Openness and Analytics: The Future of Learning Objects<br />David Wiley, PhD<br />Instructional Psychology & Technology<br...
“Curricular units can be made smaller and combined, like standardized Meccano parts, into a great variety ofparticular pro...
Wayne Hodgins(1994)<br />“Learning Objects”<br />
“Learning objects are like Legos”<br />Wayne Hodgins<br />
The Big Question<br />We must all ask ourselves…<br />
Why???<br />
They’re cool!To help students learn better!To save money!That’s what funders want!<br />
The Answer<br />Changes our work significantly<br />
My Own Answer<br />Let me tell you a few stories…<br />
Once upon a time (1996)<br />
There was a JS calculator<br />
Something Had Changed<br />Something deeply important…<br />
Expertise Is Nonrivalrous<br />Can be given without being given away<br />
“He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine re...
External Expressions Aren’t<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
Digital Expressions Are Magical<br />They are nonrivalrous expressions<br />
E.g., Online Book<br />We can all read simultaneously<br />
An Indescribable Advance<br />The first time in human history<br />
Expertise and Its Expressions<br />Give without giving away<br />
Unprecedented Capacity<br />The Two Paths<br />
The First Path<br />Create once, then<br />sell infinite perfect copies at $0 cost!<br />
The Second Path<br />Create once, then<br />give away infinite perfect copies at $0 cost!<br />
My Initial Interest Was Financial<br />Learning objects could give us <br />Increased affordability and access<br />
40  / 15 years<br />Several years have passed,and where are we?<br />
Approx 300 journal articles<br />Literature review<br />http://www.citeulike.org/user/opencontent<br />
Conclusion?<br />This research is a mess<br />
Computer Science “Invasion”Educator “Evacuation”<br />
Technical Standards SoupIMS, SCORM, IEEE, LOM, DC, ARIADNE, Etc.<br />
Ontology Proliferation<br />Multiple definitions and approaches to design and function<br />
“If only everyone would do itmyway...”<br />Has a certain arrogance<br />
What if, instead…<br />We asked what everyone does?<br />
Repositories<br />Google<br />
IEEE LOM<br />Tagging<br />
OAI-PMH<br />RSS / Atom<br />
IMS-CP / SCORM<br />HTML / Zip / etc.<br />
Ontologies<br />Folksonomies<br />
LMSs<br />Wikis / Blogs / Social Networks<br />
Learning Objects<br />Resources<br />
What’s different?<br />
Complex<br />Simple<br />
Little use<br />Massive use<br />
“Simple Wins”<br />
We can spend our energy<br />
Trying to change behavior<br />
Trying to leverage behavior<br />
The Terrible Questions<br />With apologies<br />
What is a learning object?<br />
“Any digital resource that can be reused to facilitate learning” Wiley (2000)<br />
Four components<br />
“Resource”<br />
“Digital”<br />
“Learning”<br />
“Reuse”<br />
Lots of (1) digital (2) resources for (3) learning<br />
Very little (4) reuse<br />
Why is reuse so hard?<br />
Two reasons<br />
First<br />
Context suggests meaning<br />
What is context?<br />
Things next to each other<br />In space or time<br />
http://www.quest-online.com/NewFiles/images/barak-obama.jpg<br />
http://www.sonofthesouth.net/slavery/abraham-lincoln/pictures/abraham-lincoln-625.jpg<br />
http://www.britannica.com/blogs/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/bin-laden.jpg<br />
http://digitalheadbutt.files.wordpress.com/2006/11/michael-jordan.jpg<br />http://hunternuttall.com/blog/wp-content/upload...
More things together=More complex meaning<br />
More complex meanings=More “fit” problems<br />
What big should a learning object be?<br />
What does “size” mean?<br />
Size<br />Amount of context inside the learning object<br />
The Reusability Paradox<br />
Teaches<br />Effectively<br />Easy to Reuse<br />
Big Learning Objects<br /><ul><li> Teach well
 Hard to reuse (don’t “fit”)
 SO…
 No one reuses them</li></li></ul><li>Small Learning Objects<br /><ul><li> Easy to reuse (fit anywhere!)
