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The Disaggregation of Higher Education

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This presentation uses history and a number of stories to imagine the near and medium-term futures of higher education. A call to action for faculty and administrators to engage in policy reform around open access to research and teaching and learning materials.

Published in: Technology, Education

The Disaggregation of Higher Education

  1. The Disaggregated Future of Educa3on Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Internet David Wiley, PhD Department of Instruc3onal Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  2. The Trucker Tale A parable of ingenuity and despair CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  3. CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/farleyj/2768941171/ Friday, June 12, 2009
  4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2810314243/ CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  5. CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/chicagoeye/2710749425/ Friday, June 12, 2009
  6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/striatic/2192192956/ CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/booleansplit/2634767088/ CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  8. CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/flissphil/245158736/ Friday, June 12, 2009
  9. Terms of Distribu3on Surrender rights to the product Truckers keep 100% of all sales Perpetual deal, no review or modifica3on CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  10. http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/47989973/ CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  11. The Moral of the Story This is a tale about faculty and their  research CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  12. • Come up with ideas for research, • Find grant funding for the research, • Iden3fy and hire graduate students  and other professionals, • Conduct the research, • Write up the results of the research in  a clear and concise manner, and • Surrender all rights to the wriPen  results of the research to a publisher. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  13. The Open Access Movement Free Online Access to Research Ar3cles CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  14. Stewardship of Public Funds If the taxpayers funded the research,  the results belong to the taxpayers CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  15. Public Investment in Research $105,385 to $119,913 per ar3cle (US NIH‐funded research) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  16. Publisher Investment in Research $2750 per ar3cle, including  administra3ve and all other costs CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  17. Does This Make Sense? Publishers make approximately 2% of  the overall investment CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  18. Unbelievable Profits Elsevier + LexusNexus = $1,500,000,000  in 2008 (Not revenue ‐ profit) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  19. Have You or U of S Ever Been Paid? (You also do all the reviewing and edi3ng) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  20. US NIH Public Access Mandate Ar3cles must be placed in PubMed  Central upon acceptance CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  21. Otherwise, You Pay Dozens of Times  Once to fund the research, and then  over and again for each library CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  22. Advance the Field / Bless the World BePer access catalyzes the development  of new knowledge more quickly CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  23. “The Faculty of the MassachusePs Ins3tute of  Technology is commiPed to dissemina3ng the  fruits of its research and scholarship as widely as  possible. In keeping with that commitment, the  Faculty adopts the following policy: Each Faculty  member grants to the MassachusePs Ins3tute of  Technology nonexclusive permission to make  available his or her scholarly ar3cles and to  exercise the copyright in those ar3cles for the  purpose of open dissemina3on.” MIT Faculty Open‐Access Policy CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  24. Advance the Field / Bless the World BePer access catalyzes the development  of new knowledge more quickly CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  25. Secret History of Open Access A story of disaggrega3on: 1000 ‐ 1600 CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  26. Restric3ng Access to the Bible When policy and technology collide CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  27. 11th Century Vernacular transla3ons of the Bible  forbidden CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  28. 12th Century Possession or memoriza3on of  scriptures forbidden CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  29. 14th Century Wycliffe finishes English transla3on CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  30. 15th Century Anyone caught reading the English Bible  will quot;Forfeit land, caPle, life, and goods  from their heirs forever.quot; CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  31. A Kinder, Gentler DMCA And all this before publishers even  came into existence! CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  32. 15th Century Gutenberg, the prin3ng press, and  metallic movable type CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  33. 15th Century The church leverages technology to  print indulgences at scale for a  frac3on of the cost CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  34. 16th Century English and German Bibles are mass‐ produced and pirate Bibles are smuggled  in flour sacks and coPon bales CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  35. 16th Century Empowered with access, people  won’t tolerate foolishness  (indulgences) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  36. 16th Century Luther’s 95 theses  CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  37. quot;They preach only human doctrines who say  that as soon as the money clinks into the  money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory...  Any truly repentant Chris3an has a right to  full remission of penalty and guilt, even  without indulgence lePers.quot; CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  38. 16th Century Luther and others work to reform  from the inside, but #fail CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  39. 16th Century Protestant sects form and the Church  loses membership and revenue CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  40. 17th Century 30 Years War ends Pope's pan‐European  poli3cal power CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  41. 17th Century Popular reforms carried out  (too liPle too late for most) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  42. The Morals of the Story ‐ Don’t bet against the transforma3ve  power of informa3on technology ‐ You’re going to end up adap3ng anyway,   why not do it on your own terms? CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  43. Skipping Ahead a Few 100 Years Could something like this happen again? CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  44. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  45. