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Openness: Arguments and Examples

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Openness: Arguments and Examples

  1. 1. Openness: Arguments and Examples David Wiley Instructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
  2. 2. Download These Slides http://slideshare.net/opencontent/
  3. 3. Why Be Open? 1. Education is Sharing (the technical argument) 2. Buy One, Get One (the political argument) 3. The Paradox of Free (the financial argument, part 1)
  4. 4. Why Be Open? 4. The $5 Textbook (the financial argument, part 2) 5. Facilitate the Unexpected (the serendipity argument) 6. Continuous Improvement (the quality argument)
  5. 5. Why Be Open? 7. Content / Credential is Infrastructure (the innovation argument) 8. Password as Bushel (the religious argument) 9. Do the Right Thing (the moral argument)
  6. 6. 1. Education Is Sharing the technical argument
  7. 7. Teachers Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
  8. 8. Students Share With Teachers Questions Assignments Tests
  9. 9. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
  10. 10. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
  11. 11. Knowledge is Magical Can be given without being given away
  12. 12. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
  13. 13. Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
  14. 14. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
  15. 15. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
  16. 16. Both Knowledge and Expressions Can be given without giving away
  17. 17. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
  18. 18. Unprecedented Capacity We can educate as never before
  19. 19. What Does “Share” Mean? Online it means copy and distribute
  20. 20. Cost of “Copy” For one 250 page book: • Copy by hand - $1,000 • Copy by print on demand - $4.50 • Copy by computer - $0.00084
  21. 21. Cost of “Distribute” For one 250 page book: • Distribute by mail - $5.20 • Distribute by internet - $0.00072
  22. 22. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything
  23. 23. Educational Sharing Also means adapting or editing
  24. 24. Sense-making, Meaning-making Connecting to prior knowledge Relating to past experience (In an appropriate language)
  25. 25. Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine is difficult and expensive
  26. 26. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can share as never before
  27. 27. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
  28. 28. Except We Can’t © forbids copying, distributing, and editing
  29. 29. © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
  30. 30. Internet Copyright Enables Forbids What to do?
  31. 31. Use copyright to enforce sharing
  32. 32. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatim Redistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
  33. 33. Over 400 Million Items Using CC licenses at end of 2010
  34. 34. The “Open” in OER Free permission to do the 4Rs
  35. 35. Internet OER Enables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
  36. 36. 2. Buy One, Get One the political argument
  37. 37. “Buy One, Get One” Pizza in Ohio
  38. 38. Who Pays for Research? Understanding relative contributions
  39. 39. Public Investment in Research $105,385 to $119,913 per article (U.S. NIH-funded research)
  40. 40. Publisher Investment in Research $2750 per article, including administrative and all other costs
  41. 41. Does This Make Sense? Publishers make 2% of the investment, then take © and charge you for access
  42. 42. Public (Who Paid) Has No Access I thought I bought a pizza?!?
  43. 43. If You Buy One, You Should Get One All taxpayer-funded educational resources should be OER
  44. 44. U. S. Department of Labor $2 Billion for curriculum for high-demand two year programs
  45. 45. 3. The Paradox of Free the financial argument
  46. 46. Do OER Hurt Sales? Won’t people stop paying for the course materials or books if they’re free?
  47. 47. Publications • Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Free E-Books and Print Sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing. • Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (in press). Open access textbooks and financial sustainability: A case study on flat world knowledge. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. • Johansen, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for opencourseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development. • Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). A sustainable future for open textbooks? The Flat World Knowledge story. First Monday, 15(8). • Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). Free: Why authors are giving books away on the Internet. Tech Trends, 54(2). • Hilton, J., Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1) http://davidwiley.org/
