public Institution Public Institution Public Institution Public Laboratory Public Laboratory Public Museum Public Museum Public Laboratory Public Museum Private Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Private Museum Public Museum University Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum Public Museum University charter3-curves.indd 68 7/15/08 4:58:03 PM
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  81. 81. 80 Definition Amount of metal remaining Type of corrosion products Affecting Factors Burial environment Conditions after excavation Amount of time prior to treatment Technology Value Cultural Utilitarian Sentimental charter4-curves.indd 80 7/15/08 5:17:39 PM
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  86. 86. 85 Amount of Metal Remaining no metal core little metal core metal core Total Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 64 108 701 873 7,3 12,4 80,3 100,0 7,3 19,7 100,0 7,3 12,4 80,3 100,0 charter4-curves.indd 85 7/15/08 5:17:48 PM
  87. 87. 86 charter4-curves.indd 86 7/15/08 5:17:50 PM
  88. 88. 87 TOOLS-INSTRUMENTS ACCESSORIES OF DOORS FURNITURE DECORATIVE ARTIFACTS VESSELS FIGURINES-STATUETTES WEAPONS Scrapers, spatulas, chisels, medical tools, spades, needles, tongs, a quill, an ax, and a hook Simple nails, decorative nails, cringles, parts of locks, keys Mirrors, buckles, rings, pins, bracelets, earrings, and a necklace Small vessels, rims, handles, bases, covers, decorative elements Animal human Spear arrow shafts, savrotiras, shields WEAPONS TOOLS-INSTRUMENTS ACCESSORIES OF DOORS FURNITURE Shaft arrow peaks, savrotiras, daggers, butcher knives Scrapers, scissors, spatulas, spades, cradles, chisels, knife and carving blades, hooks, needles, tongs Simple decorative nails, cringles, parts of locks, keys, sheathing foils charter4-curves.indd 87 7/15/08 5:17:54 PM
  89. 89. 88 SIMPLE COPPER ALLOY NAILS Body Shank Head's shape Circular 21 / / / / / Rectangular 0 48 / / / / Flat 14 34 48 / / / Convex 7 11 0 18 / / Mushroom 0 3 0 0 3 / Rectangular 1 0 0 0 0 1 Circular charter4-curves.indd 88 7/15/08 5:17:59 PM
  90. 90. 89 NO COULD BENEFIT YES Total Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 45 150 129 324 13,9 46,3 39,8 100,0 13,9 60,2 100,0 13,9 46,3 39,8 100,0 COPPER NO COULD BENEFIT YES Total Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 10 176 363 549 1,8 32,1 66,1 100,0 1,8 33,9 100,0 1,8 32,1 66,1 100,0 IRON charter4-curves.indd 89 7/15/08 5:18:03 PM
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  94. 94. 93 Location Showcases Walls Reserve collection Total Number of artifacts 201 119 1025 1345 charter4-curves.indd 93 7/15/08 5:18:12 PM
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  97. 97. 96 Types Breastplates Backplates Full arms Pauldrons Couters Helmets Tassets ½ full armours Vambraces Gorgets Showcases (right hall) 40 28 11 27 1 47 24 18 0 5 Walls (in the two halls) 21 22 14 16 25 165 50 0 5 0 Reserve Collection 132 131 90 182 65 102 155 8 157 3 Total (right hall) 193 181 115 225 91 314 229 26 162 8 charter4-curves.indd 96 7/15/08 5:18:23 PM
  98. 98. 97 Palace Armoury Collection Coating Type Number of objects surveyed Number of objects with corrosion General corrosion Localised Filiform Varnish Wax Oil Multiple coatings Varnish + Wax Varnish + Oil Wax + Oil Varnish + Wax + Oil 388 368 173 203 221 278 63 236 28 165 2 3 Active Dormant Unsure Varnish (single protection system) Wax (single protection system) Oil (single protection system) 100* 72* 260* 80 28 62 Corrosion Activity charter4-curves.indd 97 7/15/08 5:18:26 PM
  99. 99. 98 Figu showing conditio charter4-curves.indd 98 7/15/08 5:18:32 PM
  100. 100. 99 Calatrava El Saucedo Type of object Various Blacksmith workshop Total ~150 ~125 Conserved 40 44 Dates (origin) 9th to 14th cent. AD 3rd to 4th cent. AD Number of Iron objects charter4-curves.indd 99 7/15/08 5:18:34 PM
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  106. 106. 105 standard deviation 11.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.8 3.6 0.1 0.5 0.9 0.1 0.2 14.0 0.1 Average wt. % 19.8 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.7 4.7 0.5 1.7 1.2 0.6 1.1 66.0 0.4 100 wt.% in area D 30.3 0.4 0.6 0.9 2.7 8.8 0.4 1.2 0.5 0.7 0.8 52.4 0.5 100 wt.% in area C 27.7 0.8 0.9 1.2 2.0 6.5 0.5 1.4 0.8 0.5 1.0 56.2 0.4 100 wt.% in area B 5.4 0.6 0.9 1.5 1.1 1.2 0.7 2.3 2.4 0.7 1.2 81.7 0.3 100 wt.% in area A 15.7 0.1 0.8 1.1 1.0 2.2 0.5 2.0 0.9 0.5 1.3 73.6 0.2 100 O Zn Na Mg Al Si P Au Hg S Cl Ag K Total Element Element O Zn Na Mg Al Si P Au Hg S Cl Ag K Total wt% 29.9 0.6 0.3 0.8 4.4 24.2 0.4 0.9 0.6 0.5 8.0 27.4 4.1 100 charter4-curves.indd 105 7/15/08 5:18:45 PM
