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Thoughts on Open

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Keynote address delivered at the SUNY COTE Summit, February 2015. This talk (1) connects the concepts of democratizing innovation, permissionless innovation, and infrastructure to education, (2) clearly defines "open," briefly reviews research on the student success impacts of using OER, (3) discusses open pedagogy, (4) discusses the ethic of open, and (5) closes with a list of three things faculty can do to start being more open in their practice.

Published in: Education

Thoughts on Open

  1. 1. Thoughts on Open David Wiley @opencontent http://lumenlearning.com/
  2. 2. Unless otherwise noted this presentation is licensed CC BY 4.0
  3. 3. Talking to “My People”
  4. 4. “Permissionless Innovation” Adam Thierer “Democratizing Innovation” Eric Von Hippel
  5. 5. Don't EVER make the mistake [of thinking] that you can design something better than what you get from ruthless massively parallel trial- and-error with a feedback cycle. That's giving your intelligence _much_ too much credit. Linus Torvalds Creator of Linux
  6. 6. Infrastructure and Innovation
  7. 7. Relatively inexpensive Broad permissions
  8. 8. If Broadband Cost… $500 / month? $5000 / month? Does Amazon or Google exist? Do online courses exist?
  9. 9. If Broadcast Licenses… were necessary to publish video? were necessary to publish text? Does YouTube or Twitter exist? Do online courses exist?
  10. 10. thrives when the costs and obstacles to experimenting are low
  11. 11. Outcomes Assessments Resources Credentials Education Infrastructure
  12. 12. Outcomes Assessments Resources Credentials Relatively expensive Very narrow permissions
  13. 13. Relatively Expensive Only those with significant capital can afford to experiment
  14. 14. $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Tuition Textbooks Annual Costs $1288 $1666
  15. 15. Textbook Pricing in Context Streaming Access to… Cost… Netflix – 10k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month Hulu Plus – 45k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month CourseSmart – 1 Biology Textbook $19.67 / month
  16. 16. A Wizard of Earthsea Studying from texts written in disappearing ink
  17. 17. “Disappearing Ink” Strategies Buyback, rental, e-books online subscriptions
  18. 18. Very Narrow Permissions ALL Rights Reserved
  19. 19. “You may not take any Online Course offered by Coursera or use any Statement of Accomplishment as part of any tuition- based or for-credit certification or program for any college, university, or other academic institution without the express written permission from Coursera. Such use of an Online Course or Statement of Accomplishment is a violation of these Terms of Use.”
  20. 20. Permissions are Critical
  21. 21. If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. Isaac Newton
  22. 22. All Rights Reserved Copyright = Spiked Shoulder Pads
  23. 23. Hiding Behind Fair Use and TEACH Small-scale innovations must remain hidden and kept quiet
  24. 24. Outcomes Assessments Resources Credentials Relatively expensive Very narrow permissions
  25. 25. Trouble with Costs and Permissions?
  26. 26. Open Outcomes Open Assessments Open Educational Resources Open Credentials Open Education Infrastructure
  27. 27. Open Outcomes Open Assessments Open Educational Resources Open Credentials Open Education Infrastructure
  28. 28. Which “open”?
  29. 29. open ≈ free
  30. 30. free is assumed online
  31. 31. open = free + permissions
  32. 32. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable 5R permissions
  33. 33. • Make and own a copyRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  34. 34. retain is fundamental
  35. 35. • Make and own a copyRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  36. 36. License Comments No one can definitively say what “noncommercial” means, including Creative Commons Creates license incompatibility issues with other openly licensed materials Mandated by foundations and governments, adopted by modern projects
  37. 37. License Comments No one can definitively say what “noncommercial” means, including Creative Commons Creates license incompatibility issues with other openly licensed materials Mandated by foundations and governments, adopted by modern projects
  38. 38. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable 5R permissions
  39. 39. “Faux-pen” 1. Free (possibly gated) access 2. All rights reserved (or stronger)
  40. 40. Open 1. Democratizes innovation (Free) 2. Permits innovation (CC BY)