  48. 48. Findings • Over 2% of people who access open online courses become paying customers • Downloads of free online books correlate strongly with sales of print books • A for-profit business can be financially successful using CC licenses on its textbooks
  49. 49. 4. The $5 Textbook the financial argument, part 2
  50. 50. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book 300,000 students have saved $39M+
  51. 51. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book 300,000 students have saved $39M+
  52. 52. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
  53. 53. “How would you rate the quality of the texts used for this course?” Answer Response % WORSE than… 4 3% About the SAME AS… 67 56% BETTER than… 49 41%
  54. 54. “How do you feel about the online format of the texts used…?” Answer Response % I like it MORE than … 65 52% I have no preference 38 31% I like it LESS than… 21 17%
  55. 55. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…” Answer Response % I would enroll in the section with 17 13% TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTS I would enroll in the section with 93 74% TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED IN THIS COURSE I would have no preference 16 13%
  56. 56. High School Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
  57. 57. High Schools Pay $5 instead of $80 per book
  58. 58. 1200 Students in 2010-2011 2700 students in 2011-2012
  59. 59. Impact on Learning? No difference
  60. 60. Pedagogy and OER Highlighting, annotating, taking notes
  61. 61. Impact on Learning? With PD we will move the outcomes needle
  62. 62. Statewide Secondary in 2012 Over 275,000 students
  63. 63. Back of the Envelope Cost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $61,875,000 Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $28,875,000 Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $33,000,000 Potential Savings Per Year $4,714,286
  64. 64. 5. Facilitate the Unexpected Some examples… on a budget
  65. 65. Character Classes • Bard - Master of the lore, history, and politics of the field, know what's “out there” • Artisan - Has materials production skills in all the necessary Web 1.0 and 2.0 tools like HTML, video sharing, podcasting • Monk Master of copyright and licensing arcana and defender of the university brand • Merchant Deals with short- and long-term sustainability issues
  66. 66. http://openeducation.us/
  67. 67. 6. Continuous Improvement the quality argument
  68. 68. Learning Analytics Can tell us who and what needs help
  69. 69. It’s Useless Knowing what needs fixed, when you don’t have permission to fix it
  70. 70. Openness Gives us permission to make changes and improvements
  71. 71. It’s Useless Having permission to fix things, when you don’t know where to start
  72. 72. Openness + Analytics Tells you what to fix and allows you to fix it! Enables Continuous Quality Improvement
  73. 73. 7. Content / Credential is Infrastructure the innovation argument
  74. 74. What is Infrastructure? Electric grid, telecom, roads, airports, water, sewer, etc.
  75. 75. What is Infrastructure? “The physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance” societies or enterprises.
  76. 76. To Speed Innovation Increase quality and decrease cost of infrastructure
  77. 77. Content is Critical An important part of every educational institution’s infrastructure
  78. 78. To Speed Education Innovation Increase quality and decrease cost of content infrastructure
  79. 79. University of the People
  80. 80. OER University
  81. 81. Informal Learning Open, standards-based way to issue, manage, and display credentials for ANY learning
  82. 82. Transcript 2.0 Fixes many problems with current transcripts
  83. 83. OBI = Credential Infrastructure Platform for education innovation
  84. 84. Open Education Infrastructure Democratizes innovation opportunities
  85. 85. OER Badges Issue Manage Learn Display Anything Credentials
  86. 86. OER Badges Issue Manage Learn Display Anything Credentials
  87. 87. Mind the Gap! HUGE demand over the next 10 years Entrepreneurs are on their way
  88. 88. 8. Password as Bushel the religious argument
  89. 89. Matthew 5 15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. 16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
  90. 90. 9. Do the Right Thing the moral argument
  91. 91. Consider Our Responsibility What kind of ethical or moral responsibility do we have? Who are you accountable to?
  92. 92. Our Potential Is Limitless The good we can do is constrained only by our creativity and commitment
  93. 93. Thank You david.wiley@byu.edu http://davidwiley.org/

Editor's Notes

  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • CC licensedphoto http://www.flickr.com/photos/62693815@N03/6277209256/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/joelogon/2453478462/
  • Gass, 2005 Druss and Marcus 2005
  • Wellcome Trust, 2003
  • Selection of winners in the DML Competition. These logos are obviously not licensed under a Creative Commons license.
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