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Presentation made to MoUD and MoHUPA on behalf of MCD Slum & JJ Dept, on June 25, 2010.

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  • So we talk about all of these challenges and opportunities, but how does the change happen? Here is a computerized simulation, which shows the process of change. This could be “any-where USA” Open sites, large set backs of buildings, a generally uncomfortable pedestrian experience.
  • toMOUD-slum-free-planning-June2010

    1. 1. ROADMAP: Slum Free Delhi Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    2. 2. GUIDING PRINCIPLES: Shelter is a Human Right – Not Apartment Titles. One Size Does not Fit All – Give people Options for self self-selection. The goal of our approach to a Slum Free Delhi is that people of all income groups and various strata of society are given formal + hygenic options for shelter – for living sub-cities of NCR – based on their paying within, or in the outskirts, or in the various sub capacities and lifestyle choices. Upgradation of current Shelter conditions to acceptable standards as well as provision of requisite amount of new housing stock, as per socio socio-economic context and MPD-2021 targets – would prevent the formation of new slums. Our approach follows the Guidelines for Slum Free City planning laid down by the latest Draft by Rajiv Awas Yojna (RAY) for Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    3. 3. Three Prong Strategy New In-situ Upgradation In-situ RE-development Development Criteria for • High density (>600 du/ha) • Low density (<600 du/ha) • All New area level • High % of pucca houses • Is within 1000 M of high- plans should have Selection: • People have already invested speed Public Transport. 55% low-income a lot in their homes • Potential for Area level component with • Infrastructure is partly or fully redevelopment or Urban cross-subsidization existing Renewal and Redensification of services. • No environmental or health exists. hazards exist • No environmental or health hazards exist Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    4. 4. Definitions: In-situ Upgradation – is the gradual self-construction or improvement of homes done by construction the community themselves with minimal govt. support and through provision of basic social and physical infrastructure services. For in-situ up-gradation to happen, residents must be given secure tenure rights such that gradation they may not be uprooted and relocated at random. In-situ upgradation may be applied to areas which meet the following thumb situ thumb-rule criteria: High density (~600 du/ha) High % of pucca houses People have already invested a lot in their homes Infrastructure is partly or fully existing No environmental or health hazards exist Have good amenities, parks & public transport in community vicinity. Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    5. 5. Definitions: In-situ Redevelopment – is the process of redeveloping areas with current slum settlements where new mixed-use mixed-income communities can be created with a viable income cross-subsidy model, which is a function of local land values, socio subsidy socio-economic needs and general context of the area. For example, a commercial Mall may not be a viable cross cross- subsidizing use of land in an area where the demand may actually be for high and middle income housing, along with low-income groups. Therefore, a socio income socio-economic study of local context is critical for decision making. In-situ Redevelopment may be applied to areas which meet the following thumb situ thumb-rule criteria: Low density (<450 du/ha) Is within 1500 M of high-speed Public Transport. speed Potential for Area level redevelopment or Urban Renewal and Redensification exists. No environmental or health hazards exist. Need for mixing with other income groups and mixed uses. Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    6. 6. Definitions: New Development to Prevent New Slums – is essential so that new population coming to work and contribute to the growing economy of the city can be provided a range of viable and affordable shelter options. Not everyone needs to be provided apartment titles or tenure rights. People are often seasonal immigrants or short term employees and therefore a range of shelter employees, options for the new working population needs to be developed in order to prevent the sprouting of future slums within the city. Providing dormitories or temporary rented shelter options as well as high-quality high-speed public transportation is also the sustainable way speed of controlling and reducing permanent immigration into the city.: According to a 2008 United Nations Report, India will see a 26% growth in urbanized population by 2025. The Masterplan of Delhi- 2021 provides the following targets for provision of Housing for Urban poor through Slum & JJ approaches till Year 2011 (page 129): 70,000 units through Redevelopment. 