 Don’t teach well
So…
 No one reuses them</li></li></ul><li>Second<br />
Scope and Sequence<br />Instructional Design<br />
Flickr / net_efekt<br />
What if you had this…<br />
But needed this?<br />
Or this?<br />
Just Adapt It, Right?<br />
Complete (c) Assumed <br />Ambient, Ubiquitous Copyright<br />
Reuse => Exactly As is<br />When does “as is” suffice?<br />
Not Very Often<br />We always want to tinker<br />
Adaptability is Critical<br />But missing from our normal conception of learning objects<br />
Copyright Permissions Are…<br />Too hard to get<br />Too expensive to get<br />
So We Give Up<br />Either we choose a different LO, orwe break the law, orwe do a poor job<br />
Reuse is hard because:(1) context, reusability paradox(2) copyright issues<br />
What do we do?<br />
Learning Objects + Open Source LicenseOpen Educational Resources<br />
What is an Open License?<br />
Grants4 Rs Permissions<br />Reuse  -  verbatim copies<br />Redistribute  -  share copies <br />Revise  -  make adaptations...
Creative Commons<br />
Redistributable<br />Remixable<br />4Rs<br />Revisable<br />Reusable<br />Reusable<br />Accessible<br />Accessible<br />RA...
OER = Learning Objects 2.0<br />
OER<br /><ul><li> “Big” objects that teach well
 Legal to revise / adapt
So…
 We can reuse them</li></li></ul><li>OER Changes Assumptions<br />For example, we can keep OER organized in courses (in co...
(Not context-free repositories)<br />
Is “Open” Financial?<br />Some thoughts about OER and improving learning<br />
Legally Open vs Technically Open<br />Can OER be adpated?<br />
ALMS Analysis Framework<br />Access to editing tools?Level of expertise required?Meaningfully editable?Self-sourced?<br />
Access to Editing Tools?Are editing tools practically available (platform / cost?)<br />
Access to Editing Tools?Example: html filesNon: MS OneNote files<br />
Level of Expertise?Can a file be adapted withlittle / no training?<br />
Level of Expertise?Example: Word or odt filesNon: 3d models, flash quizzes<br />
Meaningfully Editable?Can the content of the file even be changed?<br />
Meaningfully Editable?Example: Word or html fileNon: Scanned pdf of notes<br />
Self-Sourced?Is the file preferred for editing also the file preferred for using?<br />
Self-Sourced?Example: html fileNon: Flash fla / swf files<br />
Open... but not<br />
Less Expensive- Reuse  -  verbatim- Redistribute  -  share- Revise  -  derivatives- Remix  -  combinations<br />
More Expensive- Reuse  -  verbatim- Redistribute  -  share- Revise  -  derivatives- Remix  -  combinations<br />
How Can Open Improve Learning?<br />An example<br />
http://openhighschool.org/<br />
Bloom’s 2 Sigma Challenge<br />Bloom, 1984<br />
One-to-One Tutoring<br />And other methods compared to 30 students in the classroom<br />
Average Tutored Student by 2 SD<br />In other words, the average student is capable of much more<br />
Tutoring is Expensive<br />So we teach class instead!<br />
If the research on the 2 sigma problem yields practiced methods (methods that the average teacheror school faculty can lea...
To Tutor Or Not to Tutor?<br />That is the (false) question<br />
“Strategic Tutoring”<br />What if we could do one-on-one tutoring just-in-time and just-on-topic?<br />
Requires Great Insight<br />We’d have to know who needs help, when, and what they need help with<br />
Data Are the Key<br />You’d need live, fine-grained data about students, assessment, and curriculum<br />
Good Data Are Expensive!<br />Who gathers and analyzes data like this?<br />
Each and Every Interaction<br />Recorded and stored for analysisto improve quality of service / experience<br />
Even the Grocer!<br />Almost every industry uses data more effectively than education<br />
How Can We Get the Data?<br />One option is to follow Google, Amazon, Netflix, WoW, etc.<br />
Do School Online<br />Where each and every interaction can be captured and stored for analysis<br />
What Kind of Data?<br />When they logged in, read, and worked<br />How long they logged in, read, and worked<br />Pathway ...
