Answers for GCE O level Geography paper 2014
1a Using Table 1 to state in which month and what time of day there
was the greatest difference between pedestrian numbers on the
footbridge and the MRT exit.
July, 1100-1159 
1b The students wanted to present a graphical comparison of the
number of pedestrians shown in table 1. Describe a suitable
method that they could use to show this information.
Award 1 mark for identifying of the method.
Award 1 mark for describing it.
Students can use a bar graph, with Y axis as the number of
pedestrian, x axis as the timing throughout the survey date. 
Present it in bar graph with data of MRT exit and uncovered
footbridge side by side. There must also be a legend to indicate
the data of MTR and uncovered footbridge.
1c One student suggested that other factors, besides the festival,
affected pedestrian numbers on the uncovered footbridge. Based
on other factor, ask a suitable guiding question. State how either
the data already collected or other data could be used to answer
1 mark for identifying the factor
1 mark for the stating of a guiding question.
1 mark for explaining howdata will support the investigation and 1
mark for the use of evidence from table 1.
Other factors that affect the pedestrian number on the uncovered
footbridge include weather.
One questions to be used include, “How would the weather
influence your decision to use the walkway?” 
Total number of the number of pedestrians using the walkway on
rainy and sunny day to see the difference due to the weather.
For e.g. numbers of pedestrian using walkway on sunny day is
841 while the numbers of pedestrian using walkway on raining
day is 387.
1d When evaluating the study, one student stated that an increase in
the total number of pedestrians might not be due to additional
tourists being attracted to the shopping festival. Briefly suggest
two other reasons for the increase in the number of pedestrians.
Award 1 mark for each possible reason identified.
New opening of retail outlets in the shopping mall could be a
reason that attracted more people to visit the area, contributing to
the increased in the total number of pedestrians.
Bad weather with heavy rain had contributed people to be
restricted in their movement, resulting them to seek shelter at the
shopping mall, resulting higher pedestrian count into the mall.
Describe and justify a method that could be used to determine if
the increase could be explained by additional tourists.
Award 1 mark for identifying the method.
Award 2 marks for describing it.
Award 1 mark for justifying the use of the method.
A questionnaire could be conducted with a sampling size of 50 
Random sampling could be used for the conducting of the
questionnaire , in which specific questions would be asked to
verify if the pedestrians were tourists and their purpose of visit. 
By doing questionnaire with random sampling, it will not be bias
and it allows a good representation on the type of pedestrians,
tourists and non-tourists. 
2a State the average wind speed for location A in KPH (Km per hour) 
(2+3+8+11)/ 4= 6 kph
b Suggest how the changes in temperature at the 3 locations could
be shown on 1 graph.
Award 1 mark for identifying the method. Award 1 mark for
describing how it could be shown.
A line graph could be used, with x axis being the time while Y axis
being the temperature. A legend which shows the different
symbols that represent the different location will be stated at the
side of the graph.
c One student thought that the results could be explained by the
amount of sunlight reaching the ground. Suggest how this might
be related to the results the students obtained.
As shown from the result, the difference in temperature in the 3
sites are likely due to the difference in the thickness of the
vegetation that affected the amount of sunlight reaching the
For e.g, the average temperature at site A is 29.25°C while the
average temperature at site c is 27°C. 
As the vegetation in site A comprises only short grass which
could not block away the sunlight, the ground received optimal
amount of sunlight, heating it up, resulting higher temperature. 
In contrast, as the vegetation in site C comprises largely thick
vegetation of dense woodland, its’ leaf block out the sunlight,
resulting lesser heat on the ground, resulting lower temperature
than site A.
D The students thought that the vegetation cover might influence
how much rain reached the ground during the storm. Suggest a
suitable hypothesis to test this and name an instrument which
would be used to gather data.
The denser the vegetation cover, the lower the amount of rainfall
reaching the ground during the storm.
A rain gauge can be used to measure the amount of rainfall
during a rain event.
e Describe the steps that the students would need to take to ensure
that their rainfall records were as accurate as possible.
1. Position the rain gauge in an open area where it is not close to
building or trees. This will prevent rainfall from being
intercepted by these objects.
2. Secure and put the rain gauge where there is protection from
the wind as the wind may blow the rain past the rain gauge
leading to underestimation of rainfall.
3. Prevent the rain gauge from falling over by sinking into the
ground with about 30 cm protruding above ground. *This will
prevent the rainwater from splashing which may result in in
4. Record the time at which rainfall event starts and end. Pour
the collected water into the rain gauge into a measuring
cylinder. Read and record the water level at eye level to
prevent parallax error.
3a Using fig.3, to state the difference in precipitation between the
wettest and the driest months in Moscow.
b Describe how seasonal temperatures vary in cool temperate
The cool temperate climates are characterised by 4 distinct
seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter due to the tilt of
the earth and its revolution around the sun.
As a result, places with cool temperate climate experience mild
winters and cool summers.
During winter, these places have shorter days and receive less
energy from the sun, This results in a large annual temperature
range of 25°C with temperatures ranging between -3°C to 22°C
throughout the year.