100,000 units through New Housing stock. Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    7. 7. Internal “RoadMap” – for In-situ Upgradation situ Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    8. 8. Internal “RoadMap” – for In-situ Re situ Re-development Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    9. 9. Internal “RoadMap” – for Prevention of New Slums Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    10. 10. MCD - CORE TEAM Multi-disciplinary; with disciplinary; MCD Experts + Suitability Analysis External Experts PHYSICAL SURVEY: 1. Architect, Urban • Environmental Suitability Designer • Land availability • Existing Amenities 2. Urban Planner 3. Sociologist, Codal Analysis Anthropologist 4. Community Finance Expert d 5. Real Estate Specialist 6. Decentralized Transportation Infrastructure specialist and Amenities SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY: 7. Legal consultant • Economic Synergies. • Paying capacities ROLE: ROLE • Cultural mix Brainstorming, Advising, Helping prepare EOIs, Scopes & In-situ Strategy Competition Briefs, Determination: Validating data, Road-mapping, mapping, Monitoring Implementation. Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    11. 11. • Existing Capacity Environmental Suitability • How much more needed? (Nallahs, floodplains, etc.) SOI • Is decentralized Infrastructure Infrastructure Services Physical feasible? Survey Social Amenities • Space requirements for (Schools/ Parks/ Clinics/ etc. as /MPD) additional infrastructure… Proportion of Renters vs. • Renters interested Home Owners • Home Owners Paying Capabilities • Is decentralized Infrastructure Test Socio- feasible? Site Economic Local Economic Synergies • Unit Design/ Composition: Survey • 12 sq m • 18 sq. m Lifestyle Requirements • 25 sq m Social Networks, NGOs/CBOs • Space requirements for social activities Eligibility Beneficiary Allocation Bio-Metric Survey Ineligibility Many Affordable Options – Rental or Ownership Type of In-Situ Strategy Situ Upgradation, Redevelopment, Source: Ward/ Assembly Level or local Relocation Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    12. 12. Policy Conflicts ! Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    13. 13. RAJIV AWAS YOJNA: DELHI GOVT. POLICY Positive Policies: ? Tenure rights to slum dwellers/urban poor as Conflicts – Contradictions: the first step. “Whole City” Approach - With a whole city approach, Eligibility Criteria: vacant land inventory would be made. A citywide plan 31.12.1998 Cut off date Proof would be made to shift untenable slums to the nearest Below 60 K Household Income possible available vacant land or notified. Involvement of private bodies. Planning ahead and providing new affordable Implications: housing stock in advance, to prevent future slums. • Free/ Subsidized Homes are quickly sold off & Reservation of low-income housing as a % of all new people move back to slums. private developments. Amendment to Rent Control Legislation, at least to the • Only 10-20% of current Slum Population is extent that will enable New Rental Housing Stock to “ELIGIBLE”. But where will the rest go?? be created, and on terms governed by the market. • Not a sustainable or “realistic” model. Primacy would be given to the provision of infrastructure. • No long term vision. Transit Oriented Redevelopment. Negative Policies: Selection based on arbitrary Eligibility Criteria and allotment Source: Formulae for PPP that may not be site relevant. Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    14. 14. OUR APPROACH: 1. Whole City/ Community Level Approach Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    15. 15. High Speed Rail must be built to incentivize growth of sub sub-cities to minimize immigration into Delhi – Employment Centres should be decentralized to decongest Delhi. Source: Source: Times of India, Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 Consultant, MCD Nov 2009 15
    16. 16. The Challenge: Y E A R L Y Housing Stock required as per MPD MPD-2021: 170 K per year 55% of Total = BPL + EWS 95 K per year For every 100 new homes provided in the city, 55 homes must be for the urban poor and Source: the economically weaker sections in the form of houses of two rooms or less. Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    17. 17. Through Private Sector Through Government New/ Re-development Initiative 35% 20% 60 K/yr 35 K/yr 35% of all Private Housing Development Has to be through Public Sector are to be Affordable (2 rooms or less) Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    18. 18. UTTIPEC’S ROLE Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    19. 19. • Infill and Redevelopment Potential Analysis: within 500 500-1500 M of MRTS • Potential for accomodating affordable housing stock on Transport lands. • Designing viable financial models for affordable housing provision Source: Graphics Source: Nishant Lall ( Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 Credits: LA Now Project, University of California, Los Angeles