  41. 41. “Education enabled by the Internet”
  42. 42. ©
  43. 43. Copyright Regulates Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying of a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  44. 44. Tech Enables Law Forbids
  45. 45. traditionally © materials + internet
  46. 46. openly licensed materials + internet
  47. 47. Tech Enables Open Permits
  48. 48. Open Is Worth Defending And must be defended vigorously
  49. 49. 64 Textbook Costs and Student Success Outcomes Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions 33% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student $1,200 Costs growing 3x inflation Cost students go without textbooks due to cost 6 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 35% Access of community college students achieve credential goals <50%
  50. 50. 65 Internet, Textbook Costs, Student Success Outcomes Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions ?% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student < $50 Costs dropping Cost students go without textbooks due to cost 0 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 0% Access of community college students achieve credential goals ?%
  51. 51. Project Kaleidoscope
  52. 52. Participants • 4,909 treatment • 11,818 control • 50 undergraduate courses • 130 teachers • 8 institutions Submitted to Computers & Education
  53. 53. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Propensity Score Matching • Dependent variables: Completion; C or Better; Credits Enrolled This Term; Next Term • Independent variable: Textbook condition • Covariates: age, gender, and race
  54. 54. Results Increased: • Completion (X2 res = +2.9, -2.9) • C or Better (X2 res = -2.5, +2.7) • Credits this term t(8101) = 27.81, p < .01 • Credits next term F(1, 6440) = 154.08, p <.01
  55. 55. Developmental Math Published in Educause Review
  56. 56. From textbook and MyMathLab ($170) To OER and MyOpenMath ($5)
  57. 57. 73 % Completing with C or Better 48.4% 60.2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER
  58. 58. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  59. 59. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Pearson Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  60. 60. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Pearson OER Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  61. 61. Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Cost $250 $0
  62. 62. Associates of Business “Z Degree” Graduate without ever buying a textbook World’s first “all-OER” degree ~30% cheaper for students
  63. 63. When a student drops, it.. Slows down their graduation Costs the institution tuition dollars (refunds)
  64. 64. (182 * .89 * $164.35 * 3) in-state + (182 * .11 * $358.95 * 3) out-of-state = $101,042 annual INTRO Submitted to EPAA INTRO Model
  65. 65. impact.lumenlearning.com
  66. 66. Open Outcomes Open Assessments Open Educational Resources Open Credentials Open Education Infrastructure What are we defending?
  67. 67. Open Outcomes Open Assessments Open Educational Resources Open Credentials Open Pedagogy Open Sustainability / Business Models Open Education Infrastructure
  68. 68. Open Pedagogy The set of things you can do when outcomes, assessments, and resources are open that you cannot do otherwise.
  69. 69. PM4ID
  70. 70. PM4ID
  71. 71. “Open” Re-professionalizes Faculty (+IDs) You are the experimenter You are the innovator You’re in control (Stop abdicating to Pearson!)
  72. 72. Beware Closed Platforms Has the vendor locked up the content so that it’s “teacher-proof”? (Open” values local knowledge)
  73. 73. Beware Closed Platforms Are there secret All Rights Reserved algorithms? “Trust me, I’m from Knewton”
  74. 74. Humility and Wonder Facilitate the unexpected Enable serendipitous reciprocity
  75. 75. Do Unto Others Add more value than you extract Make it easier for the next guy
  76. 76. Own, Don’t Access “Access” is a war on ownership of private property If you can’t 5R it, you don’t own it
  77. 77. Proxy Selfishness Be selfish on behalf of others Maximize your potential to be useful Empower yourself by empowering others
  78. 78. Gratitude Pay it forward Our moral obligation to one another
  79. 79. GREAT So what do I do?
  80. 80. 1. Openly License Your Syllabus Including your learning outcomes
  81. 81. 2. Replace Your Textbook With open educational resources
  82. 82. 3. Openly License Your Assessments Performance assessments first Test item banks next
  83. 83. Conversation @opencontent @LumenLearning http://lumenlearning.com/

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