C “The economic advantages of tourism outweigh any
disadvantages it might bring.” To what extent is this true? Explain
Positive Economic Impacts:
D Tourism brings more employment opportunities.
Employment is work performed for a wage or salary, in
cash or in kind. Employment in the tourist industry forms
part of service sector of an economy.
E The tourism industry offers many employment
opportunities such as workers in hotels, transport vehicles,
souvenir shops and tour agencies.
E In 2011, the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO)
estimated that the tourism industry employed over 235
million people worldwide. This is roughly 6 to 8% of all jobs
in the world.
L Thus, tourism brings positive economic impacts as it
creates more jobs in the industry.
D Tourism brings growth in income. Income refers to the
money received usually through work on a regular basis.
E With more tourists visiting, there will be a high demand for
more services and goods. The tourism receipts will thus
increase which will then lead to an overall increase in
revenue for the country through taxes collected.
E Local tour companies hire fishermen on Pamilacan Island
in the Philippines to take domestic and international
tourists on their boats to look for and swim with whale
sharks and dolphins. The fishermen are paid between
US$80 to US$100 per boat for their service, which is a
significant amount for an average Filipino fisherman.
L Thus, growth in income is one of the positive economic
impacts as it improves the country’s economy as a whole.
D Tourism brings an increase in foreign exchange. Foreign
exchange is money earned from other countries in
exchange for good and services.
E Many countries that host large numbers of tourists will
receive considerable tourism business investments from
Singapore plays host to many international hotel chains such
as the InterContinental which invest in building and
furnishing hotels and resorts, and training staff at tourist
destinations. Because these hotels operate in Singapore,
they exchange their own currency to purchase Singapore
dollars in order to make their investments. This increases
the demand for Singapore dollars and contributes to
Singapore’s capital inflow.
L Thus, increase foreign exchange is one of the positive
economic impacts as it allows the receiving country to
purchase goods and service from elsewhere in the world.
D There might be seasonal unemployment. Unemployment is
the state of losing one’s job and source of income.
E Certain tourist activities depend on climatic conditions.
These countries may experience a rise in tourist numbers
for several months followed by a drop in tourist numbers
for the next few months. As a result, people in some
tourism-related jobs may have to find other sources of
income when employment in the tourism industry is
E The city of Sapporo in Japan receives a large number of
visitors from December to February. Many visitors who go
during these times plan to engage in winter sports such as
skiing and snowboarding. Mountain ski resort operators will
need to employ more people during winter to cater to the
high tourist demand.
L Thus, this is not beneficial to the economy as the people in
the country will lose their jobs for a period of time.
D There might be an underuse of facilities. Facilities can be
built specifically for certain events such as sports stadium.
E Some types of tourism are seasonal. Facilities might be
underused when the event is over. When this happens,
these facilities can be costly to maintain. Money from
tourists normally pays for the cost of maintaining such
facilities. Hence, some of these facilities may become
neglected when there are few tourists.
E Some of the venues built specifically for the 2008 Summer
Olympic Games in Beijing, China, were reported to be
deterioting a few years after the Olympics. Some has to be
renovated to become more profitable.
L Thus, it is not beneficial to the economy when facilities are
underused and not be able to be maintained.
4a Using the Fig. 4, state the number of years that had
temperatures more than 1°C above average after 2000.
4b Explain how weather differs from climate. 
Weather is different from climate in terms of the duration of the
atmospheric condition. 
Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place
and time while climate is the average condition of the
atmosphere of a specific place over a long period of time, usually
over 30 years
4C “Distance from the sea is the most important factor affecting
temperature at a location.” TO what extent is this true? Support
your answer with evidence.
Possible points for essay for the other factor:
Distance from sea – The sea heats up and cools down more
slowly than the land. The difference in the rate of heating and
cooling of the sea and land affects the temperature of coastal and
inland areas. This results in both maritime and continental effect.
Maritime effect is the effect that large ocean bodies have on the
climate of coastal areas, It causes coastal areas to have a smaller
annual temperature range. Continental effect is the effect that
continental surfaces have on the climate of inland areas. For
example, inland areas experience warmer summers and colder
winters, and a larger annual temperature range than coastal
The amount of cloud cover influences the temperatures on the
earth’s surface in the day and at night. More cloud cover results in
a smaller difference between day and night temperatures, so the
diurnal temperature range is smaller. For example, in a desert
area with little or no clouds, sun energy is able to reach the
earth’s surface causing it to heat up quickly resulting in a warmer
day. Similarly during the night, without the presence of clouds,
heat radiated from the earth’s surface is able to escape to space
easily resulting in a cooler night. However, cloud cover is not the
sole factor that causes temperature variations in different
Latitude is one of the most important factors affecting the
temperature between locations of different latitude. Latitude is the
distance of any point on the earth measured north or south from
the equator. Latitude is imaginary lines running from east to west
around the earth and is measured in degrees. The temperature
differs between places at lower latitudes and higher latitudes
because the sun’s rays strike various parts of the world at
different angles. The earth tilts at 23.5 degrees on its own axis.