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  46. “The World is Changed” Galadriel, Lord of the Rings CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  47. It’s Actually Worse (or BePer) The World is Changing CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  48. Analog ⇒ Digital Music, Phones, TV, Newspapers, Movies, Journals, Communica3ons, Intelligence, Defense CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  49. Tethered ⇒ Mobile Phones, Internet Access, Employment  CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  50. Isolated ⇒ Connected People, Content, Systems CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  51. Generic ⇒ Personal Cars, Computers, Mobile Phones CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  52. Consuming ⇒ Crea3ng Radio / Podcas3ng, Newspapers / Blogs  Movies / Vodcas3ng CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  53. Closed ⇒ Open Souware (OSs, Applica3ons),  Data (Weather, GIS), Content (Blogs, Wikis) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  54. Then vs Now Analog ⇒ Digital Tethered ⇒ Mobile Isolated ⇒ Connected Generic ⇒ Personal Consump3on ⇒ Crea3ng Closed ⇒ Open CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  55. Educa/on vs Everyday Analog ⇒ Digital Tethered ⇒ Mobile Isolated ⇒ Connected Generic ⇒ Personal Consump3on ⇒ Crea3ng Closed ⇒ Open CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  56. “Daily Divide” Is a Huge Threat And the wider the disconnect,  the bigger the threat to higher  educa3on CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  57. But Wait!  We’re Educa4on! Our historic monopoly is (gratefully)  being challenged on almost every  front CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  58. Why Do Students Come? Content, Support Services  Social Life, Degrees CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  59. Content MIT OpenCourseWare, Wikipedia,  Flat World Knowledge, etc. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  60. Research Public Library of Science, Arxiv.org,  Google Scholar, etc. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  61. Support Services ChaCha, Yahoo! Answers,  RateMyProfessor, Email, Instant  Messaging, TwiPer, etc. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  62. Social Life Facebook, MySpace, MMOG, iPhone loca3on‐aware apps, etc. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  63. Degrees MCSE, RHCE, CCNA CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  64. The Monopoly Is Being Busted Everything we provide is now offered  by someone else CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  65. When Ins3tu3ons Specialize They usually provide bePer quality  at a bePer price CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  66. Higher Ed, On the Other Hand 76% increase in cost over 10 years How’s our quality? CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  67. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  68. Industries Failing Everywhere Banks, Insurance, Automobiles Higher Educa3on? CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  69. A Bail Out for Higher Ed? More like double‐digit budget cuts CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  70. No Monopoly and No Bail Out How can we innovate to stay relevant? CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  71. What About E‐learning? CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  72. What About E‐learning? Quite innova3ve in 1995! CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  73. Characteris/cs of E‐learning Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Crea3ng Closed or Open CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  74. Openness is the Cornerstone Openness underpins everything interes3ng  happening online and is “what they know” CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  75. Why Make Such a Claim? Let’s ask Alexa what the 50 most  popular sites on the web are… CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  76. Sites Where Anyone Can: Share a video, share a photo, share a blog  post, share their personal info, share their  ra3ngs, share their files, share their exper3se  CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  77. Characteris/cs of E‐learning Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consump/on or Crea3ng Closed or Open CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  78. Connec3ng You can’t connect to something if you  don’t have access to it CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  79. Personalizing You can’t adapt or localize something if you don’t have the rights to modify it CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  80. Crea3ng You won’t be crea3ve if there’s no  outlet for your work CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  81. How Might We Open Things? Once again there is a demand for greater access CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  82. The Open Access Movement Providing access to the research created  at the university CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  83. The Open Educa3on Movement Providing access to the teaching and  learning materials created at the  university CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  84. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  85. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  86. Connec3ng and Openness Sharing some experiments CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  87. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  88. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  89. Crea3ng and Openness Sharing some experiments CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  90. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  91. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  92. Being Even More Open Sharing some experiments CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  93. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  94. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  95. Character Classes • Bard (Master of the lore, history, and poli3cs  of the field, know what's “out there”) • Ar3san (Has materials produc3on skills in all  the necessary Web 1.0 and 2.0 tools like  HTML, video sharing, podcas3ng) • Monk (Master of copyright and licensing  arcana and defender of the university brand) • Merchant (Deals with short‐ and long‐term  sustainability issues) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  96. CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  97. Educa3on Will Eventually Be Open And involve connec3ng, personalizing, and  crea3ng ‐ just like everything else does CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  98. Will Your University Be Open? Can your school find the  ins3tu3onal will to change? Or will you fight a 30 year war,  lose, and change anyway? CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  99. Ins3tu3onal Disaggrega3on MIT OpenCourseWare,  Western Governors University CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  100. Value of Integra3on? As compared to “specialized pieces loosely joined” CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  101. Not a Technology Problem Look around the Internet – not only do the  technologies we need exist, they’re open source CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  102. This Is a Policy Problem Higher educa3on is behaving like  the recording and movie industries CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  103. Policy To Defend Tradi3on Rather than innova3ng CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  104. You Must Engage in Policy Reform Ignoring the problem is not a strategy CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  105. “It is not necessary to change.  Survival is not mandatory.” W. E. Deming CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  106. Student Learning May Suffer The market will likely meet  students’ increasingly unmet needs CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  107. Your Employment Will Suffer When your ins3tu3on collapses as Googlers find bePer alterna3ves  CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  108. “The last tempta4on  is the greatest treason,  To do the right deed  for the wrong reason.” Archbishop Thomas BeckeP (T. S. Eliot) CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  109. Innovate for the Students To fulfill your sacred trust as a teacher CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009
  110. Thank You! david.wiley@byu.edu hPp://davidwiley.org/ CC BY Friday, June 12, 2009

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