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The Open Education Infrastructure

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Keynote presentation for Open Apereo 2015 describing the components of the Open Education Infrastructure. Connects Frischmann's work on intellectual infrastructure, Von Hippel's work on democratizing innovation, and Thierer's work on permissionless innovation to learning outcomes, activities and assessments, and other educational resources as the intellectual infrastructure of education necessary to facilitate innovation in education. Defines "open" and discusses the relationship between open and infrastructure.

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  • Target-terms like Objectives, Goals and Purpose are the guiding lights for designing any learning or life experience. Any learning program or the infrastructure underlying it is incomplete without these. Meaning of life is created by sentient beings through learning and imagining, OR in other words, Hacking the Universe. For such intents and purposes, the following taxonomy might be useful: http://www.slideshare.net/alphabetasocio/the-untitled-universal-taxonomy-of-learning-first-draft
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The Open Education Infrastructure

  1. 1. The Open Education Infrastructure David Wiley @opencontent david@lumenlearning.com
  2. 2. Unless otherwise noted this presentation is licensed CC BY 4.0
  3. 3. Infrastructure?
  4. 4. Infrastructure comprises “resources that create benefits for society primarily through the facilitation of downstream productive activities.” -- Brett Frischmann
  5. 5. “downstream productive activities”
  6. 6. “Permissionless Innovation” Adam Thierer “Democratizing Innovation” Eric Von Hippel
  7. 7. Don't EVER make the mistake that you can design something better than what you get from ruthless massively parallel trial-and-error with a feedback cycle. That's giving your intelligence _much_ too much credit. -- Linus Torvalds
  8. 8. Infrastructure and Innovation
  9. 9. Relatively inexpensive Broad permissions
  10. 10. If Broadband Cost… $500 / month? $5000 / month? Does Amazon or Google exist? Do online courses exist?
  11. 11. If Broadcast Licenses… were necessary to publish video? were necessary to publish text? Does YouTube or Twitter exist? Do online courses exist?
  12. 12. thrives when the costs and obstacles to experimenting are low
  13. 13. “Intellectual infrastructure” is “nonrival input into a wide variety of outputs.” -- Brett Frischmann
  14. 14. Outcomes Activities Resources Intellectual Infrastructure of Ed
  15. 15. Outcomes Activities Resources Relatively expensive Very narrow permissions
  16. 16. Relatively Expensive Only those with significant capital can afford to experiment
  17. 17. $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Tuition Textbooks Annual Costs $1288 $1666
  18. 18. Textbook Pricing in Context Streaming Access to… Cost… Netflix – 10k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month Hulu Plus – 45k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month CourseSmart – 1 Biology Textbook $19.67 / month
  19. 19. A Wizard of Earthsea Studying from texts written in disappearing ink
  20. 20. “Disappearing Ink” Strategies Buyback, rental, e-books online subscriptions
  21. 21. Very Narrow Permissions ALL Rights Reserved
  22. 22. “You agree not to accept credit for completing a course unless you have earned a Verified Certificate (or other equivalent Coursera credential) for that course.”
  23. 23. Hiding Behind Fair Use and TEACH Hacked fixes must remain hidden and kept quiet
  24. 24. Outcomes Activities Resources Relatively expensive Very narrow permissions
  25. 25. Trouble with Costs and Permissions?
  26. 26. Open Outcomes Open Activities Open Educational Resources Open Education Infrastructure
  27. 27. Which “open”?
  28. 28. open ≈ free
  29. 29. free is assumed online
  30. 30. open = free + permissions
  31. 31. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable 5R permissions
  32. 32. • Make and own a copyRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  33. 33. retain is fundamental
  34. 34. Own, Don’t Access “Access” is a war on ownership of private property If you can’t 5R it, you don’t own it
  35. 35. • Make and own a copyRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  36. 36. License Comments No one can definitively say what “noncommercial” means, including Creative Commons Creates license incompatibility issues with other openly licensed materials Mandated by foundations and governments, adopted by modern projects