    20. 20. • Social & Infrastructure Deficiency Analysis – using GIS Data from DSSDI The Analysis will clearly map the following on digital (CAD/ GIS) drawings: a) Current location of slum clusters (with approximate population) in Delhi with data from Mission Convergence as well as the Shelter Board’s Socio-economic Survey integrated, when available. b) Current Densities on study site as well as neighboring sites. c) Vacant/ underutilized lands available within the Assembly as well as within 2000 M buffer of MRTS corridors. d) Quality and age of buildings e) Lands within 1500M buffer of MRTS – that are either under-utilized or marked for redensification or redevelopment as per Masterplan or approved Zonal plans. f) Land/ Property ownership. g) Existing infrastructure and utilities (underground/ over ground) and their state. h) Existing environmental constraints and Suitability Analysis of available sites. i) Current access to employment opportunities j) Current access to education, health care and social infrastructure, and corresponding deficiencies as per MPD- 2021 norms. k) Existing environmental constraints and Topography – and corresponding ‘Suitability Analysis’ of available sites. Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    21. 21. An “Ideal” Community Layout 1500 M walking All new or redeveloped high-density radius housing must be within 1500-2000 M walk/ cycling distance from an MRTS Station. Housing options must be clustered with local employment opportunities – both formal and informal. This includes proximity to High-income groups to provide informal employment. To avoid the creation of large “planned slums”, New low-income groups must be integrated in small clusters within mixed- income mixed-use neighborhoods. This also allows cross-subsidization of physical and social infrastructure for low- income groups. Low income housing (Size < 250 families) Rapid Transit Station High/ Middle income housing (Metro/ BRT) Commercial Offices/ Light Industrial Schools/ Libraries/ Civic uses Source: Public Parks Image Source: Paromita (Romi) Roy Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    22. 22. Infrastructure must be Decentralized & use Natural Systems: Strategies for Efficient and Natural Storm Water Management: a) Storm water management should be separated from waste water treatment to reduce pressure on infrastructure costs required for piping, conveyance Street bio-filtration bed 1) Treat at Source: and treatment. Use street-swales or raingardens to filter and convey water naturally. This also helps save on piping cost, while providing additional greenery. b) A 3-tier approach for natural storm water management should be followed…. i. Treat at Source – using bio-swales, filtration beds, raingardens, etc. which can be integrated within the planted edges of streets. This helps save huge piping costs. Parks/ Detention 2) Capture and Convey Naturally: ii. Capture and Convey Naturally – Parks, forests Parks and Open spaces should be multi-used as detention ponds during rainy seasons, while remaining usable green spaces for the rest of the year. and residual open spaces should be used as Detention and Retention ponds during rainy seasons – to purify and absorb water at source. iii. Final Treatment - of remaining storm water can take place at a natural treatment wetland or an constructed facility. Wetland Detention Pond 3) Final treatment of remaining storm water can take place at a natural treatment Source: wetland or a conventional facility. Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    23. 23. 3.3 Recycle and reuse waste Decentralized & use Natural Systems: Recycle and reuse waste locally; Infrastructure must bewater for the larger community, wherever possible. To provide adequate sanitation and systems to deal with waste and sewage, several strategies can be employed for reducing pre pressure on the sewage system and improving the environment of the overall community: Separate the sewage + waste water system from the storm water management system; • Employ Decentralized Sewage Treatment Systems to recycle upto 80% of Waste water – and reuse it locally. • Reverse Osmosis can help further treat recycled sewage water to drinkable standards. If low-income groups are located in integrated high-density mixed income communities, common facilities like bio density bio-gas plants and aerobic/ anaerobic digesters