Solving Congestion through Transit Oriented Development, Delhi (Romi Roy)

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Detailed Policy Framework and a Roadmap for Change - required to solve problems of Delhi & achieve a vision for a livable world class city. Solving Traffic Congestion through Transit Oriented Development, Delhi (Romi Roy)

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  • nice presentation and realistic solutions given in T&T
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  • hello romi roy i really appreciate ur presentation for me i'm very interesting in this
    even if is not my career but i study now the land use planning by using different documentation but hope i'll get a chance to be in university for doing such things in master's degree
    but now I'm eng in Soil and water management may God bless u
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  • brilliant work,cant say how it help me enough.thanks
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  • update with latest plan
  • update with latest plan
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  • So we talk about all of these challenges and opportunities, but how does the change happen? Here is a computerized simulation, which shows the process of change. This could be “any-where USA” Open sites, large set backs of buildings, a generally uncomfortable pedestrian experience.
  • So we talk about all of these challenges and opportunities, but how does the change happen? Here is a computerized simulation, which shows the process of change. This could be “any-where USA” Open sites, large set backs of buildings, a generally uncomfortable pedestrian experience.
  • Solving Congestion through Transit Oriented Development, Delhi (Romi Roy)

    1. 1. Solving Congestion through TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT. Presentation to CSE, New Delhi 17 Sept 2009
    2. 2. Delhi Today: • High Car dependency • Highest Pollution levels in India • Road Rage • Lack of Safety for Pedestrians
    3. 3. Facts first…. Delhi Today: The roads of Delhi are choked by cars which drive less than 15% of its people. (Source: RITES 2008) Highest Road Space to Occupancy ratio Servicing pedestrians and cyclists on roads can help increase ridership for buses & trains.
    4. 4. Trying to solve a traffic problem by widening the road – is like trying to solve obesity by loosening the belt.
    5. 5. Learning from others’ mistakes: America….. 1950 - 80s
    6. 6. The American Context – Extreme Auto-Centrism
    7. 7. The American Context – Low Density and Discontinuous Street Networks
    8. 8. The American Context – Lack of Human Scale
    9. 9. America earned one of the highest ecological footprints on the planet. Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/World_map_of_countries_by_ecological_footprint.svg/800px-World_map_of_countries_by_ecological_footprint.svg.png
    10. 10. Where We Are: Delhi….. 1950 - 2010s
    11. 11. MODAL SPLIT DELHI 2007 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Cycle Car/Taxi Scooter Autos Bus Metro Train Bicycle Ricksha Series1 13.9% 21.5% 3.6% 41.5% 4.1% 0.7% 6.8% 7.9%
    12. 12. How Flyover make walking difficult & force people into cars… cars… Congestion Congestion point soon returns after shifts here, due to couple of years merging traffic. to junction, due to turning traffic & increased volumes. Preferable shortest direct route from point A to B. Point B Lack of direct walking, cycling or rickshaw access, and longer Even local circuitous route - forces traffic is forced people into the private to move car. through Ashram Chowk. Necessity to go through Ashram Chowk for even local destination trips – further increases congestion at the Chowk.
    13. 13. How Flyover make walking difficult & force people into cars… cars… After construction of the Clover Leaf Flyover, the shortest walking distance from AIIMS exit to Dilli Haat has increased by over 5 times. In addition, there are no safe crossings available, so people risk their lives crossing the street at the most convenient locations. (Study Source: Centre for Science and Environment)
    14. 14. How Flyover make walking difficult & force people into cars… cars… Point B ● er Earthfill) alk) barrier (Flyov ~ 300 M (4 min w Point A ● Preferable Walking route from point A to B. Flyover-induced Walking distance from point A to B – increased by over 8 times!
    15. 15. How Flyover make walking difficult & force people into cars… cars… How does one get to the bus-stop? Flyover: a barrier & deterrent to safe and easy pedestrian movement. Landing to nowhere…? Interesting Pedestrian and bus-users situations at AIIMS and Dhaula Kuan Flyover Intersections. (Photos and Study Source: Akash Hingorani, Oasis Designs)
    16. 16. Biased Public Investment? Source: Times of India, 27 Sept 2009 Also seen on Facebook.com
    17. 17. Delhi’s flyovers can’t cope with rising traffic! Vehicle oriented roads Breaching Capacity Well Before Schedule. (HIGH TRAFFIC SPEEDS, LACK OF FOOTPATHS) Long term solution needed. - TOI, Sept 09 make them unsafe for Pedestrians.
