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Prof Steve F King 'The standard models in particle physics'

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Professor Steve F King presented his 'The Standard Models In Particle Physics' talk to Cafe Scientifique, Isle of Wight on 13 April 2015.

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Prof Steve F King 'The standard models in particle physics'

  1. 1. 1 A Tale of Two Standard Models Steve King, Shanklin, Isle of Wight, 13th April, 2015
  2. 2. 2 This is a tale of two Standard Models •  The Standard Model of Particle Physics •  The Standard Model of Cosmology •  And the connection between at the Large Hadron Collider. . .
  3. 3. 3 Angels and Demons
  4. 4. 4 We are all familiar with antimatter… yet… …it is a mystery why the Universe contains any matter at all
  5. 5. WQuestions about the Universe The origin of matter – why was there a tiny excess of matter over antimatter in the Universe, at a level of one part in a billion? The origin and fate of the Universe – and why is it so big and flat? The dark side of the Universe – why is 95% of mass-energy in a form that is presently unknown, including 27% dark matter and 68% dark energy? Sound of the Big Bang 5 The Standard Model of Cosmology
  6. 6. 6 Dark matter is observed in the collisions of galaxy clusters
  7. 7. 7 Dark matter is observed in the collisions of galaxy clusters Atoms (red gas) Dark matter particles (blue gas) Dark matter particles (blue gas) What are the dark particles?
  8. 8. To answer such questions we need to look back in time to the Early Universe Hubble Space Telescope 8
  9. 9. 9 WMAP movie
  10. 10. If we want to understand the dark matter particles in the Universe we must recreate the high energies of the Big Bang 10
  11. 11. To do this we need a high energy particle accelerator 11
  12. 12. 12 1.  The resolving power of a microscope is limited by the wavelength of the light.L Why “High Energy”? Actually there are three reasons: e.g. bats use high frequency sonar with wavelength less than or about same the size of an insect. L L So, like bats, to see small things we need light with small wavelength and high frequency – hence high energy photons since E hf=
  13. 13. 13 2 E mc= 2. Einstein taught us that So high energy is equivalent to large mass. With high energies we are able to produce very heavy particles. The basic unit of energy is the “electron Volt” which is the energy that a single electron receives when it passes from the negative terminal to the positive terminal of a 1 Volt battery.
  14. 14. 14 3. Boltzmann taught us that E=kT so high energy means high temperature where is Boltzmann’s constant. In the early Universe, just after the big bang, the universe was very small and very hot. So high energy physics teaches us about the early Universe. kT E
  15. 15. 15 What have we learned from High Energy Physics? - Matter is made of particles (“particle physics”) Answer: only 84 times! A single atom nanometre A nucleus with orbiting electrons To understand this, take an apple and a knife, and cut the apple in half once. Then cut one half in half again. Then continue the process. After some number of cuts you will arrive at a single atom. Question: how many cuts are required?
  16. 16. 16 − −− − − −− − - + + + + − −− − The electrical attraction is caused by photon exchange
  17. 17. 17 It is made of protons (p) and neutrons (n) The nucleus of the atom is positively charged The protons and neutrons are made of charged quarks The quarks also carry a new “colour charge” The quarks are stuck together by gluons
  18. 18. 18 This decay process is very weak (15 minutes is an eternity!) Without such weak interactions the Sun would shut down! The (free) neutron is radioactive and beta decays after 15 minutes into proton, electron and “neutrino” (electron-like neutral particle) Nothing lasts for ever
  19. 19. 19 The Four Forces of Nature
  20. 20. 20 The Standard Model
  21. 21. The quest for unification – can the three known forces of the standard model (and gravity) be unified? The problem of flavour – why are there three generations of quarks and leptons? The origin of mass – what is the origin of all the particle masses? Unanswered questions 21
  22. 22. 22 The Higgs Field is the giver of mass
  23. 23. 23 The Higgs Boson In the “Standard Model” the origin of mass is addressed using a mechanism named after the British physicist Peter Higgs. This predicted a spinless particle: Higgs boson According to Higgs, space is filled with a new type of field analagous to magnetic or electric fields…
  24. 24. 24 Higgs only introduced the boson after his paper was rejected for not having any predictions
  25. 25. 25 Particle Fever movie
  26. 26. 26 The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Atlas
  27. 27. 27 LHC movie
  28. 28. 28 Brief History of the LHC 10th September 2008 - LHC switched on – BBC devote a whole day of coverage to “Big Bang day” -Soothsayers predict the end of the World - Scientists at CERN celebrate
  29. 29. 29 Brief History of the LHC 19th September 2008 – LHC explosion due to bad soldering joint between two magnets – repairs took 14 months
  30. 30. 30 Brief History of the LHC 23rd November 2009 – first LHC proton- proton collisions (world did not end!) ATLAS Experiment © 2011 CERN
  31. 31. 31 LHC Run at 8 TeV in 2012 Brief History of the LHC New results indicate that particle discovered at CERN is a Higgs boson: -  Spin zero -  It is equal to its own antiparticle and is mirror symmetric -  Decays as predicted by Standard Model Highest luminosity = 7.73·1033 cm-2s-1 Total Collisions = 1.80·1015 Recorded luminosity = 27.03 fb-1
  32. 32. 32 Higgs 4 Muons
  33. 33. 33 Higgs e+e-e+e-
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38 But is it THE Higgs Boson ? = ? Observed Higgs has poor resolution – but it is definitely Higgs-like With better resolution it could the Higgs boson could look different
  39. 39. 39 What’s been happening in last two years, upgrading the LHC…
  40. 40. 40 LHC Run 2 at 13 TeV LHC about to restart after 2 year shutdown (first collisions end May 2015) What’s in store for Run 2?
  41. 41. 41 top+anti-top+(Higgs->tau+anti-tau) Verify other Standard Model modes
  42. 42. 42 Supersymmetry (a.k.a. SUSY) Spin 0 Bosons (like the Higgs) SleptonsSquarks The Generations of Smatter ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s s s s s s s s s s s s Spin 1/2 Fermions Seen Not Seen
  43. 43. 43 BOSONS FERMIONS Gravitino Photino Gluino˜W, ˜Z
  44. 44. 44 Supersymmetric Higgs Bosons Higgs Boson Higgsino Higgs Boson Higgsino Supersymmetry (SUSY) predicts more Higgs Bosons and spinning Higgsinos!
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. Supersymmetry includes dark matter particles An excellent candidate for dark matter particle is the spin ½ partner to the photon called the photino ˜ 46
  47. 47. 47 Strong Weak Electromagnetic SUSY permits a unification of three of the forces
  48. 48. 48 Allows unification including gravity
  49. 49. 49 Strings moving in extra dimensions
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. 51 The Next Director of CERN Fabiola Gianotti, pictured here at the ATLAS detector, will be CERN's next Director-General. Her five-year mandate will begin on 1 January 2016
  52. 52. 52 It was the best of times [Nobel Prizes], It was the worst of times [only Higgs discovered], It was the age of wisdom [Standard Model complete], It was the age of foolishness [many unanswered questions], It was the epoch of belief [Supersymmetry…],…, It was the season of Light [International Year of Light 2015], It was the season of Darkness [Dark Matter and Energy], It was the spring of hope [LHC Run 2 in Spring], It was the winter of despair [No results last winter], We had everything before us [new discoveries], We had nothing before us [only Standard Model]… Adapted from A Tale of Two Cities 1859 by Charles Dickens 1812-1870 P.S. Dickens spent Summer 1849 in Bonchurch Summary: A Tale of Two Standard Models ca.2015
  53. 53. 53 Thank you for your kind attention!

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