As a result, sun’s rays strike at various angles at different parts of
the earth. The angle of incidence is the angle at which the sun’s
rays reach the earth. When the angle of incidence is higher, the
sun’s rays are more concentrated on the area. For example, the
north and south poles experiences lower temperature because
the sun’s ray strike at a lower angle and the solar energy is
spread out over a wider area as compared to the equator where
the sun’s rays are concentrated on a small area.
5a) Study Fig.5, which shows preferences for four types of food in 
LDCs and DCs between 1990 and 2010. Using the Fig.5 to
compare the changes in food preferences for cereals and
diary between LDCs and DCs between 1990 and 2010.
The difference in cereal consumption between LDCs and DCs
has increased from 10kg/person per year in 1990 to 44kg/person
per year in 2010. (34)
The difference in diary consumption between LDCs and DCs has
decreased from 160kg/ person per year in 1990 to 120 kg/person
per year in 2010. (40)
There is a greater change of 6kg/person per year for diary
consumption as compared to cereal consumption between LDCs
5b) Describe and suggest reasons for any relationship between GDP
per capita and daily calorie intake shown in Fig.6.
Increase in GDP will result in higher calories intake. 
For e.g, when the GDP per capita is 4000, calorie intake per day
is 3100. However, as the GPD per capita increased to 22 000, the
calorie intake per day is 3600. 
The higher the GDP per capita suggests that the country is more
likely to be developed, with good job opportunities. As such,
people will likely to have high wage jobs, therefore, higher
disposable income, allowing them to spend and purchase more
food for consumption.
5c) With the help of information from Fig.7, explain why difference
types of plate boundary occur.
With reference from Fig.7, the movement of convection currents
have resulted in plate boundaries such as diverging  and
converging plates boundaries .
Convection currents are the movement of the heat within the
mantle. Materials from the mantle is heated by the core, causing
the mantle materials to expand, rise and spread out beneath the
plates.  As these plates spread out away from each other,
diverging plates boundaries are formed.
As the semi-molten rock cools, become denser and sinks to
where it is heated, it pulls the plates along, resulting converging
plates boundaries to be formed. 
Slab pull force occurs when a denser oceanic plate is forced
beneath a lesser dense plate, resulting to subduction. As such
plates will be pulled along, driving the downward movement,
resulting in converging plate boundaries. 
5d Using the information from photographs C and D to help explain
why volcanic eruptions can cause hazards for people living
As shown in the photograph D, severe pollution can occur
during a volcanic eruption. Large amount of ash particles were
ejected during a volcanic eruption, with thick plumes of ash,
carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide released to the
Not only these gases are harmful to people, it can block sunlight,
suffocate crops and cause severe respiratory problems for people
As shown in photograph C and D, volcanic materials produced by
volcanic eruptions include lava and rock fragments and these
volcanic materials can potential lead to widespread of damage of
Also, lava with high temperature can burn the areas it flows
6a Describe the changes in land ownership between 1990 and 2010
shown in Fig.8.
Firstly, land was distributed more equally between 1990 and
2010. In 1990, the lands were divided unequally among 5 farmers
while lands were divided more equally among 2 farmers in
Secondly, land distribution was more systematic. Previously,
lands owned by 5 farmer were spread out in a unsystematic
manner across the area in 1990 while lands owned by the 2
farmers were spread out systematic manner with the land on the
west belonged to farmer A and land on the East belonged to
Lastly, there were changes in land size. Land size obtained by
5 farmer was smaller in 1990 while land size obtained by 2 farmer
was bigger in 2010, therefore, having higher crop yield.
6b Explain why changes in land ownership in fig.8 may have led to
an increase in productivity in the area.
With the change in the land ownership, with bigger land mass, it
is more suitable and profitable to use machineries for
farming.  Hence, lesser labours are needed at the farmland
but at the same time, with the use of machineries, it increase crop
production, therefore increase in productivity. 
Also, with the changes in land ownership and having more land
areas, farmers will be more motivated to produce crops not
only to meet the consumption needs of the farmers but also crops
for sales, resulting more crop production, therefore higher
productivity in the areas. 
6c Using information from Fig 9 to explain why large food companies
are able to intensify food production.
As shown in Fig.9, these large food companies are involved with
most industries along a food supply chain, including farming,
processing and retailing. Hence, they have a large vast of
resources/ machineries needed to increase food production. 
This helps to speed up the processes involved in preparing the
land, tending to crops and harvesting.
Also, these food companies place importance on scientific
principles in farming, investing a lot on the research and
development of food crops, producing crops that can have
greater crop yield within shorter growing season.
6d Study Photograph E, describe how food stock piling takes place
and explain how it helps governments achieve food security.
For a country to ensure a stable supply of food, it has to ensure
that food is readily available for its population
Stockpiling is the setting aside and storage of food to ensure food
security during emergencies.  As shown from the photographs,
workers were required to pile up important stapled food such as
sacks of rice.
The piling of food comes from either local farms or imported from
By stockpiling, government would still be able to provide food for
their population should there be any situation of food shortages or
price increase of food times.