  107. 107. 106 Coin number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Corrosion Forms Uniform general tarnish layer mainly composed of silver sulfide with some localised silver chloride patches. Hair Cracks can be seen under the microscope. Good conservation state, small cracks scattered in the surface of the coin can be seen under the microscope. General and uniform corrosion in addition to the presence of cracks and lost parts. Slightly surface corrosion. Active localised surface corrosion. A discontinuous grey to black corrosion layer is present on the surface of the coin. Active localised surface corrosion. A discontinuous grey to black corrosion layer is present on the surface of the coin. Hair cracks especially at the edges. Surface mild corrosion. Uniform general tarnish layer mainly composed of silver sulfide with some localised silver chloride patches in addition to hair cracks Slightly surface corrosion with some localised silver chloride patches. Silver sulfide patches appear on the edges as evidence of localised corrosion. In addition, hair cracks are scattered on the surface of the coin. Embrittlement is a predominate feature. Active localised surface corrosion. A discontinuous grey to black corrosion layer is present on the surface of the coin. State of preservation good very good badly corroded very good fair fair good Very good Badly corroded fair Analysis SEM/EDX and XRF The main element is Ag +minor elements : Cu, Pb. (Cl + S) were detected as part of the corrosion layer. SEM/EDX and XRF The main element is Ag +minor element : Cu. (Cl + S) were detected as part of the corrosion layer. As above. SEM/EDX and XRF The main element is Ag +minor elements : Cu, Pb. (Cl + S) were detected as part of the corrosion layer. As above. As above. As above. As above. As above. As above. charter4-curves.indd 106 7/15/08 5:18:47 PM
  108. 108. 107 Location Exhibition hall entrance Exhibition hall Inside show case Outside museum Outside museum H2 S (average) (ppt) 339 345 339 365 349 charter4-curves.indd 107 7/15/08 5:18:48 PM
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  111. 111. 110 C+ : 600 ppb, Ar++ : 1000 ppb CO2 ++ : 20 ppb C2 H2 + : 30 ppb NO+ : 100 ppb C3 H3 + : non detectable C3 H5 + : non detectable C3 H6 + : non detectable C3 H7 + : 20 ppb C2 H5 + : 10 ppb SO+ : 40 ppb SO2 + : 80 ppb C6 H6 + : non detectable charter4-curves.indd 110 7/15/08 5:18:56 PM
  112. 112. 111 charter4-curves.indd 111 7/15/08 5:18:57 PM
  113. 113. 112 Materials Silver Electrum number of objects 52 9 Period Roman (3rd – to 6th Century AD ) Ptolemaic (305 – 30 BC) Period from 21st – 31st Dynasty (1075 – 332 BC) Period from 7th – 20th Dynasty (2150 – 1075 BC) Old Kingdom 3rd – 6th Dynasty (2575 – 2920 BC) number of objects 9 7 11 31 3 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Object types Vessel Horse shoe Horse saddle Spear hand Sarcophagus Coffin Bracelet Jug Amulet Head of bird Plate Ingot Coil of wire Foundation deposit Holly eyes Falcon Numberofobjects 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 2 1 1 3 3 6 3 1 1 No. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Object types Naos Earring Heart Shell Griffon Crown Anklet Spoon Cup Dish Mirror Statuette Winged Scarab Kohl sticks Needles Coin Numberofobjects 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 charter4-curves.indd 112 7/15/08 5:18:59 PM
  114. 114. 113 Object no. J.e:70766 Sr:3881 J.e:70776 J.e:70771 Chemical analysis Ag,Au,Cu,Si,Fe,Al,Mg,Ca,P,Fe,Ti,Cl,Br Ag,Au,Cu,Pb,Cl,Br,Ca,P,Fe,Ti,S Ag,Au,Cu,Pb,Cl,Br,Ca,Mg,Fe Ag,Cu,Au,Pb,Fe,Ca,Br Mineralogical composition Silver(Ag), chlorargyrite (AgCl) quartz(SiO2 ) Silver(Ag), chlorargyrite (AgCl) Silver(Ag), chlorargyrite (AgCl) silver bromide(AgBr) Silver(Ag), chlorargyrite (AgCl) cuprite(Cu2 O) Analysis tool XRD (E-SEM-EDX) XRDF-system XRDF-system XRDF-system Period Roman period from 3rd – to 6th Century AD Ptolemaic Period, Reign of Ptolemy XI (305 - 30 BC) Period from 21st – 31st Dynasty ( 1075 - 332 BC) Period from 7th -20th Dynasty (2150 - 1075 BC) Old Kingdom from 3rd - 6th Dynasty (2575 - 2920 BC) Electrum collections (different period ) Elements Values Max. value Min. value Max. value Min. value Max. value Min. value Max. value Min. value Max. value Min. value Max. value Min. value Ag 97.4 88.3 99.5 83.9 98.4 90.7 97.6 68.2 96.8 85.4 64.7 40.8 Au 2.5 0.2 1.5 0.9 4.6 0.5 0.2 24.90 2.1 2.0 52.6 27.9 Cu 9.6 0.5 12.8 4.2 3.9 0.9 11.3 0.3 3.9 0.5 5.1 0.5 Pb 1.1 0.2 9.3 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.7 0.1 - - - - Fe 1.7 0.2 6.6 4.6 0.7 0.4 7.7 0.2 5.7 0.6 1.1 0.3 Sn 1.8 2.8 0.6 1.3 0.7 1.4 0.3 2.5 1.1 2.6 1.3 Zn - - - - 1.6 0.7 0.9 0.1 - - Other elements Br,S,Cl,Ca, P,Ti, Si ,Al Mg in some objects Ti 2.9 Bi 2.6 Bi 1.9 Sb In 0.3 0.3 charter4-curves.indd 113 7/15/08 5:19:07 PM