    18. 18. Source:: Hindustan Times, 12 Aug 2009
    19. 19. Source:: www.cseindia.org
    20. 20. Learning from Corrections: America Asia….. 1990s - 2010s
    21. 21. Lessons from San Francisco: 1948 Plan, San Francisco Freeway Network
    22. 22. Lessons from San Francisco: 2009 San Francisco, Only 3 freeway’s built partly
    23. 23. TEARING DOWN OF EMBARCADERO FREEWAY! http://www.preservenet.com/freeways/FreewaysEmbarcadero.html
    24. 24. FOR EMBARCADERO BOULEVARD.
    25. 25. TEARING DOWN OF EMBARCADERO FREEWAY! http://www.preservenet.com/freeways/FreewaysEmbarcadero.html
    26. 26. TEARING DOWN OF EMBARCADERO FREEWAY!
    27. 27. http://www.preservenet.com/freeways/FreewaysEmbarcadero.html
    28. 28. BEFORE
    29. 29. NOW
    30. 30. Continued Restructuring of City based on Transit
    31. 31. Continued Restructuring of City based on Transit
    32. 32. Continued Restructuring of City based on Transit
    33. 33. New ISBT http://kwc.org/architecture/resources/2007/transbay_som.jpg Continued Restructuring of City based on Transit
    34. 34. SEOUL: TEARING DOWN CHEONGGYECHEON FREEWAY! BEFORE http://www.metro.seoul.kr/kor2000/chungaehome/en/seoul/4sub_body3.htm
    35. 35. SEOUL: TEARING DOWN CHEONGGYECHEON FREEWAY! BEFORE http://www.metro.seoul.kr/kor2000/chungaehome/en/seoul/4sub_body3.htm
    36. 36. SEOUL: CHEONGGYECHEON RIVERWAY! NOW http://www.metro.seoul.kr/kor2000/chungaehome/en/seoul/4sub_body3.htm
    37. 37. SEOUL: CHEONGGYECHEON RIVERWAY! NOW http://media.photobucket.com
    38. 38. SEOUL: CHEONGGYECHEON RIVERWAY! NOW http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/17/world/asia/17daylight.html?_r=2
    39. 39. Lessons from Beijing: (TOI June 14, 2009) Beijing - a capital city of 17 million population - is struggling to make its commuters STOP using the six ring roads, and make them ride the subway, buses or bicycles.
    40. 40. Lessons from Beijing: (TOI June 14, 2009) Beijing - a capital city of 17 million population - is struggling to make its commuters STOP using the six ring roads, and make them ride the subway, buses or bicycles.
    41. 41. Where Do We Want to Go? Delhi….. Post 2010s
    42. 42. Where we are…. Where we want to go…. MPD 2021 identifies a current Modal Split of 60-40 (Public- Private Transport). It sets the following Targets for the near future: “70-30 Modal Split by 2011” “80-20 Modal Split by 2021”
    43. 43. Where we are…. Where we want to go…. However, RITES study has recently revealed that the modal split of Delhi has actually dropped from 60-40 to 45-55!
    44. 44. Where we are…. Where we want to go…. Clearly – the direction where we are headed is contrary to the Spirit and direction intended by the Masterplan.
    45. 45. Where we are…. Where we want to go…. Clearly – a PARADIGM SHIFT is needed.
    46. 46. Current/ Future Policies: In accordance with the changing transportation scenario in India over the last two decades, there has been a change in the policies at, both, national level and in Delhi. a) National Urban Transport Policy – 2006, recommends: i. Integrated land use and transport policy ii. Priority to the use of public transport & non-motorized vehicles b) Master-plan for Delhi – 2021 has given a thrust on redevelopment and redensification of existing urban areas and city improvement. It calls for a comprehensive redevelopment strategy for accommodating a large population, and strengthening of infrastructure facilities.
