Open Education: A "Simple" Introduction

4,149 views

Published on

Slides supporting a pre-meeting workshop for the OpenEd Leadership Summit, introducing people to OER for the first time.

Published in: Education

Open Education: A "Simple" Introduction

  1. 1. Open Ed: A “Simple” Introduction David Wiley, PhD CAO, Lumen Learning Education Fellow, Creative Commons
  2. 2. #openls
  3. 3. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  4. 4. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  5. 5. Education is Sharing Faculty with students Students with teachers
  6. 6. Faculty Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
  7. 7. Students Share With Faculty Questions in Class Assignments Exams
  8. 8. Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
  9. 9. 2008 Professor in Southern US Claimed (c) of his class lectures, declared student notes derivative works, and asserted control over their use
  10. 10. “Demented with the mania of owning things” Walt Whitman
  11. 11. If there is no sharing… ...there is no education.
  12. 12. Interlude: A Riddle What can you give without giving it away?
  13. 13. Ideas are Magical (Non-rival) Can be given without being given away
  14. 14. “He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me.” Thomas Jefferson
  15. 15. Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
  16. 16. Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
  17. 17. When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
  18. 18. Unprecedented Capacity We can share (and educate) as never before
  19. 19. Except We Can’t © regulates copying, adapting, and distributing those copies
  20. 20. Internet Enables What to do? Copyright Forbids
  21. 21. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  22. 22. Incredible Financial Pressure Incredible Financial Pressure
  23. 23. Tuition Changes... Involve the State Legislature, the State Board of Regents
  24. 24. Tuition Changes... Involve the State Legislature, the State Board of Regents Extremely complex politically
  25. 25. $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Tuition Textbooks Annual Costs $1288 $1666
  26. 26. Textbook Pricing in Context Provider Cost Netflix – 20,000 Movies (and TV) $7.99 / month Hulu Plus – 45,000 TV (and Movies) $7.99 / month Spotify – 15M Songs $9.99 / month CourseSmart – 1 Biology Textbook $20.25 / month
  27. 27. A Wizard of Earthsea Studying from texts written in disappearing ink
  28. 28. “Disappearing Ink” Strategies Buyback Rental E-books Online subscriptions
  29. 29. Mixed Messages... “This GE course is critically important” “You’ll never need this book again”
  30. 30. The Access Compromise Students trade ownership for access As digital grows, this provides publishers with perfect control
  31. 31. 60% Sometimes 23% Regularly skip
  32. 32. Textbook Changes... Involve individual faculty, sometimes a department
  33. 33. Textbook Changes... Involve individual faculty, sometimes a department Relatively straightforward
  34. 34. Internet Enables What to do? Copyright Forbids Insane or Immoral Textbook Costs plus
  35. 35. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  36. 36. Use copyright to enable sharing
  37. 37. http://creativecommons.org/
  38. 38. Open Educational Resources
  39. 39. What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? Any kind of teaching materials – textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, videos, readings, exams
  40. 40. What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? (1) Are free for anyone to access, and (2) Include free copyright permission to engage in the 5R activities
  41. 41. • Make and own copiesRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  42. 42. Internet Enables OER Allows Leveraging the full technical capability of the internet
  43. 43. Over 500M OER in the World Over half a billion pieces of content use Creative Commons licenses
  44. 44. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  45. 45. “You may not take any Online Course offered by Coursera or use any Statement of Accomplishment as part of any tuition-based or for- credit certification or program for any college, university, or other academic institution without the express written permission from Coursera.”
  46. 46. Open Educational Resources Open Course Ware Open Courses Open Textbooks Open Course Frame- works
  47. 47. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  48. 48. Two Stories
  49. 49. Developmental Math From textbook and MyMathLab ($170) To OER and MyOpenMath ($0 / $3)
  50. 50. % Completing with C or Better 48.4% 60.2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER
  51. 51. “Golden Ratio” 48% / $170 = 0.28% succeeding per dollar 60% / $3 = 20% succeeding per dollar
  52. 52. Associates of Business “Z Degree” Graduate without ever buying a textbook World’s first “all-OER” degree
  53. 53. % Dropping in Fall 2013 8.2% 2.3% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% Traditional Sections Z Degree Sections
  54. 54. When a student drops, it.. Slows down their graduation Costs the institution tuition dollars
  55. 55. Utah 7-12
  56. 56. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Treatment and Control Group • Pre and Post Test • Dependent variable: Score on 2012 statewide standardized science exam • Independent variable: Textbook condition • 15 Covariates: including age, gender, special education, English language proficiency, 2011 test data, 2011 GPA, and race
  57. 57. Propensity Score Matching Increased group balance by 98%
  58. 58. Results • IRT scaled scores increased with open textbooks, p < .001 • Multiple r squared = .635 (variance in scores accounted for in our model)
  59. 59. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  60. 60. The World is Changing How are our institutions responding?
  61. 61. Analog  Digital Music, Phones, TV, Newspapers, Movies, Journals, &c.
  62. 62. Tethered  Mobile Phones, Internet Access, Employment
  63. 63. Concealing  Sharing Photos, Videos, Journal Entries
  64. 64. Isolated  Connected People, Content, Systems
  65. 65. Generic  Personal Cars, Computers, Mobile Phones