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  122. 122. 121 Damascus national museum metals artifacts on display Pre- historical department Classical department Islamic department Total Bronze 142 209 6126 Gilded bronze or, bronze with gold/silver 3 2 - Silver 560 8 174 Gold 31 2 165 Iron 1 14 27 Lead - 3 - Total 737 238 6492 7467 charter4-curves.indd 121 7/15/08 5:19:41 PM
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  149. 149. 148 Scans 1 2 3 Step (mm) 0.1 0.1 1 Area (mm2 ) 0.5 x 0.5 0.5 x 0.5 5 x 5 No of spots 36 36 36 Mean Values and their corresponding relative Standard Deviations (STDMV %) of the elemental intensities measured from area scans CNR-92 CuΚα 0.252 (27) 0.264 (33) 0.239 (29) 0.252 (5) AgKα 0.438 (3) 0.433 (3) 0.438 (2) 0.436 (0.7) AgLα 0.0320 (6) 0.0317 (6) 0.0324 (5) 0.0320 (1.1) PbLα 0.0656 (23) 0.0681 (30) 0.0654 (24) 0.0664 (2.3) Gold Reference Alloy CuΚα 0.501 (1) 0.500 (1) 0.502 (1) 0.501 (0.2) AgKα 0.0336 (4) 0.0338 (5) 0.0331 (4) 0.0335 (1) AuM 0.0650 (3) 0.0640 (4) 0.0653 (3) 0.0648 (1) AuLα 5.18 (0.7) 5.18 (0.5) 5.21 (0.5) 5.19 (0.3) 1 2 3 0.1 0.1 1 0.5 x 0.5 0.5 x 0.5 5 x 5 30 30 36 BCR-A-691 CuΚα 8.86 (6) 7.63 (7) 8.69 (6) 8.84 (6) 8.70 (6) 8.53 (8) 8.57 (7) 8.62 (10) 8.52 (10) 8.47 (9) 8.55 (4.2) ZnKα 0.943(13) 1.06 (6) 0.895 (8) 0.877 (12) 0.927 (9) 0.914 (18) 0.945 (14) 0.951 (19) 0.954 (22) 0.968 (18) 0.943 (5) SnKα 0.0325 (7) 0.0273 (20) 0.0303 (15) 0.0306 (20) 0.0282 (21) 0.0291 (22) 0.0311 (12) 0.0312 (15) 0.0299 (20) 0.0289 (22) 0.0299 (5) SnLα 0.0108 (14) 0.00949 (18) 0.0104 (16) 0.0103 (19) 0.00993 (22) 0.00981 (22) 0.0108 (13) 0.0107 (16) 0.0103 (20) 0.0101 (21) 0.0103 (4) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.1 0.2 0.25 1.0 0.14 x 0.14 0.14 x 0.14 0.24 x 0.24 0.32 x 0.32 0.5 x 0.5 0.8 x 0.8 1 x 1 3 x 3 5 x 5 5 x 5 64 64 156 289 110 121 110 225 441 36 PbLβ 0.159 (68) 0.423 (30) 0.200 (59) 0.167 (62) 0.207 (69) 0.225 (75) 0.227 (60) 0.233 (75) 0.234 (70) 0.245 (63) 0.232 (31) charter6-curves.indd 148 7/15/08 5:25:49 PM
  150. 150. 149 charter6-curves.indd 149 7/15/08 5:25:54 PM
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  155. 155. 154 Standard Deviation of the Mean Value (STDMV %) of the elemental intensities measured from line scans Area Bare metal Black Silverish Bare metal Black Silverish Silverish Green Light Green Artifact M1 M1 M1 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 NoofPoints 7 7 7 23 23 23 23 23 23 Cu 11.3 9.6 3.4 6.4 9.2 1.0 2.0 7.4 8.3 Sn-Lα 19.7 3.6 4 9.9 12.2 2.8 2.2 34.5 4.5 Sn -Kα 8.3 2.5 1.4 8.2 5.3 3.2 3.7 76.2 4.4 Pb 9.9 13.6 4.5 21.3 9.3 12.0 5.7 40 9.0 charter6-curves.indd 154 7/15/08 5:26:16 PM
  156. 156. 155 charter6-curves.indd 155 7/15/08 5:26:18 PM
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  159. 159. 158 Materials/objects Metals and metal alloys (bulk metal and corrosion) Pottery (slip and body) Stone and marble (incl. encrustation) Glass and faience Pigments (easel paintings, icons, wall paintings) Biomaterials (fossil remains) Laser cleaning (as process monitoring tool) References Bolognesi et al. 1999; Colao et al. 2002; Colao et al. 2004; Melessanaki et al. 2002; Fortes et al. 2005; Corsi et al. 2005; Corsi et al. 2001; Jurado-Lopez et al. 2003; Lazic et al. 2005; ElHassan et al. 2008 Lopez etal. 2006; Lopez etal. 2005; Anzano etal. 2005; Colao etal. 2002; Lazic etal. 2003; Yoon etal. 2001; Erdem et al. 2008; Lazic et al. 2004; Vadillo et al. 1996; Harmon et al. 2006; Cunat et al. 2005 Müller et al. 2003; Carmona et al. 2005; Klein et al. 1999; Anglosetal. 1997;Brysbaert etal.2006;Burgio etal.2001;Bicchierietal.2001;Borgiaetal. 2000;Castillejoetal. 2001; Burgio et al. 2000; Martin et al. 1999; Melessanaki et al. 2001 Samek et al. 2001; Suliyanti et al. 2005; Lie et al. 2006 Gobernado-Mitre et al. 1997; Maravelaki et al. 1997; Klein et al. 1999; Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki et al. 2001 et al. charter6-curves.indd 158 7/15/08 5:26:27 PM
  160. 160. 159 charter6-curves.indd 159 7/15/08 5:26:28 PM
  161. 161. 160 Iik ω = Ns hω gi Aik exp(-Ei/kB T) 8π2 Ζ(T) charter6-curves.indd 160 7/15/08 5:26:30 PM