can be constructed. Biogas thus generated can be used in community kitchens, restaurants, etc. while energy generat from the waste generated could benefit the entire community. Resource & Waste Management Organic Waste Treatment Separation Compost Biogas Recyclables Residual Sale for landscaping Energy Generation / On-site Off-Site Disposal Off-Site Sale and/or agriculture vehicle fuel / cooking Gasification (Landfill) Floating Fixed Reuse organic waste to produce biogas: a The “floating” type biogas plant at a A “fixed” type biogas plant A natural sewage treatment facility technology used through history in rural India, Working Women's Hostel, Trivandrum under construction. implemented in Bombay University now should be implemented in cities. by NEERI Source: Image Source: Image Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    24. 24. OUR APPROACH: 2. Providing Affordability through: • Urban / Architectural Design • Creative Finance Models • Creative delivery Models Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    25. 25. Government’s Role:: • Facilitate Finance through cross cross-subsidies and loans. • Provide Affordable Options for self-screening selection, NOT DIRECT SUBSIDY SUBSIDY. • Involve Community in Construction & Management. • Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    26. 26. Enable • Give Tenure Rights at a cost, OR Financing Land • Develop with Remunerative uses to cross cross-subsidize cost of land. • NOT TO BE SUBSIDIZED. • Funded through (Public or Private) Developer investment and Home Cost personal/ group savings. • People have to pay full cost of home construction, as per their paying capacities. • Government funded and built Services • Cross Cross-subsidized through Mixed-use Mixed income neighbourhood developments. Economic • Funded through Group Group-pooling and Micro-finance schemes, partnering with NGOs+CBOs. prosperity Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    27. 27. Direct subsidies towards housing cost should not be provided as this is not a feasible and sustainable model for the city to finance. Moreover, providing subsidized flats only tempts or induces people to sell or rent them out immediately in order to increase their liquid incomes, and therefore does not actually solve the housing problem. • Cross Subsidization - for Land, infrastructure and common amenities, NOT homes. • Symbiosis through Proximity b/w HIG & EWS. • Common Shared Amenities – Schools, Parks, Markets Low Income Housing Units Secondary Street / Lane Mid-High High Income Housing/ Main Street Commercial Uses (High Visibility / Commercial Value) Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    28. 28. Provide various Housing & Upward Mobility Options to all New low- income immigrants MOST Phased redevelopment: at current location in city EXPENSIVE: NEW MIXED INCOME Relocated New Development: COMMUNITIES: within 2 km of current location near transit, with shared amenities Relocated to new Pre Pre- constructed location: Provide distant from current location Upward but close to MRTS. Mobility Options In-situ up situ up-gradation (NO demolition) Existing Low-income or ‘slum’ population Rental (shared or single) - YEARLY Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY Rental (shared or or single) - DAILY Rental (shared single) - MONTHLY LEAST EXPENSIVE Rental (sharedNIGHT SHELTERS Rental (shared or single) - MONTHLY Rental - or single) - MONTHLY Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    29. 29. Provide homes to diverse demographic groups : Apt/ Unit Housing Price of Loan- Savings/ Target Population size Leasing Solution Demand Supply The Unit following types of Subsidy Mortgage Private housing also need to be Middle to high income 3 room & ▪ families above Ownership developer included in the mixed- driven housing housing variety required for Low to medium income families with the Private Only ~45% the city – to ensure that ▪ 2/ 3 room Ownership developer Adequate ability obtain a driven housing of total supply rate? low-income housing is not mortgage demand? taken over by other Low to medium income young couples/ Private categories of home ▪ 2/3 room Ownership developer singles with an ability seekers, e.g: driven housing obtain a mortgage 1/2 room Low to medium income (serviced Private No formal Home for the Aged. ▪ Singles with short apartments, Rental developer ? supply Youth Hostels. term housing needs studios, driven housing etc) Service Apartments for young Low to medium income Mainly Govt., Inadequate professionals. ▪ families with small 1/2 room Rental Also privately ? supply Govt. Housing for low-income personal savings produced. employees. Low income families ▪ with uncertain income/ Shared Short-term Govt. produced ? Inadequate Working women’s hostels. contracted or daily room Rental & managed. supply wage workers, etc. Small-unit rental housing. Low income singles/ Shared Daily Govt. produced Inadequate Source:families with negligible ▪ Night ? Rentals & managed. supply income Shelter Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 29