OHSU Teaching Model<br />OER teach as much as possible,teachers do proactive “strategic tutoring”<br />
Another Benefit of Data<br />Engage in continuous improvement of curriculum materials<br />
Can You Improve Curriculum?<br />Data aren’t sufficient – you need permission<br />
OHSU Charter Requires OER<br />Founders’ way of “burning the ships”<br />
Conjoint Continuous Improvement<br />Student learning and curriculum effectiveness<br />grow simultaneously<br />
FeedbackLoop<br />Curriculum Redesign<br />Data Describing Curriculum Performance<br />Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring<...
Visualizing Educational Data<br />Creating new visualization techniques to support teaching and learning<br />
Some Conclusions<br />Finally!<br />
Difficulties with Learning Objects<br />LOs have yet to fulfill their potential, because of copyright and technical proble...
Open Licenses Solve Problems<br />When “reuse” can also mean “revise” and “remix,” LOs can more fully realize their potent...
OER = Learning Objects 2.0<br />When “reuse” can also mean “revise” and “remix,” LOs can realize their potential<br />
OER => Google Searchability<br />Google, Bing, and others support specialized OER search<br />
OER = Lower Cost<br />Freely available<br />
OER => Increased Learning<br />Continuous quality improvement<br />
Thank You<br />david.wiley@byu.edu<br />http://davidwiley.org/<br />http://slideshare.net/opencontent/<br />
Utah Open Textbooks Project<br />Replacing expensive textbooks with remixed OER textbooks from CK12.org<br />Funded by the...
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LACLO 2010 - Openness and Analytics: The Future of Learning Objects

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Keynote address delivered September, 2010, to the LACLO 2010 conference in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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  • LACLO 2010 - Openness and Analytics: The Future of Learning Objects

    1. 1. Openness and Analytics: The Future of Learning Objects<br />David Wiley, PhD<br />Instructional Psychology & Technology<br />Brigham Young University<br />
    2. 2. “Curricular units can be made smaller and combined, like standardized Meccano parts, into a great variety ofparticular programscustom-made foreach learner.”Gerard (1969)<br />
    3. 3. Wayne Hodgins(1994)<br />“Learning Objects”<br />
    4. 4. “Learning objects are like Legos”<br />Wayne Hodgins<br />
    5. 5. The Big Question<br />We must all ask ourselves…<br />
    6. 6. Why???<br />
    7. 7. They’re cool!To help students learn better!To save money!That’s what funders want!<br />
    8. 8. The Answer<br />Changes our work significantly<br />
    9. 9. My Own Answer<br />Let me tell you a few stories…<br />
    10. 10. Once upon a time (1996)<br />
    11. 11. There was a JS calculator<br />
    12. 12.