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  167. 167. 166 Object Mirror M4 Scraper S2 Weapon W2 Fe 0.7 0.6 0.2 Cu 71.4 87.1 82.1 As 0.3 0.3 0.3 Sn 23.1 11.9 6.9 Sb 0.17 0.15 0.15 Pb 4.4 0.1 10.7 Concentration (%)Table 6.5 Composition of the bare metal alloy, measured by milli-beam spot XRF analysis on a cleaned surface. Relative uncertainty of the concentration values ± 5-10%. charter6-curves.indd 166 7/15/08 5:26:50 PM
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  188. 188. 187 Partner / Country TEI / GR HM / MT IBN-DC / MO ALP-ME / SY EMMC / EG SVUOM / CZ RSS / JO YU-FAA / JO NTUA / GR POLITO / I Metal(s) tested steel / bronze steel steel / bronze steel / bronze bronze bronze bronze silver silver silver Rack design vertical oblique oblique vertical horizontal vertical oblique oblique oblique horizontal Site of exposure Benaki museum, Athens (storage area) Palace Armoury, Valletta (exhibition hall) Archaeology museum, Rabat (bronze room and storage area) Aleppo museum, Aleppo (Prehistory section) Egyptian museum, Cairo (showcase of room 37) National museum, Prague (depositary 103) Umm Qais museum, Umm Qais (exhibition room) Museum of Jordanian Heritage, Irbid (cabinet of the exhibition hall) Technology museum, Athens (showcase) National Roman museum of Rome, Rome (exhibition room) charter7-curves.indd 187 7/15/08 5:43:35 PM
  189. 189. 188 charter7-curves.indd 188 7/15/08 5:43:41 PM
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  194. 194. 193 Solutions HC10 HC10 HC12 HC12 HC14 HC14 Concentration 30g/L 30g/L 30g/L 30g/L 30g/L 30g/L Oxidizing agent H2 O2 (0.1M) NaBO3 (0.1M) H2 O2 (0.1M) NaBO3 (0.1M) H2 O2 (0.1M) NaBO3 (0.1M) Coating Poligen ES 91009® (liquid) Poligen ES 91009® (liquid) Poligen ES 91009® (liquid) 15% (w/v) Paraloid B72® (pellets) 15% (w/v) Paraloid B72® (pellets) 15% (w/v) Paraloid B72® (pellets) 15% (w/v) Paraloid B72® (pellets) Solvent n/a n/a n/a acetone acetone acetone acetone CI additives M 370 (acqueous solution of ammonium salt of tricarboxylic acid, liquid) 1 part of CI to 40 parts of coating M 235 (blend of triazoles, solid) 1% by weight M 435 (alkaloamine salt of triazole, liquid) 1.5% by weight M 435 (liquid) 1.5% by weight M 235 (solid) 1% by weight M 109 (calcium sulfonate in mineral oil carrier, liquid) 1.5% by weight (density 0.96 -1kg/L) Alkaterge T (oxazoline type, solid) 0.1% by weight charter7-curves.indd 193 7/15/08 5:43:47 PM
  195. 195. 194 charter7-curves.indd 194 7/15/08 5:43:50 PM
  196. 196. 195 Partner HM TEI / NILES / CSIC LRMH IBN-DC ALP-ME SVUOM YU-FAA NTUA NRC-EC POLITO Metal alloy steel steel / bronze steel / bronze steel / bronze steel / bronze steel / bronze silver based alloys silver based alloys silver based alloys bronze and silver based alloys Protection systems tested PVD,polyurethanevarnish, Renaissance®waxandParaloidB72® PoligenES91009®withorwithoutCIadditives NaC7 ,NaC10 andcarboxylatation solutions OTH,FPTSandbitriazoles ParaloidB72®andmicrocrystalline CosmoloidH80®wax SilaneA,NaC7 ,NaC10 andParaloidB72® Cellulosenitrate,polyvinylacetate andParaloidB72® Aluminanano-powderpigmentedacrylicresin (ParaloidB44®andB72®) Aluminanano-powderpigmentedacrylicresin (ParaloidB72®)and ParaloidB72® PECVD Corrosion stimulators withandwithoutcorrosion stimulator(NaCl) withandwithoutcorrosion stimulator(NaCl) withandwithoutcorrosion stimulator(SO2 +chloride salts) sulphidesaturatedatmosphere sulphidesaturatedatmosphere References Vella et al. 2007 Argyropoulos et al. 2007 Hollner et al. 2007a, Hollner etal. 2007b Hammouch et al. 2007a, Hammouch etal. 2007b, Dermaj etal. 2007 charter7-curves.indd 195 7/15/08 5:43:54 PM
  197. 197. 196 charter7-curves.indd 196 7/15/08 5:44:00 PM
  198. 198. 197 Macro-photograph (initial state) Micro-photograph (during accelerated ageing) Weight change % versus number of cycles Renaissance wax Unprotected Paraloid B72 PVD coating Corrosion after 4 cycles on pre-corroded area Corrosion after 14 cycles on pre-corroded area After 14 cycles After 22 cycles Initial condition After 2 cycles charter7-curves.indd 197 7/15/08 5:44:01 PM
  199. 199. 198 Micro-photograph (during accelerated ageing) Weight change % versus number of cycles After 8 cycles: new corrosion on pre-corroded areas. Formation of black and dark grey protrusions. Macro-photograph Renaissance wax Unprotected Paraloid B72 (initial state) (end of accelerated ageing) After 22 cycles: fracturing of the film charter7-curves.indd 198 7/15/08 5:44:02 PM