    30. 30. Rental Units Dormitories Image only for illustration Dormitory Solution Cost per person Housed 32,437 (Assumption) Total Cost of 750 individuals 24327750 Monthly rental income 450 Years to payback 6 Source: Annual rental Yield 16.6% (Market needs 15% return) Rakhi Mehra micro Home Solutions Source: Aggregate annual Yield 13.3% Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    31. 31. Rental Units Night Shelters Dormitories Small units (10sqm, 12sqm, 15sqm) DU Total 10 % profit D.U.Size Unit sizes Foundation/Pli Brickwork Constructi margin (Sq.m) (sq.ft.) Earthwork Structure nth Brickwork for walls etc Finishing Toilet on Cost CPWD Rates for slum Development = 600/ 600/sft Lumsum (per unit ) 10 108 2500 67300 74,000 12 129 2500 80000 88,000 15 161 2500 100000 1,10,000 12m2 15m2 25 m2 Kitchen counter Small kitchen One bedroom Shared bathroom Shared bathroom Medium size kitchen Independent bathroom Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 10-12 persons 12 Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    32. 32. Rental to ownership Units (Cooperative): Small units (12sqm, 15sqm) DU Total 10 % profit D.U.Size Unit sizes Foundation/Pli Brickwork Constructi margin (Sq.m) (sq.ft.) Earthwork Structure nth Brickwork for walls etc Finishing Toilet on Cost CPWD Rates for slum Development = 600/ 600/sft Lumsum (per unit ) 12 129 2500 80000 88,000 15 161 2500 100000 110,000 Cluster Option 15m2 25 m2 Small kitchen One bedroom Shared bathroom Medium size kitchen Independent bathroom Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 10-12 persons Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    33. 33. Ownership Units: Mid Sized units (25sqm, 40sqm) : Foundation/Pl DU Total D.U.Size Unit sizes inth Brickwork Constructi 10 % profit (Sq.m) (sq.ft.) Earthwork Structure Brickwork for walls etc Finishing Toilet on Cost margin CPWD Rates for slum Development = 600/ 600/sft Individual Individual 25 269 5000 166400 183040 40 430.5 5000 263000 289300 25 m2 One bedroom Medium size kitchen Independent Toilet 45 m2 Two bedrooms Living room Source: Big kitchen Independent Toilet Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    34. 34. Shared Toilet/ Bathroom for 10-12 persons Ownership solution: Mid Sized Units (25sqm, 40sqm) Cost of House Excluding Land 263,000 Cost of House Including Profit Margin(10%) 289,300 Rental Housing Model: Small Sized Units (10sqm, 15sqm) Cost of House Excluding Land 192800 Total Cost for 175 houses 33740000 Monthly Rental 1500 (To achieve 15% return need 2400 p/m) Annual Rental Income for 200 households 3150000 Years for Payback 11 Annual Rental Yield 9.3% (Market needs 15% return) Income for Government/(Cost to govt.) 189000 Years to pay back with Govt. Subsidy 7 Years Data Source: Rakhi Mehra micro Home Solutions Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    35. 35. Community Participation: The reasons for Mumbai’s success in providing slumslum- rehabilitation projects is their full engagement with the local communities, throughout the city. In Delhi, this has still not happened. Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    36. 36. Community-based Success in Mumbai: based + Many Slum rehabilitation projects have very successfully engaged with the local communities to provide long term successful solutions. + Involvement of Communities from the onset has led to a sense of ownership – leading to the rehabilitation projects being well maintained and community community-owned. - FAR FAR-bonuses (instead of density-bonuses) has led to developers dislocating the poor from inner cities and getting undue benefits from subsidized land value sites. Source: Image Source: Dheeraj Slum & JJ Dept. 2010 Consultant, MCD Patil, 2008 Image Source: Dheeraj Patil, 2008
    37. 37. PILOT PROJECT Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    38. 38. Mongolpuri Slums: Policy Challenges Challenges: • Existing Densities are extremely high approx. 900-1100 du/ha. • Masterplan allows 600 du/ha with 10% flexibility in densities but more flexibility is required in terms of: • Density norms • Setback norms • Heights • Parking norms • Mixed-use regulations Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010
    39. 39. Key Decisions needed: Pilot Project in keeping with RAY and testing new approaches – like Rental & dwelling unit size/ urban design variations. Team building/ Capacity Building – Engaging of Multi-disciplinary Consultants disciplinary Budget allocations and Timelines Source: Consultant, MCD Slum & JJ Dept. 2010