    47. 47. MPD-2021 Statements & Goals: 12.4.1 SYNERGY BETWEEN TRANSPORT AND LAND USE The concept of the Master Plan for Delhi 1962 was based on a poly- nodal, polycentric, distribution of work centres, largely based on road transport nodes. A major fall-out of this has been distortion between infrastructure, transport and land use. Major Sources of Air Pollution: Vehicular Emission = 70%; Industrial = 20%; Gensets; Cooking, etc = 10% Public transportation planning must, therefore, drive the future policy.
    48. 48. MPD-2021 Statements & Goals: 12.4.1 SYNERGY BETWEEN TRANSPORT AND LAND USE To achieve spatial balance, development should take place according to new corridors of mass movement. This has implications in terms of land use planning along major transport corridors and the Mass Rapid Transport/ Transit System. (p72)
    49. 49. MPD Statements & Goals: “The Plan contemplates a mechanism for the restructuring of the city based on mass transport.” (p3) … a sizable proportion of the additional population with requisite facilities and employment can be absorbed along MRTS corridors.” (p14)
    50. 50. MPD Statements & Goals: 3.3.1. REDEVELOPMENT STRATEGY “ The proposed MRTS network will bring sizable urban area within walking distance from the proposed stations. This changed scenario provides opportunities for city restructuring and optimum utilization of the land along the MRTS corridors.
    51. 51. Premise: Transit Oriented Development of Delhi is therefore not just about redevelopment & redensification along 500 M of MRTS corridors. It is about REstructuring a Transit Oriented City.
    52. 52. ..to “rebuild” Delhi along its new TRANSIT INFRASTRUCTURE Metro BRT Interchange Park ’n’ Ride Interchange All new projects + Redevelopment should be along this Armature Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    53. 53. Current Masterplan
    54. 54. ~ 60% of the urban area will be within 15-minute walking distance from the proposed MRTS stations…
    55. 55. Auto-Oriented City SHIFT Transit-Oriented City Interchange BRT 7 min walk Rail/ Metro
    56. 56. Step 1: ONE COORDINATION & APPROVAL BODY
    57. 57. Discontinued Disjointed and Uncoordinated Planning TRANSPORTATION + LANDUSE + INFRASTRUCTURE MUST BE designed and implemented together – complimenting each other. Otherwise they will ALL FAIL…. Romi Roy
    58. 58. ONE Coordination Body Stakeholders GOALS & ROLES: Advisors Mobility for all; Planned development blueprint Planning UTTIPEC Coordination Integration Approvals Consultants
    59. 59. PROCEDURE FOR CHANGE ROADMAP Stakeholder GOALS + Participation COORDINATION TARGETS: + (MPD 2021) IMPLEMENTATION Experts Community Participation
    60. 60. Step 2: Procedure Set the GOALS
    61. 61. CITY LEVEL GOALS: MPD 2021 • POPULATION & EMPLOYMENT TARGETS • 80-20 MODAL-SPLIT" • MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION • AFFORABLE HOUSING DEMAND • REDUCE CRIME • ADDRESS EQUITY • PROVIDE PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TO ALL • STOP WATER BODY POLLUTION
    62. 62. FILTERING THE GOALS: MPD 2021 Move more people, MOBILITY not cars Equal access to EQUITY Amenities TOD GOALS Low-income AFFORABILITY housing QUALITY OF Car independent LIFE lifestyle
    63. 63. Step 3: THE TOD ROADMAP
    64. 64. Transit Oriented Development : The ROADMAP 1 2 Landuse-Transportation Public Transit System: Synergy: Provision & Funding 3 Discourage Private Car 4 Equitably distribute Public realm Pedestrian Guidelines launched by UTTIPEC, DDA, Delhi