  200. 200. 199 ance of without nation xposed resence % and (ca 8 oratory charter7-curves.indd 199 7/15/08 5:44:08 PM
  201. 201. 200 charter7-curves.indd 200 7/15/08 5:44:11 PM
  202. 202. 201 Protectionsystemtype CI CI CI CI Coating Coating Coating CI CI CI CI CI Coating Coating Coating Coating Coating Coating Coating Protection system NaC10 OTH FPTS Carboxylatation solution Poligen ES 91009® Poligen ES 91009® + M370 PVD NaC7 NaC10 FPTS FPTS Bitriazoles Poligen ES 91009® + M370 Paraloid B72® + M435 Paraloid B72® + M109 Silane A Silane A nano-alumina pigmented Paraloid B72® (and B44) PECVD Tested by ALP-ME ALP-ME, IBN-DC IBN-DC HM, IBN-DC, ALP-ME TEI, HM TEI HM SVUOM, ALP-ME IBN-DC, ALP-ME, SVUOM RSS IBN-DC, ALP-ME IBN-DC TEI, NILES TEI, NILES TEI, NILES, RSS SVUOM, RSS YU-FAA NTUA POLITO Application immersion brush brush immersion brush brush immersion immersion brush immersion immersion brush brush brush brush brush brush Metal alloy Steel Bronze Silver charter7-curves.indd 201 7/15/08 5:44:14 PM
  203. 203. 202 Protection system Paraloid B72® or B44 Paraloid B72® + M435 Paraloid B72® + M109 Poligen ES 91009 ® Poligen ES 91009 ® + M370 Poligen ES 91009 ® + M435 Carboxylatation solution NaC7 NaC10 OTH FPTS Bitriazole Silane A Nano-alumina pigmented Paraloid B72® (and B44) PVD PECVD Composition 15%(w/v) inacetone (orintoluene)(NTUA) 15%(w/v)inacetone+1.5%wtM435. Additionof CI. 15%(w/v)inacetone+1.5%wtM109. M109additionmadeParaloid®B72easiertoapply. Usedassupplied(pHapprox8-9) 1 part ofCIto40partsofcoating. 1.5%wtM435 -DecanoïcacidHC10 (30g/L)indistilled water50%+ethanol50% -OxidizingagentH2 O2 orNaBO3 (0.1M) Sodiumheptanoate:0.1M,i.e. -Heptanoïcacid(HC7 ):13g/Lindistilledwater -Sodiumhydroxide(NaOH):4g/L(0.1M) Sodiumdecanoate:0.1M,i.e. -Decanoïcacid(HC10 ):17.2g/L indistilledwater -Sodiumhydroxide(NaOH):4g/L(0.1M) -1gnaturalextractfromthecactusseeds(visceous) -1gtriethanolamine(visceous) -0.1gKOH(pellets) -1M PTS (visceous) -1MTriethanolamine(vicueous) -1MKOH Pureproduct manufacturedin laboratoryC4 N6 H4 ,10-3M Mixtureof5vol%ofγ- Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane+2vol% ofbis(trimethoxysilylypropyl)amine+1vol%of hydrated tetraethoxysilanein92vol%ethanol 2%and10%(w/v)nanopowder aluminiumoxide Al2O3 mixedwith15%(w/v)ParaloidB72® (orB44)solutionintoluene TiO2 SiO2 Conditions of application 1.Applicationbybrush:twoapplicationsone crissandonecross. Dryingtime:3hofdryinginbetweenand24hattheend. 1.Sameasabove. 1.Sameasabove. 2.Applicationinacriss-crossmanner.Settingtime:2-3hdependingon the atmospheric conditions. Dryingtime:24h oneachsidebeforeapplyingthe second layer. 2.thesameasabove 2.thesameasabove 3.Byimmersion(3h),orbybrushorspray.Norinsingafterwards 4.Byimmersion(3hforcopper based alloys). Norinsingafterwards 5.Byimmersion(4hforironbasedobjects and3hforcopperbasedones).Norinsingafterwards. 6.Twomethodsofapplication -Immersionin 0.02%(w/v)OTH/Ethanolsolutionfor1h -Bybrush:OTH(pure)directlyonthemetalsurface(moreeffectivemethod) Dryingtime:48h 7.Twomethodsofapplication -Immersionin0.075%(w/v)FPTS/ethanolfor3h -Bybrush:50%(w/v)FPTS/ethanol Dryingtime:dryafterimmersionand48hafterapplicationbybrush 8.Immersionof3hin0.001MsolutionBiTA/ethanol 9.Stirringfora few minutes. Applicationbybrush(oneapplication-onecrissandonecross). Dryingtime:24hinlaboratoryconditions 10.Nano-powderAl2 O3 added and stirreduntil dilutionintoluene. Stirringforanhouronamagneticstirrer.AdditionofParaloid (milkysuspensionformed).Applicationbybrush 11. Same as described in section7.3.3.1oncouponsrinsed in dichloromethanesolvent (for a few seconds). 12. Same as described in section7.3.3.1. charter7-curves.indd 202 7/15/08 5:44:15 PM
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  208. 208. 207 Major/minor elements I 0-3 I 3-6 I 6-9 I 9-12 C 0-3 C 0-6 C 0-9 C 0- 12 M Ca Ca Ca, Si Si, Al Ca Ca Ca, Cl Ca, Si, Cl, K m S, Cl Si Ca S, Cl M Ca, Si, Mg Ca Ca, Si Ca Ca, Si, Mg Ca, Si Ca, Si Ca, Si, Mg m Ti Si Mn, Cl Fe, Si, Cl Ti, S, Mg, Fe Cl, Mg Cl, Fe M Si, Ca, Mg - Cl Ca, Si Ca, Si – Cl, S Cl, Ca, S Si, Ca, Mg - Cl Ca, Cl Ca, Cl, Si Ca, S, Al – Mg, Fe m Cl Cl, S Cl Mg, Fe Point 2Point 1 Point 3 charter7-curves.indd 207 7/15/08 5:44:40 PM
  209. 209. 208 charter7-curves.indd 208 7/15/08 5:44:41 PM