    13. 13. Something Had Changed<br />Something deeply important…<br />
    14. 14. Expertise Is Nonrivalrous<br />Can be given without being given away<br />
    15. 15. “He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me.”<br />Thomas Jefferson<br />
    16. 16. External Expressions Aren’t<br />To give a book you must give it away<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Digital Expressions Are Magical<br />They are nonrivalrous expressions<br />
    20. 20. E.g., Online Book<br />We can all read simultaneously<br />
    21. 21. An Indescribable Advance<br />The first time in human history<br />
    22. 22. Expertise and Its Expressions<br />Give without giving away<br />
    23. 23. Unprecedented Capacity<br />The Two Paths<br />
    24. 24. The First Path<br />Create once, then<br />sell infinite perfect copies at $0 cost!<br />
    25. 25. The Second Path<br />Create once, then<br />give away infinite perfect copies at $0 cost!<br />
    26. 26. My Initial Interest Was Financial<br />Learning objects could give us <br />Increased affordability and access<br />
    27. 27. 40 / 15 years<br />Several years have passed,and where are we?<br />
    28. 28. Approx 300 journal articles<br />Literature review<br />http://www.citeulike.org/user/opencontent<br />
    29. 29. Conclusion?<br />This research is a mess<br />
    30. 30. Computer Science “Invasion”Educator “Evacuation”<br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32. Technical Standards SoupIMS, SCORM, IEEE, LOM, DC, ARIADNE, Etc.<br />
    33. 33. Ontology Proliferation<br />Multiple definitions and approaches to design and function<br />
    34. 34. “If only everyone would do itmyway...”<br />Has a certain arrogance<br />
    35. 35. What if, instead…<br />We asked what everyone does?<br />
    36. 36. Repositories<br />Google<br />
    37. 37. IEEE LOM<br />Tagging<br />
    38. 38. OAI-PMH<br />RSS / Atom<br />
    39. 39. IMS-CP / SCORM<br />HTML / Zip / etc.<br />
    40. 40. Ontologies<br />Folksonomies<br />
    41. 41. LMSs<br />Wikis / Blogs / Social Networks<br />
    42. 42. Learning Objects<br />Resources<br />
    43. 43. What’s different?<br />
    44. 44. Complex<br />Simple<br />
    45. 45. Little use<br />Massive use<br />
    46. 46. “Simple Wins”<br />
    47. 47.
    48. 48.
    49. 49.
    50. 50.
    51. 51. We can spend our energy<br />
    52. 52. Trying to change behavior<br />
    53. 53. Trying to leverage behavior<br />
    54. 54. The Terrible Questions<br />With apologies<br />
    55. 55. What is a learning object?<br />
    56. 56. “Any digital resource that can be reused to facilitate learning” Wiley (2000)<br />
    57. 57. Four components<br />
    58. 58. “Resource”<br />
    59. 59. “Digital”<br />
    60. 60. “Learning”<br />
    61. 61. “Reuse”<br />
    62. 62. Lots of (1) digital (2) resources for (3) learning<br />
    63. 63. Very little (4) reuse<br />
    64. 64. Why is reuse so hard?<br />
    65. 65. Two reasons<br />
    66. 66. First<br />
    67. 67. Context suggests meaning<br />
    68. 68. What is context?<br />
    69. 69. Things next to each other<br />In space or time<br />
    70. 70. http://www.quest-online.com/NewFiles/images/barak-obama.jpg<br />
    71. 71. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/slavery/abraham-lincoln/pictures/abraham-lincoln-625.jpg<br />
    72. 72. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/bin-laden.jpg<br />
    73. 73. http://digitalheadbutt.files.wordpress.com/2006/11/michael-jordan.jpg<br />http://hunternuttall.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/tiger-woods.jpg<br />
    74. 74. More things together=More complex meaning<br />
    75. 75. More complex meanings=More “fit” problems<br />
    76. 76.
    77. 77.
    78. 78. What big should a learning object be?<br />
    79. 79. What does “size” mean?<br />
    80. 80. Size<br />Amount of context inside the learning object<br />
    81. 81. The Reusability Paradox<br />
    82. 82. Teaches<br />Effectively<br />Easy to Reuse<br />
    83. 83. Big Learning Objects<br /><ul><li> Teach well
    84. 84. Hard to reuse (don’t “fit”)
    85. 85. SO…
    86. 86. No one reuses them</li></li></ul><li>Small Learning Objects<br /><ul><li> Easy to reuse (fit anywhere!)
    87. 87. Don’t teach well
    88. 88. So…
    89. 89. No one reuses them</li></li></ul><li>Second<br />
    90. 90. Scope and Sequence<br />Instructional Design<br />
    91. 91.