    65. 65. 1 2 Landuse-Transportation Public Transit System: Synergy: Provision & Funding 3 Discourage Private Car Expert Contributors: 4 CSE Equitably distribute Pradeep Sacheva Design Associates ICE & IIT Public realm Oasis Designs Samarthyam DIMTS Pedestrian Guidelines launched TRIPPs by UTTIPEC, DDA, Delhi MCD, PWD, NDMC
    66. 66. “ ” Pedestrian Guidelines already launched by UTTIPEC, DDA, Delhi in Nov 2009 News Article Source: Romi Roy UTTIPEC Hindustan Times, pg 2; 04 Dec 2009
    67. 67. The Kit of Parts: Not Preferable 10 Public Amenities, Hawker Zones, Signage 01A Clear Walking Zone 01B 01C Walking Zone Width Maximum Curb Height Designated Hawker Zones (10G) must be allowed to 01D Curb Radius and Slip Road Treatment locate in areas where pedestrians tend to wait or 01E Continuous Pavement 01F High Albedo Materials congregate i.e street intersections and near bus stops 01G Permeable Pavement or major civic destinations, public offices, etc. 2 Frontage Zone or Dead Width 03A Kerb Ramps X. Public Toilets (10A) should be located 03B Raised Table-Top Crossings near every alternate bus-stop and definitely located at 03C Tactile Paving 03D Auditory Signals each Rapid Transit Station (Metro/BRT). Frequency of X. 03E Accessible Infrastructure & Signage location of toilets should be every ~500 - 800 M. 04A Essential Planting 04B Tree Pits and Tree Grates 04C Planting with Storm Water Management Y. Bus Stops with Route Maps (10B) must be Y. 04D Aesthetic Planting universally accessible, and located every ~800-1000 M. 05A Segregated Cycle + NMT Paths 05B Bicycle Parking and Other Infrastructure Z. Auditory Pelican signals (10C) and raised table-top Z. 06A At-grade Crossing crossings at all mid-block or T-junctions, in absence of a 06B Mid-Block Crossing 06C Raised Table-top Crossings full traffic signal. ~ 200 M max 07A Pedestrian Refuge Island at Median 07B Median Refuge Design Options Auto and Cycle-Rickshaw Stands (04) should be provided 08A 08B Pedestrian Scaled Lighting Full Cut-off Fixtures near bus-stops, within the Multi-Functional Zone. 09A Underground Utilities “Set of 3” at every intersection must be provided for 1. 10A Local Bus Stop Pedestrian Way-finding: finding 10B Public Toilets 10C Vector Street Direction Signage 1. - Dustbin with map (10E) 2. 10D 10E Auditory Pelican Signals Dustbins 2. - Street directional signage (10D) 10E Hawker Zones 3. - Universal accessibility features (03B) 3. Pedestrian Design Guidelines © UTTIPEC, DDA 2009 Pedestrian Design Guidelines © UTTIPEC, DDA 2009 72 ESSENTIAL GUIDELINES
    68. 68. PROPOSED STRATEGIES: 1• Revise Parking Laws to delink it 2 from landuse and link it to spatial Landuse-Transportation proximity to public transport Public Transit System: Synergy: (MCD, NDMC, DDA) facilities. Provision & Funding o low ECS or no/expensive parking within 10 min walking distance of MRTS stations o enforcement of cycle parking provisions as % of required ECS. 3 o congestions pricing in areas Discourage Private Car well served by public transport. o park and ride/ park and walk policies o shared parking options o drop off vs parking provisions 4 Equitably distribute • HOV lanes in street design standards to encourage Public realm carpooling (DIMTS, RoAs) • Mega carpool scheme (CoT)
    69. 69. Prioritize HOVs to reduce cars 4 Make the car use more efficient – carpool, congestion pricing, expensive parking, etc.