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  214. 214. 213 Partners TEI HM LRMH YU-FAA RSS POLITO NTUA CSIC NRC-EC IBN-DC EGE-PNEA Object(s) to test Objects from the Islamic collection of the Benaki Museum (bronzes) and knives and bayonets from Museum of Criminology (iron objects) Steel fake armour elements, Palace Armoury, Valletta Wrought iron anchor chain, steel torpedo and bronze propeller from the Maritime Museum of Romainville Fortress, near Paris Silver Abbasid coins, from the Museum of Jordanian Heritage, Irbid Copper based coins from Umm Qais Museum Roman and Phoenician Punic coins Silver medallions from the Technology Museum, Athens Iron and copper based archaeological objects from the Department of Prehistory and Archaeology of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Old silver coins and other silver objects dated 1916 and 1923 during the period of Sultan Hussien Kamel and King Fouad. 2 bronze objects from the Archaeology Museum, Rabat Bronze and iron objects from Van Museum Protection systems tested ParaloidB72® andPoligen ES91009®withor withoutCIadditivesappliedbybrush Poligen ES91009®appliedbybrush 0.25M NaC10 on bronze /carboxylatation solution (HC10 + H2 O2 andHC10 + NaBO3 ) on iron basedobjects,bothappliedbybrush silane Aappliedbybrush silane AandFPTSCIappliedbybrush SiO2 -like layersbyPECVD ParaloidB72®+ Al2 O3 nanopigments appliedbyimmersion Poligen ES91009®appliedbybrush ParaloidB72®+ Al2 O3 nanopigmentsappliedbybrush FPTSCIappliedbyimmersion FPTSandNaC10 appliedbybrush charter7-curves.indd 213 7/15/08 5:45:11 PM
  215. 215. 214 charter7-curves.indd 214 7/15/08 5:45:13 PM
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  217. 217. 216 Protection system applied “Caucasian” like daggers type A) Knives with a J shaped handle / small (type B) Knives with a J shaped handle / big (type C) “Caucasian” daggers (type D) “Caucasian” like daggers (type E) Small bayonets (type F) Big bayonets (type G) Group 1 Paraloid B72® K 153 K 68 S 123 K 130 K 155 B 109 B 95 Group 2 Poligen ES 91009® K 001 K 168 K 140 K 49 K 147 B 86 B 89 Group 3 Poligen ES 91009® + M370 K 142 K 171 S 124 K 131 K 96 B 75 B 98 Group 4 Poligen ES 91009® + M435 K 402 K 83 K 144 K 163 K 160 B 92 B 217 Group 5 No coating K138 K189 Κ72 K158 Κ 56 Β93 Β78 charter7-curves.indd 216 7/15/08 5:45:19 PM
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  220. 220. 219 Protection system applied Paraloid B72® Poligen ES 91009® + M 370 Paraloid B72® + M109 Paraloid B72® + M435 Reference coupons –not coated solvent acetone n/a acetone acetone n/a CI additive basic ingredient n/a Water solution of ammonium salts of tricarboxylic acid Calcium sulfonate in mineral oil carrier Alkaloamine salt of triazole n/a charter7-curves.indd 219 7/15/08 5:45:41 PM
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  226. 226. 225 Coin 0 (non protected) Coin 1 (FPTS) Coin 2 (FPTS) Coin 3 (silane A) Coin 4 (silane A) Cu 85.14 85.23 88.11 89.44 90.40 Ag 2.23 5.58 3.27 2.7 3.23 Sn 1.69 0.5 0.55 0.41 0.54 Pb 9.56 2.52 4.39 3.61 2.93 Si 1.36 5.96 3.52 3.85 2.79 charter7-curves.indd 225 7/15/08 5:46:17 PM
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  246. 246. 245 Conservation-restoration protocol Conservation-restoration requirements (by the curator) This document in general provides : An historical context of the artifact The degradation level of the artifact Visual appearance aspect required after restoration Conditions of conservation after restoration Bid procedure (made by the museum) On the basis of the document providing the restoration requirements Several conservators propose a quotation which describes : the protocol of the restoration, the techniques used and the cost of the intervention Examination of the quotations Selection of the conservator Preparation of the file for examination by the specialists’ commission (curators with the help of the selected conservator) Examination by the specialists’ commission this commission gives a validation or not of the file (if the file is not validated, the curator must prepare a new document which takes into account the comments of the commission) The new file will be examined in the next session (3 or 6 months later) Realisation of the conservation -restoration work charter8-curves.indd 245 7/15/08 5:05:05 PM
  247. 247. 246 charter8-curves.indd 246 7/15/08 5:05:06 PM
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  251. 251. 250 charter8-curves.indd 250 7/15/08 5:05:13 PM
  252. 252. 251 Year 1.Statebudget 2.Otherpublicsources 3.Privatesources Total capital 2000 500 3 2503 other 11000 167 17 11184 capital 2500 643 3 3146 other 1786 357 18 2161 capital 2500 643 3 3146 other 2000 357 18 2375 capital 2500 643 3 3146 other 2214 357 18 2589 capital 2607 642 3 3253 other 2696 393 18 3356 capital 2607 643 3 3253 other 2696 357 18 3071 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 charter8-curves.indd 251 7/15/08 5:05:14 PM