  37. 37. License Comments No one can definitively say what “noncommercial” means, including Creative Commons Creates license incompatibility issues with other openly licensed materials Mandated by foundations and governments, adopted by modern projects
  38. 38. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable 5R permissions
  39. 39. “Faux-pen” 1. Free (possibly gated) access 2. All rights reserved (or stronger)
  40. 40. Open 1. Democratizes innovation (Free) 2. Permits innovation (CC BY)
  41. 41. Open Outcomes Open Activities Open Educational Resources Open Education Infrastructure
  42. 42. What Happens If I Use Open? Open Education Group’s Review Project http://openedgroup.org/review/
  43. 43. 11 Peer Reviewed Studies http://openedgroup.org/
  44. 44. 48,623 Students http://openedgroup.org/
  45. 45. 93% Same or Better Outcomes http://openedgroup.org/
  46. 46. 9 Peer Reviewed Studies of Perceptions of OER Quality http://openedgroup.org/
  47. 47. 4,510 Professors and Students http://openedgroup.org/
  48. 48. 50% Same35% Better 15% Worse http://openedgroup.org/
  49. 49. Why? How much difference can a textbook make?
  50. 50. Outcomes Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions 33% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student $1,200 Costs growing 3x inflation Cost students go without textbooks due to cost 6 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 35% Access of community college students achieve credential goals <50% A Problem
  51. 51. OutcomesCost Access A Solution Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions ?% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student < $50 Costs going to $0 students go without textbooks due to cost 0 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 0% of community college students achieve credential goals ?%
  52. 52. Open Outcomes Open Activities Open Educational Resources Open Education Infrastructure
  53. 53. Open Outcomes Open Activities Open Educational Resources “Innovation?”
  54. 54. Open Outcomes Open Activities Open Educational Resources Downstream Productive Activities Open Pedagogy Open Business Models Open Credentialing Models
  55. 55. Open Pedagogy The set of things you can do when outcomes, assessments, and resources are open that you cannot do otherwise.
  56. 56. Openness Facilitates the Unexpected Creates benefits for society through the facilitation of unexpected downstream productive activities
  57. 57. Disposable Assignments Students hate doing them You hate grading them Huge waste of time and energy
  58. 58. Renewable Assignments Students see value in doing them You see value in grading them The world is a better place at the end
  59. 59. PM4ID
  60. 60. PM4ID
  61. 61. Renewable Assignments Are enabled by the open nature of activities and resources
  62. 62. REPLACE REALIGN RETHINK • Adopt an open textbook – wholesale – in place of a commercial textbook • Everything else stays the same - Significant cost savings for students - Little or no change in student success • Start from learning outcomes • Aggregate best OER for each outcome • Personalize content for your students - Significant cost savings for students - Modest change in student success • REALIGN • Explore open pedagogy • Redesign assessment strategy - Significant cost savings for students - Moderate to significant change in student success The Remix Hypothesis
  63. 63. Open Credential The kinds of credentials you can award when outcomes, assessments, resources, and pedagogy are open that you cannot do otherwise.
  64. 64. The Z-Degree REMOVING TEXTBOOK COSTS AS A BARRIER TO STUDENT SUCCESS THROUGH AN OER-BASED CURRICULUM Decreased cost to graduate by 25% Increased pedagogical flexibility Improved course completion rates
  65. 65. Who? What? http://lumenlearning.com/
  66. 66. Open Outcomes Open Activities Open Educational Resources Where’s the Tech? Open Pedagogy Open Business Models Open Credentialing Models Open Technical Infrastructure
  67. 67. Open Ed Tech Infrastructure? 1. Should democratize innovation in education 2. Should permit innovation in education
  68. 68. Open Ed Tech Infrastructure 1. Democratizes innovation (Free? Easy to use?) 2. Permits innovation (OSI license? Interoperability? Campus policies? Pedagogical assumptions?)
  69. 69. Get Out of the Way We should be making “resources that create benefits for society primarily through the facilitation of downstream productive activities.”
  70. 70. Alignment and Synergy Open education infrastructure and Open educational tech infrastructure are setting the stage for terrific things
  71. 71. Conversation @opencontent david@lumenlearning.com http://lumenlearning.com/

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