    70. 70. Private Car: The undesirable feeder Feeder Most valuable real Destination estate should not be used for cars parked all day for 8-15% of population. S M RT • Car Parking beyond 500 M • Parking only at 5 min walk terminal park-n-ride from Station Stations. • “Drop off areas Feeder provided. Origin
    71. 71. Ridership: Parking Versus Joint Development Housing • Surface parking Housing = ~1.6-4 rides per unit – 100 spaces per acre – 50-100 units/acre = 200 rides per – 200 rides per day day – All at peak period – 100-200 units/acre = 400 rides/day • 3 Story Garage – Spread throughout day especially if – 200 spaces per acre affordable – 400 rides per day
    72. 72. GOALS: • 1High Quality, Speed & 2 Comfort (ITS/ Grade Landuse-Transportation Separation) Public Transit System: Synergy: Feeder Network. • Efficient Provision & Funding (Rerouting of DTCs, more feeders, Dedicated HOV lanes) • Walking-Cycling Connectivity FUNDING STRATEGIES: 3 Discourage Private Car • Revised Taxation Laws for buses. • Cross Subsidization from Congestion Pricing, Parking fees, advertising, etc. (CSE) 4 • Land Development Rights to Equitably distribute be given to Metro, BRT & DTC - to fund long term public Public realm transportation supply & improvements (CoT, DMRC, DIMTS, DDA)
    73. 73. GOALS: 1 2 • Maximum people can live, work & play within 10-min Landuse-Transportation Public Transit System: stations. walking distance of MRTS Synergy: • Station Areas become Provision & Funding well connected and vibrant “places”. • City Level Goals of Sustainability, mobility, safety, affordability, equity & quality of life are achieved. 3 PROPOSED STRATEGIES: Discourage Private Car a) Reorder growth to redevelop and redensify the city along MRTS corridors. b) Planning guidelines to attract private investment into densification and redevelopment of existing areas. 4 c) Urban design guidelines to make cities safe, Equitably distribute attractive and walkable. Public realm d) Leveraging of private investment for direct public benefit.
    74. 74. CURRENT MASTERPLAN
    75. 75. RESTRUCTURED GROWTH STRATEGY
    76. 76. The Transit Oriented Design Principles: 1) Direct Connectivity & Pedestrian/ cycle friendly design a lk W M 00 ~5 2) Placemaking 4) Mixed landuse 3) Frequent Feeder Routes 5) Graded Density 6) Leveraging of Private Investment
    77. 77. Principle 1) Direct Connectivity & Walkability - Finer Street Network for shortest routes to pedestrians & cyclists. - Faster to walk or cycle; than to drive. Shortest walking distance for Pedestrians: 80 0 m 40 0 m Station • Interconnected Street Network • Small walkable blocks; Pedestrian cut-throughs every 100 M. • Mix of uses to provide people of varied social groups with options to live, work and play within easy access to public transport and daily necessities.
    78. 78. Principle 1) Direct Connectivity & Walkability - Pedestrian and Cycle/ Rickshaw friendly Street Design Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    79. 79. Principle 1) Direct Connectivity and Walkability - Finer Street Network for shortest routes to pedestrians & cyclists. - Faster to walk or cycle; than to drive. Typical Delhi Housing Block Vancouver Block: e.g. 80 x 125 M Romi Roy UTTIPEC 15-minute walk 5-minute walk
    80. 80. Principle 1) Direct Connectivity and Walkability - Finer Street Network for shortest routes to pedestrians & cyclists. - Faster to walk or cycle; than to drive. Typical Delhi Housing Block Vancouver Block: e.g. 80 x 125 M Concentrated traffic: Fewer, wider streets Distributed traffic: More & narrower streets Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    81. 81. Principle 2) PlaceMaking • Create Vibrant Places, not gated developments. • Build communities: Create interaction places, public plazas, markets and parks – near public transport nodes & along daily paths of people. • Mix of uses to provide people of varied social groups with options to live, work, shop and play within easy access to public transport and daily necessities. Fruitvale Village Nanjing Lu, Shanghai Mizner Park, Florida Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    82. 82. Principle 2) PlaceMaking “Urban Design” Code: Control of Public interfaces is Essential Non-walk friendly street with Setbacks Walkable, vibrant Mixed-use Street Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Form-based_codes
    83. 83. Principle 2) PlaceMaking Critical Zoning Laws that may need to be introduced: Remove Setbacks, Regulate Design Street Guidelines Require Entries on sidewalks Maximum Block Widths, for pedestrians, not cars! Minimum Frontages 80 . ax - 10 0 m 0M M -10 m 80 Sidewalks, ax Bio-swales . Multimodal, pedestrian-oriented. Streets for Trains, Buses, cars Building Entries/ windows on Smaller blocks, interconnected and Pedestrians. Sidewalk (eyes on the street - streets create shorter travel routes provides safety for pedestrians) for pedestrians. Built-to-edge Buildings for Safety & Comfort. onlyromi@gmail.com