  66. 66. Consuming  Creating Newspapers / Blogs Movies & TV / YouTube
  67. 67. Closed  Open Research (Articles, Journals) Data (Government, Weather, GIS) Content (Open Educational Resources)
  68. 68. Then vs Now Analog  Digital Tethered  Mobile Concealing  Sharing Isolated  Connected Generic  Personal Consuming  Creating Closed  Open
  69. 69. Education vs Everyday Analog  Digital Tethered  Mobile Concealing  Sharing Isolated  Connected Generic  Personal Consuming  Creating Closed  Open
  70. 70. “Daily Divide” (As opposed to the digital divide)
  71. 71. “Academic” (This is where the common usage derives)
  72. 72. “Academic” (This is where the common usage derives)
  73. 73. What About Online Learning?
  74. 74. What About Online Learning? Very innovative in 1993!
  75. 75. Online Learning Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  76. 76. What About MOOCs?
  77. 77. MOOCs Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing(?) Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  78. 78. Open is Fundamental Why?
  79. 79. • Make and own copiesRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  80. 80. Online Learning/MOOCs Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  81. 81. Connecting It’s “hard” to connect to something if you don't have access to it
  82. 82. Personalizing It’s “hard” to personalize something if you don't have permission to modify it
  83. 83. Creating and Sharing It’s “hard” to make and share things when you’re constantly worried about being sued
  84. 84. When You Can Assume “Open” These problems disappear
  85. 85. OER-based Learning Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  86. 86. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  87. 87. “Disposable Assignments” Students hate doing them You hate grading them Huge waste of time and energy
  88. 88. Assignments that Contribute Students see value in doing them You see value in grading them Contribute to the greater good
  89. 89. Open Pedagogy What can we do differently when all content is open?
  90. 90. What’s Effective? Hattie’s “Visible Learning”
  91. 91. Scope of the Research Over 800 meta-analyses Over 50,000 studies Over 80,000,000 learners
  92. 92. Effect Size Measure of magnitude of impact Independent of sample size Popular for meta-analyses
  93. 93. Organizing and Transforming (0.85) “Overt or covert rearrangement of instructional materials to improve learning. (e.g., making an outline before writing a paper).... The types of strategies included in this category (such as summarizing and paraphrasing) promote a more active approach to learning tasks.” Pp. 190-191
  94. 94. Reciprocal Teaching (0.74) “The emphasis is on teachers enabling their students to learn and use cognitive strategies such as summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting.... The effects were highest when there was explicit teaching of cognitive strategies before beginning reciprocal teaching.” P. 204
  95. 95. Feedback (0.73) “The major discriminator is whether feedback is clearly directed to the various levels of task, process, or regulation, and not directed to the level of ‘self.’”
  96. 96. Teacher Student Relationships (0.72) “Developing relationships requires skills by the teacher – such as the skills of listening, empathy, caring, and having positive regard for others.... Teachers should learn to facilitate students’ development by demonstrating that they care for the learning of each student as a person and empathizing with students.” Pp. 118-119
  97. 97. Worked Examples (0.57) “Worked examples reduce the cognitive load for students such that they concentrate on the processes that lead to the correct answer and not just providing an answer.” P. 172
  98. 98. Formative Evaluation of Teaching (.9) “When teachers were required to use data and evidence-based models, effect sizes were higher than when data were evaluated by teacher judgment. In addition, when the data was graft, effect sizes were higher than when data were simply recorded.” P. 181
  99. 99. 1. OER as Worked Example Help students understand the design of the OER you’ve assigned
  100. 100. 2. Remix OER Assign students to organize and transform OER to more teach effectively
  101. 101. 3. Provide Feedback on Remixes Offer multiple types of feedback on student remixes and require revisions
  102. 102. 4. Reciprocal Teaching Have students teach each other using their remixes
  103. 103. 5. Continuous Improvement At end of term, engage in data-based formative evaluation of the course. Incorporate student work in new version as appropriate.
  104. 104. Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  105. 105. Each and Every Interaction Recorded, stored, and analyzed in order to get better
  106. 106. If Only We Could Get Data! We could do analyses (aka research) too!
  107. 107. Canvas
  108. 108. Even the Grocer! Almost every industry (1) gathers and (2) uses data more effectively than we do
  109. 109. What Kind of Data? Assessment data Construct-relevant behavioral data
  110. 110. Assessment Data Difficulty estimates Discrimination estimates Per standard expertise estimates (Not just “grades”)
  111. 111. Behavioral Data When they logged in, read, and worked How long they logged in, read, and worked Pathway information Social network analysis &c.
  112. 112. Analytics Tell you what to change But don’t give you permission to make changes
  113. 113. OER Give you permission to make changes But don’t tell you what to change
  114. 114. OER + Analytics Continuous improvement
  115. 115. Instructional Design & Learning Sciences Tell you how to change it
  116. 116. Faculty Feedback “I wish I had this for every class I teach, for every module! The feedback and recommendations are positive, specific and are changes that I can implement quickly with minimal effort on my part.”
  117. 117. Coda
  118. 118. OER can dramatically improve a range of educational outcomes OER can drastically reduce the cost of education
  119. 119. We’re not “on the edge” of this capability. We’re doing it now.
  120. 120. More Discussion #openls @opencontent david@lumenlearning.com

×