Memos and emails


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Memos and emails

  1. 1. Memos and emails Official business messages Professional approach
  2. 2. Memos <ul><li>Memorandum </li></ul><ul><li>Used for communication within the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for information </li></ul><ul><li>Give information </li></ul><ul><li>Request decision or action </li></ul><ul><li>Convey information about action or decision. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Format of a memo <ul><li>Memos have just 2 sections :heading and the body. </li></ul><ul><li>A memo format may be vertical or horizontal. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical format: all lines of formal info begin at the left margin. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal format: to and from begin at lefyt margin while date and subject are at the right. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Format <ul><li>A memo should- </li></ul><ul><li>Have a one inch margin all around. </li></ul><ul><li>Be left justified. </li></ul><ul><li>Have block style paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Be single spaced. </li></ul><ul><li>Double space between paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>12 size font </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A well written memo is informative and concise. Writing a memo needs preparation and organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A memo is always brief. Be plain, direct and concise using a comfortable natural style. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a style that is cordial, straight forward, lucid and yet formal. be conversational. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Email messages <ul><li>Used for communication within and outside the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Speed-at times can create problem. </li></ul><ul><li>netiquette-email etiquette. </li></ul><ul><li>Email messages need to be professional and smart: </li></ul><ul><li>be concise and to the point. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a specific subject line </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your self ,if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Include necessary info </li></ul><ul><li>Keep message focused </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a professional tone. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Tone and language of email message must be professional and have: </li></ul><ul><li>Standard capitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Proper punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Correct spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Standard font size </li></ul><ul><li>No short forms </li></ul><ul><li>Criticizing words, angry phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard English </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>While sending important email </li></ul><ul><li>Use a proper suitable salutation </li></ul><ul><li>Add your signature to email message </li></ul><ul><li>No privacy in email </li></ul><ul><li>Respond promptly </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up urgent matters by phone </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid making needless printouts </li></ul><ul><li>delete needless information </li></ul><ul><li>Do not send unsolicited emails </li></ul><ul><li>Keep date settings and internal clock of computer accurate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reports- types and structures <ul><li>A report is a logical and systematic presentation of facts and information related to a specific topic.It is defined as a written statement of the facts of a situation ,a project, a process or a test. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: information needed for reviewing and evaluating progress </li></ul><ul><li>Planning future course of action </li></ul><ul><li>Taking decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Reports provide feedback to managers for performance, keep a check on a continuing activity </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for future needs </li></ul><ul><li>Survey market for launching a new product. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of reports <ul><li>Routine </li></ul><ul><li>Special </li></ul><ul><li>Routine-periodical, prepared by filling printed/cyclostyled formsto conveybstandarised information about the progress or statusof work/tasks.submitted at regular intervals or soon after completion. </li></ul><ul><li>Special-required when a special situation or problem arises. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types <ul><li>Routine reports: </li></ul><ul><li>Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Periodical </li></ul><ul><li>Special reports </li></ul><ul><li>First information report </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility or survey report </li></ul><ul><li>Project report </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Reports by individuals: short written in a letter form. long report written in schematic form. </li></ul><ul><li>Reports by committee: schematic form on organization’s letterhead. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of a report: divided in to sections with headings ,so that info collected can be presented in a form that is easy to read and refer.a covering letter accompanies the report. </li></ul><ul><li>A report is formal and follows a logical order. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Parts of a report <ul><li>Report has several sections enabling easy to read form. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential sections: </li></ul><ul><li>letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology/findings </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><li>bibliography </li></ul>
  14. 14. Business reports <ul><li>Analyse the problem and the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate the audience response and issues that will arise </li></ul><ul><li>Research the data and collect information </li></ul><ul><li>Organize, analyse, interpret the data, prepare illustrations if appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Compose the first draft </li></ul><ul><li>Revise proof read and evaluate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Steps in preparing to write a report <ul><li>Understand the assignment clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of purpose :expanded to include significance, scope and limitations of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipating the audience and its reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the outline </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: collecting material/information sources: personal observation, printed info and records, people, other media internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing collected information </li></ul><ul><li>Composing the report </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Principles of work <ul><li>Always keep the readers and their needs in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Choose simple words </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific and precise </li></ul><ul><li>Never exaggerate </li></ul><ul><li>Write to inform and not impress </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify, justify , quantify </li></ul>
  17. 17. Order of writing <ul><li>Main body </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillary parts-content, acknowledgement, reference, appendices, bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Remember reader’s response </li></ul><ul><li>Revising: proof reading and evaluation </li></ul>