    84. 84. Principle 3) Cheap, frequent, low-occupancy Feeder Systems Reroute buses to Metro Stations and provide ample feeder systems. Free Maps Rapid Transit DIMMTS Feeders Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    85. 85. Principle 4) Mixed Use, Residential dominated within 10 min walk Current Trends: within 5-min walk of Metro Stations No Walkable Design. No Street Frontage. No Diversity. Not enough Density. NOT TOD Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    86. 86. Principle 4) Mixed Use, Residential dominated within 10 min walk High Density Mixed Uses Within 5 min walk of Station (500 M)… Recommended: 5m in wa lk Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    87. 87. Principle 4) Mixed Use, Residential dominated within 10 min walk High Density Mixed Uses Within 10 min walk of Station (1000 M)… Recommended: 10 mi nw alk Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    88. 88. Principle 4) Mixed Use, Residential dominated within 10 min walk Provide DENSITY BONUSES - not FAR bonuses - near Stations Option 1: 500 M walking - Mandatory Reservation for % of low- radius income housing in private developments near public transit. Option 2: - Density bonuses for market-rate developments to pay for, or construct nearby low-income communities. - Density bonuses for providing and maintaining shared public parks, facilities and social infrastructure. Low income housing Option 3: (Size < 250 families) - Government built low income housing Rapid Transit Station High/ Middle income housing within 800 M walking distance from a (Metro/ BRT) Commercial rapid transit stations, limiting the size Offices/ Light Industrial of each community to a maximum of Schools/ Libraries/ Civic uses 250 families. Public Parks Source: Paromita (Romi) Roy Romi Roy JNNURM, 2009
    89. 89. Principle 5) High/ appropriate density near Stations Maximum people Live, Work & Play within 5-min walk of RAPID TRANSIT Stations Transit Node Express Bus Route Responsive Planning is the reason for success of BRT in Curitiba Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    90. 90. Principle 5) High/ appropriate density near Stations Maximum people Live, Work & Play within 5-min walk of RAPID TRANSIT Stations Delhi Curitiba Segregated Uses, Random density Mixed Uses, Transit-Density Pyramid • Reverse Commutes will ensure transit use 24x7. Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    91. 91. Principle 5) High/ appropriate density near Stations The Transportation - Landuse Pyramid (Curitiba): Reason for success of BRT in Curitiba: Romi Roy
    92. 92. Principle 6) Leveraging of Private investment for Public Benefit : Cross Subsidization of Services Expand Public Transportation Designated Neighborhood level Open Space Provision and Maintenance. Taxes Requisites Private In-situ Upgradation/ Investment Redevelopment of slums Incentives Bonuses and/ or provision of low-income housing near stations. Provision of schools and civic facilities. Maintenance of public realm. Romi Roy UTTIPEC
    93. 93. Potential Benefits of TOD for Delhi Benefits to Society, to the City: • Opportunity to walk/ cycle to a fast, convenient, safe and affordable Public Transport mode. • Equity of access to Transit and other amenities to all sections of society. • Reduced dependency of private car reduces air pollution. • Opportunity to meet the housing deficit/ needs with minimal public investment. • Opportunity to utilize private investment for funding of public facilities/ infrastructure/ affordable housing. • Potential to generate long term funding for participating public transport agency. • Opportunity to conserve environmentally sensitive/ virgin lands through compact development. Benefits to Transit Owning Agency: • Increased ridership due to more population living/working within walking distance. • Value Capture for long term funding & maintaining public transportation system. Benefits to Land, Road & Service Owning Agencies: • Potentially increased revenue from land within TOD “influence zone”. • Potential for long term funding/ maintenance of streets, parks, public spaces. • City level reduced infrastructure costs (reduced length of roads, pipes, cables, tunnels, etc.) • Increased feasibility for sustainable decentralized physical infrastructure. Romi Roy
    94. 94. We need to stop putting flyover “band-aids” all over our city. Without the above policy changes for Transit Oriented Development, Delhi will continue heading in the WRONG direction…
    95. 95. See also…
    96. 96. Vision for a “World Class” Delhi • Safe • Clean, Green & Usable • Well Connected • With Civic Pride • Democratic & Transparent

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