  253. 253. 252 museum ownership Ministry of Culture Regional and local municipalities National institute for CH care Bishopric conservation centres documentation of cultural heritage 88 12 70 7 protection and conservation* 575 234 - - charter8-curves.indd 252 7/15/08 5:05:16 PM
  254. 254. 253 charter8-curves.indd 253 7/15/08 5:05:17 PM
  255. 255. 254 charter8-curves.indd 254 7/15/08 5:05:18 PM
  256. 256. 255 charter8-curves.indd 255 7/15/08 5:05:19 PM
  257. 257. 256 charter8-curves.indd 256 7/15/08 5:05:21 PM
  258. 258. 257 charter8-curves.indd 257 7/15/08 5:05:21 PM
  259. 259. 258 Conventions European Cultural Convention, 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague 1954 (Hague Convention 1954) Customs Convention concerning the Facilities for the importation of goods for display or use at exhibitions, fair, meetings or similar events, Brussels 1962 European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage, London 1969 (London convention 1969) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (UNESCO Convention 1970) European Convention on Offences relating to Cultural Property, Delphi Convention 1985) Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe, Granada 1985 (Granada Convention 1985) Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992 European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Revised), Valletta 1992 (Malta Convention 1992) UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (UNIDROIT 1995) Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague 1999 (Hague 2nd Protocol 1999) European Landscape Convention (Florence Convention 2000) Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, Paris 2001 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, Paris 2003 institution Council of Europe UNESCO UNESCO Council of Europe UNESCO Council of Europe Council of Europe UNEP Council of Europe UNESCO UNESCO Council of Europe UNESCO UNESCO signed • • • • • • ratified • • • • URL http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/018.htm http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=15207URL_ DO=DO_TOPICURL_SECTION=201.html http://www.wcoomd.org/files/1.%20Public%20files /PDFandDocuments/Procedures%20and%20Facilitation/ pf_ATA_conv_text.pdf http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multi/www/europe_arch69.html http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13039URL_ DO=DO_TOPICURL_SECTION=201.html http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/119.htm http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multi/www/bh872_fr.html http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/143.htm http://www.unidroit.org/english/conventions/ 1995culturalproperty/1995culturalproperty-e.htm http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=15207URL_ DO=DO_TOPICURL_SECTION=201.html http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13520URL_ DO=DO_TOPICURL_SECTION=201.html http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=15391URL_ DO=DO_TOPICURL_SECTION=201.html charter8-curves.indd 258 7/15/08 5:05:22 PM
  260. 260. 259 URL http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/T51040.htm http://www.abgs.gov.tr/tarama/tarama_files/01/SC01EXP_Cultural%20goods-background.pdf http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0100:EN:HTML http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2001:187:0043:0044:EN:PDF http://cool-palimpsest.stanford.edu/icom/ethics.html http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/arch_e.htm http://portal.unesco.org/culture/fr/files/21559/11836509429MesuresTraficIlliciteEn.pdf/ MesuresTraficIlliciteEn.pdf EU Regulations Council Regulation (EEC) No 974/2001 Council Regulation (EC) No 974/2001 of 14 May 2001 amending Regulation (EEC) No 3911/92 on the export of cultural goods Council Directive 93/7/EEC Council Directive 93/7/EEC of 15 March 1993 on the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State Directive 96/100/EC Directive 96/100/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 February 1997 amending the Annex to Directive 93/7/EEC on the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State Directive 2001/38/EC Directive 2001/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2001 amending Council Directive 93/7/EEC on the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State (Text with EEA relevance) Code