    92. 92. Flickr / net_efekt<br />
    93. 93. What if you had this…<br />
    94. 94.
    95. 95. But needed this?<br />
    96. 96.
    97. 97. Or this?<br />
    98. 98.
    99. 99. Just Adapt It, Right?<br />
    100. 100.
    101. 101. Complete (c) Assumed <br />Ambient, Ubiquitous Copyright<br />
    102. 102. Reuse => Exactly As is<br />When does “as is” suffice?<br />
    103. 103. Not Very Often<br />We always want to tinker<br />
    104. 104. Adaptability is Critical<br />But missing from our normal conception of learning objects<br />
    105. 105. Copyright Permissions Are…<br />Too hard to get<br />Too expensive to get<br />
    106. 106. So We Give Up<br />Either we choose a different LO, orwe break the law, orwe do a poor job<br />
    107. 107. Reuse is hard because:(1) context, reusability paradox(2) copyright issues<br />
    108. 108. What do we do?<br />
    109. 109. Learning Objects + Open Source LicenseOpen Educational Resources<br />
    110. 110. What is an Open License?<br />
    111. 111. Grants4 Rs Permissions<br />Reuse - verbatim copies<br />Redistribute - share copies <br />Revise - make adaptations<br />Remix - combinations / mashups<br />
    112. 112. Creative Commons<br />
    113. 113. Redistributable<br />Remixable<br />4Rs<br />Revisable<br />Reusable<br />Reusable<br />Accessible<br />Accessible<br />RAID<br />RAID<br />Interoperable<br />Interoperable<br />Durable<br />Durable<br />LO<br />OER<br />
    114. 114. OER = Learning Objects 2.0<br />
    115. 115. OER<br /><ul><li> “Big” objects that teach well
    116. 116. Legal to revise / adapt
    117. 117. So…
    118. 118. We can reuse them</li></li></ul><li>OER Changes Assumptions<br />For example, we can keep OER organized in courses (in context)<br />
    119. 119. (Not context-free repositories)<br />
    120. 120.
    121. 121. Is “Open” Financial?<br />Some thoughts about OER and improving learning<br />
    122. 122. Legally Open vs Technically Open<br />Can OER be adpated?<br />
    123. 123. ALMS Analysis Framework<br />Access to editing tools?Level of expertise required?Meaningfully editable?Self-sourced?<br />
    124. 124. Access to Editing Tools?Are editing tools practically available (platform / cost?)<br />
    125. 125. Access to Editing Tools?Example: html filesNon: MS OneNote files<br />
    126. 126. Level of Expertise?Can a file be adapted withlittle / no training?<br />
    127. 127. Level of Expertise?Example: Word or odt filesNon: 3d models, flash quizzes<br />
    128. 128. Meaningfully Editable?Can the content of the file even be changed?<br />
    129. 129. Meaningfully Editable?Example: Word or html fileNon: Scanned pdf of notes<br />
    130. 130. Self-Sourced?Is the file preferred for editing also the file preferred for using?<br />
    131. 131. Self-Sourced?Example: html fileNon: Flash fla / swf files<br />
    132. 132. Open... but not<br />
    133. 133.
    134. 134.
    135. 135.
