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Open Textbook Training in Arizona

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Open Textbook Training in Arizona

  1. 1. Open Textbooks David WileyInstructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
  2. 2. What Does “Open” Mean? Why should we care? How will it benefit our students?
  3. 3. 1. Education Is Sharing the core argument
  4. 4. Teachers Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
  5. 5. Students Share With Teachers Questions Assignments Tests
  6. 6. If There Is No Sharing There is no education
  7. 7. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
  8. 8. Knowledge is MagicalCan be given without being given away
  9. 9. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
  10. 10. Expressions Are DifferentTo give a book you must give it away
  11. 11. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
  12. 12. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
  13. 13. Both Knowledge and Expressions Can be given without giving away
  14. 14. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
  15. 15. Unprecedented CapacityWe can educate as never before
  16. 16. What Does “Share” Mean?Online it means copy and distribute
  17. 17. Cost of “Copy”For one 250 page book:• Copy by hand - $1,000• Copy by print on demand - $4.50• Copy by computer - $0.00084
  18. 18. Cost of “Distribute”For one 250 page book:• Distribute by mail - $5.20• Distribute by internet - $0.00072
  19. 19. Copy and Distribute are “Free” This changes everything
  20. 20. Educational SharingAlso means adapting or editing
  21. 21. Sense-making, Meaning-making Connecting to prior knowledge Relating to past experience (In an appropriate language)
  22. 22. Digital Makes Editing “Free” Editing a printed book or magazine is difficult and expensive
  23. 23. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can share as never before
  24. 24. Free Copy, Distribute, Edit We can educate as never before
  25. 25. Except We Can’t© forbids copying, distributing, and editing
  26. 26. © Cancels the Possibilities Of digital media and the internet
  27. 27. Internet CopyrightEnables Forbids What to do?
  28. 28. Use copyright to enforce sharing
  29. 29. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and edit Remix – combine with others
  30. 30. Over 400 Million ItemsUsing CC licenses at end of 2010
  31. 31. The “Open” in OERFree permission to do the 4Rs
  32. 32. Internet OEREnables Allows Sharing and educating at unprecedented scale
  33. 33. 2. The $5 Textbook the financial argument
  34. 34. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
  35. 35. Postsecondary Students Pay $35 instead of $150 per book300,000 students have saved $39M+
  36. 36. Project Kaleidoscope (NGLC) Preliminary research results
  37. 37. “How would you rate the qualityof the texts used for this course?”Answer Response %WORSE than… 4 3%About the SAME AS… 67 56%BETTER than… 49 41%
  38. 38. “Imagine a future course you are required to take. If two different sections were offered…”Answer Response %I would enroll in the section with 17 13%TRADITIONAL PUBLISHED TEXTSI would enroll in the section with 93 74%TEXTS LIKE THOSE OFFERED INTHIS COURSEI would have no preference 16 13%
  39. 39. Utah HS Science Classes Teachers adapted CK12 books for print or digital use
  40. 40. http://opencontent.org/calculator
  41. 41. High SchoolsPay $5 instead of $80 per book
  42. 42. 2700 Students in 2011-2012 1200 students in 2010-2011
  43. 43. Statewide Secondary in 2012Math 9, Science 9-12, Language Arts 6-12 Potentially 275,000+ students
  44. 44. Back of the EnvelopeCost of Traditional Books Over Cycle $65,000,000Cost of Open Books Over Cycle $25,000,000Potential Savings Over Entire Cycle $40,000,000Potential Savings Per Year $5,500,000
  45. 45. Impact on Learning?Simple substitution makes no difference
  46. 46. Impact on Learning? With PD we willmove the outcomes needle
  47. 47. Pedagogy and OERHighlighting, annotating, taking notes
  48. 48. Text Marking Strategies Adapted fromhttp://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/609.htm
  49. 49. Any text marking strategy / systemmust make sense to the person using it.
  50. 50. 1. Read first then underline orhighlight selectively.• Read a passage through• Go back and underline/highlight words or phrases that best summarize passage• Limit amount of underlining/highlighting• Requires conscious evaluation – What is most valuable? – What is not as valuable?
  51. 51. 2. Box transitions and numberimportant ideas.• Transitions: – First,…Second,…Third, – Next, – Finally, – For example,• Number lists of information imbedded in text – Transition words are good indicators
  52. 52. 3. Circle specialized vocabulary.• Look up definitions.• Write brief meanings in margins.
  53. 53. 4. Jot down main ideas inthe margin.• “What was most of that passage about?”• Summarize concisely (5-10 words)• Especially useful for short, dense passages
  54. 54. 5. Label examples anddefinitions.• Identify main idea being exemplified• Note in-text definitions
  55. 55. 6. Write own ideas in [squarebrackets].• Connections to other passages, class discussions, or assignments• Use top or bottom of page• Requires active reading and critical thinking• Will make study more interesting and useful
  56. 56. 7. Write questions as you read.• Questions help you think, relate to new material, and wonder about implications and applications• Active questioning can improve learning and retention
  57. 57. 8. Summarize larger sectionsand chapters.• Summarize AFTER reading – Don’t read and write at the same time• Use brief phrases• Use whitespace• “What was this section (or chapter) about?”• Use own words, not quotes from the text Use whitespace to summarize sections or chapters in my own words.
  58. 58. 9. Map sections or chapters.• Visual diagram showing relationships between concepts – Isolate and organize main ideas• Use in addition to OR in place of summaries Sections Map Chapters
  59. 59. 10. Check-mark importantopinions. ✔✔• Isolate opinions of the author from factual statements• Evaluate importance of opinions• Use multiple check-marks for more important opinions

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