of Ethics for Conservators Council Regulation (EEC) No 3911/92 of 9 December 1992 on the export of cultural goods. ICOMOS – Lausanne 1990 CHARTER FOR THE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE (1990) ICOM, UNESCO and INTERPOL – Basic Actions A common awareness-raising campaign against illicit trafficking of cultural property through the internet. Charters adopted by the General Assembly of ICOMOS International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (The Venice Charter 1964) The Florence Charter on Historic Gardens(1982) Charter on the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (1987) The Washington Charter on the Conservation of Historic Towns and Areas (1987) Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage(1990) Charter for the Protection and Management of the Underwater cultural Heritage (1996) International Charter on Cultural Tourism (1999) Principles for the Preservation of Historic Timber Structures (1999) Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage (1999) ICOMOS Charter – principles for the analysis, conservation and structural restoration of architectural heritage (2003) ICOMOS Principles for the Preservation and Conservation-Restoration of Wall Paintings (2003) Institution ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS ICOMOS URL http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/venice_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/gardens_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/towns_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/arch_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/underwater_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/tourism_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/wood_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/vernacular_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/structures_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/wallpaintings_e.htm charter8-curves.indd 259 7/15/08 5:05:22 PM
  261. 261. 260 Charters Adopted by ICOMOS National Committees The Burra Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance(1981) Charter for the Preservation of Quebec’ s Heritage The Appleton Charter for the Protection and Enhancement of the Built Environment (1983) First Brazilian Seminar About the Preservation and Revitalization of Historic Centers (1987) Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Value (1992) Preservation Charter for the Historic Towns and Areas of the United States of America (1992) Institution ICOMOS - Australia ICOMOS - Canada ICOMOS - Canada ICOMOS – Brazil ICOMOS – New Zealand US ICOMOS URL http://www.icomos.org/australia/burra.html http://www.icomos.org/docs/desch_anglais.html http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/appleton.pdf http://www.icomos.org/docs/itaipava.html http://www.icomos.org/docs/nz_92charter.html Resolutions and Declarations of ICOMOS Symposia Resolution on the Symposium on the Introduction of Contemporary Architecture into Ancient Groups of Buildings (1972) Resolution on the Conservation of Smaller Historic Towns (1975) Tlaxcala Declaration on the Revitalization of Small Settlements (1982) Declaration of Dresden (1982) Declaration of Rome (1983) Guidelines for the Education and Training in the Conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and Sites (1993) The Nara Document on authenticity (1994) Declaration of San Antonio (1996) Principles for the recording of monuments, groups of Buildings and sites (1996) The Stockholm Declaration (1998) Xi’ an Declaration on the Conservation of the Setting of Heritage Structures, Sites and Areas (2005) URL http://www.icomos.org/docs/contemporary_architecture.html http://www.icomos.org/docs/small_towns.html http://www.icomos.org/docs/tlaxcala.html http://www.icomos.org/docs/dresden.html http://www.icomos.org/docs/rome.html http://www.icomos.org/docs/guidelines_for_education.html http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/nara_e.htm http://www.icomos.org/docs/san_antonio.html http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/recording_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/stocdec_e.htm http://www.international.icomos.org/charters/xian-declaration.pdf charter8-curves.indd 260 7/15/08 5:05:23 PM
  262. 262. 261 charter8-curves.indd 261 7/15/08 5:05:23 PM
  263. 263. 262 charter8-curves.indd 262 7/15/08 5:05:23 PM
  264. 264. exo-teliko20,5x28.indd 1 7/24/08 8:44:56 AM

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