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E commerce052503

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E commerce052503

  1. 1. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management The Survivals of eCommerce Systems After the WTC Attacks John R. Harrald, Ph.D. Youn Hee Kim, M.S. Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management The George Washington UniversitySupported by NSF Grant CMS 0219953
  2. 2. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Contents• Project overview• Research method• eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• Technology for surviving• Future research tasks
  3. 3. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management September 11, 2001
  4. 4. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management September 11, 2001• 19 terrorists hijacked 4 aircraft for suicide attacks• Almost 3000 people killed• In Manhattan: - 34.5 million ft2 office space lost - $50-70 billion in insured losses• Most of these direct economic losses were incurred by the private sector
  5. 5. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk ManagementTerrorist Groups are Targeting U.S. and World Economy “The settlement of this overburdened account will indeed be heavy. We will also aim to continue, by permission of Allah, the destruction of the American economy.” Ayman Al-Zawahiri, head of Al-Qaeda operational planning (6 October, 2002)
  6. 6. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Project overview• National Science Foundation Funded the study: Financial and Strategic impacts of the attacks on large publicly held corporations.• Project consists of three sections – Section 1: Organizational strategies for coping with extreme events – Sections 2: System recovery from extreme events – Section 3: Defining of a common body of knowledge for executive level crisis managements of extreme events
  7. 7. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Research method• Select target companies out of 330 companies in WTC• Compare the financial performance for 18 months by using stock price.• Conduct personal interviews and surveys to CEOs, CIOs and other executive officers and technical personnel• Analyze data and compare the result of three sections
  8. 8. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Selection of Companies GOAL: To sort through the thousands of companies that had been directly affected by the attacks in order to formulate a list of 20 and 25 companies to be studied www.tenantwise.com
  9. 9. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Results • Company 30, Fast Recovery Example
  10. 10. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Results Company 33, Non-Recovery Example
  11. 11. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management ResultsRanked Average change in Stock price between 9/11/2001 & 3/11/2003
  12. 12. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Research method for the section 2: system recovery from extreme events
  13. 13. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• Merrill Lynch, one of the largest investment firm – Number of employees lost : 3 – Amount of office space lost: 2,083,555 – Physical location affected: 4 World Financial Center, Whole Building – 2002 revenue: $28.5billion – Headquarters: 4 World Financial Center, New York, NY 10080
  14. 14. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• Merrill Lynch, one of the largest investment firm – Returned back to work within 24hours – Transferring trading operations to London, Tokyo and Hong Kong – Used their web site to communicate relocation and emergency transportation information to employees
  15. 15. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk ManagementMerrill Lynch stock performance
  16. 16. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• Citigroup – Number of employees lost: 3 – Amount of office space lost : 7 WTC (7 WTC was leased to Citicorp) – 2002 net income before taxes: $ 20.537 billion – Headquarters: Citigroup Inc. 399 Park Avenue, New York, NY, 10043
  17. 17. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• Citigroup – Returned back to work within 24 hours – Transferred Series of computer and backup data to another branches (as far as London) – Obtain a spare office location for emergency use
  18. 18. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• Marsh & McLennan Cos. – Number of employees: 295 (mostly, IT staffs) – Amount of office space lost: 600,000 sq.ft. (North Tower, Floors 93-100 ) – 2002 revenue: $10.4 billion – Headquarters: 1166 Avenue of the Americas, New York City, NY
  19. 19. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• Marsh & McLennan Cos. – Came back to work few days after the attack – Using the international structure, the firm quickly pulled lost data from other locations – Relocated workers to New Jersey and Pennsylvania within 7-10 days
  20. 20. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Marsh & McLennan stock performance
  21. 21. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• NYBOT(New York Board Of Trade) – Parent company of coffee, sugar and cocoa exchange Inc.(CSCE) and the New York Cotton Exchange (NYCE). – Lost its primary trading facility in WTC – Lost the main trading machines in WTC
  22. 22. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management eCommerce system recovery overview at WTC• NYBOT(New York Board Of Trade) – Returned back to the normal situation after 7 days (Monday, Sept. 17th) – Prepared the hot site with Comdisco (commercial disaster recovery service bureau in 1993, $300,000 maintain cost/year) – Adding 700 phone line and 20 T-1 to the hot site and run the business.
  23. 23. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Critical Success Factors• Preparedness – Intensive preparation after the WTC bombing in 1993 • NYBOT: started to build the hot site in 1995 • AON: prepared disaster recovery plan – Y2K preparation • Merrill Lynch: prepare the data center for the computer malfunctions.
  24. 24. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Critical Success Factors• Action – Rapid decision making procedures • Marsh and McLennan: rapidly decided the office relocations and – Knowledgeable technical staffs and vendors supports • NYBOT: added the phone line and T-1 lines within one day with vendor’s quick supports.
  25. 25. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Technology for surviving• Mirroring (data shadowing) – Merrill Lynch used this technology to protect critical data as a part of their Y2K preparation – Many e-commerce companies use this technique to transfer the important data – Version and IBM start to service the rerouting calls service from a damaged office to another location
  26. 26. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Technology for surviving• Clustering/zoning – Isolation technique to prevent localized failure impacting the entire storage system.• Wireless technology – NOBOT: distributed 200 cells to trader after the attack – After the attack, many companies consider wireless network service options for reliable data communications.
  27. 27. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Technology for surviving• Data redundancy – Successfully recovered companies had a redundancy data (customer records, transactions records) in other locations. – Hot site and cold site is also part of redundancy strategies. – Doing regular data/log back up and save them to multiple places are the key.
  28. 28. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Next Tasks Determine what caused discrepancies between the outliers, and confirm our findings regarding market absorption of financial loss, Investigate strategic impact on corporations not directly impacted by WTC attack and compare with sample companies. Interviews, surveys will investigate specific eCommerce issues
  29. 29. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management How was Framework for Analysis it used? of Strategic Impacts What was How did What wasWhat was modified or it work? learned?in place? changed? What was improvised? Revised Corporate Strategy Investments in preparedness
  30. 30. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Expected ResultsUnique evaluation of financial impacts ofWTC attacks on large corporations.Evaluation of corporate preparedness, disasterrecovery and business continuity strategiesprocedures, and technology.Evaluation of survival techniques andTechnologies for eCommerceBetter understanding of impact of extreme eventsevents on corporate strategy, plans, & investment
  31. 31. The George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Questions?For additional information contact John R. Harrald at jharrald@gwu.edu (202) 994-7153 www.gwu.edu/~icdrm

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