    136. 136. Less Expensive- Reuse - verbatim- Redistribute - share- Revise - derivatives- Remix - combinations<br />
    137. 137. More Expensive- Reuse - verbatim- Redistribute - share- Revise - derivatives- Remix - combinations<br />
    138. 138. How Can Open Improve Learning?<br />An example<br />
    139. 139. http://openhighschool.org/<br />
    140. 140. Bloom’s 2 Sigma Challenge<br />Bloom, 1984<br />
    141. 141. One-to-One Tutoring<br />And other methods compared to 30 students in the classroom<br />
    142. 142. Average Tutored Student by 2 SD<br />In other words, the average student is capable of much more<br />
    143. 143. Tutoring is Expensive<br />So we teach class instead!<br />
    144. 144. If the research on the 2 sigma problem yields practiced methods (methods that the average teacheror school faculty can learn in a brief periodof time and use withlittle more cost or timethan conventional instruction), it would be an educationalcontribution of the greatest magnitude. (p. 5)<br />Bloom, 1984<br />
    145. 145. To Tutor Or Not to Tutor?<br />That is the (false) question<br />
    146. 146. “Strategic Tutoring”<br />What if we could do one-on-one tutoring just-in-time and just-on-topic?<br />
    147. 147. Requires Great Insight<br />We’d have to know who needs help, when, and what they need help with<br />
    148. 148. Data Are the Key<br />You’d need live, fine-grained data about students, assessment, and curriculum<br />
    149. 149. Good Data Are Expensive!<br />Who gathers and analyzes data like this?<br />
    150. 150.
    151. 151.
    152. 152.
    153. 153.
    154. 154. Each and Every Interaction<br />Recorded and stored for analysisto improve quality of service / experience<br />
    155. 155.
    156. 156. Even the Grocer!<br />Almost every industry uses data more effectively than education<br />
    157. 157. How Can We Get the Data?<br />One option is to follow Google, Amazon, Netflix, WoW, etc.<br />
    158. 158. Do School Online<br />Where each and every interaction can be captured and stored for analysis<br />
    159. 159. What Kind of Data?<br />When they logged in, read, and worked<br />How long they logged in, read, and worked<br />Pathway information, Item-by-item analytics<br />&c.<br />
    160. 160. OHSU Teaching Model<br />OER teach as much as possible,teachers do proactive “strategic tutoring”<br />
    161. 161. Another Benefit of Data<br />Engage in continuous improvement of curriculum materials<br />
    162. 162. Can You Improve Curriculum?<br />Data aren’t sufficient – you need permission<br />
    163. 163. OHSU Charter Requires OER<br />Founders’ way of “burning the ships”<br />
    164. 164. Conjoint Continuous Improvement<br />Student learning and curriculum effectiveness<br />grow simultaneously<br />
    165. 165. FeedbackLoop<br />Curriculum Redesign<br />Data Describing Curriculum Performance<br />Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring<br />Curriculum Use<br />Student<br />Performance<br />Data<br />
    166. 166. Visualizing Educational Data<br />Creating new visualization techniques to support teaching and learning<br />
    167. 167.
    168. 168. Some Conclusions<br />Finally!<br />
    169. 169. Difficulties with Learning Objects<br />LOs have yet to fulfill their potential, because of copyright and technical problems<br />
    170. 170. Open Licenses Solve Problems<br />When “reuse” can also mean “revise” and “remix,” LOs can more fully realize their potential<br />
    171. 171. OER = Learning Objects 2.0<br />When “reuse” can also mean “revise” and “remix,” LOs can realize their potential<br />
    172. 172. OER => Google Searchability<br />Google, Bing, and others support specialized OER search<br />
    173. 173. OER = Lower Cost<br />Freely available<br />
    174. 174. OER => Increased Learning<br />Continuous quality improvement<br />
    175. 175. Thank You<br />david.wiley@byu.edu<br />http://davidwiley.org/<br />http://slideshare.net/opencontent/<br />
    176. 176. Utah Open Textbooks Project<br />Replacing expensive textbooks with remixed OER textbooks from CK12.org<br />Funded by the Hewlett Foundation<br />
    177. 177. 2010-2011<br />1800 students in Earth Systems, Biology, and Chemistry<br />
    178. 178. Traditional Context<br />$100 textbooks replaced<br />every 7 years<br />
    179. 179. < $7 per book<br />And remixed specifically to students’ needs<br />
    180. 180. Textbook as Consumable<br />Students can highlight, annotate,and keep their textbooks<br />
    181. 181. At Least 50% Cost Savings<br />We believe levels of learning will be constant or improve slightly<br />
    182. 182. Huge Policy Implications<br />If we can increase learning and decrease costs, then what?<br />

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