Renewable And Non Renewable Sources Of Energy


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  • There is likely to be enough reserves for 300 years: coal It is easily converted into electricity: coal, oil and gas It is used as a direct source for heating: coal It is efficient to burn: gas and oil It is the cleanest of all fossil fuels: gas It is used as a direct source for cooking: gas
  • Renewable And Non Renewable Sources Of Energy

    2. 2. Types of resources. Problems of Non-renewable energy & methods to reduce pollution and conserve resources.
    3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>To understand what a resource is. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the difference between non-renewable and renewable resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the advantages/disadvantages of using non-renewable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand how we can conserve resources/reduce pollution. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Definition of what a ‘resource’ is. </li></ul><ul><li>2) List of as many resources. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Many issues surrounding resources. </li></ul>
    5. 5. A resource is anything we can use to help us live and work Oil, coal, gas, trees, soil, wind, waves, sun, people, the countryside, water, rocks etc Conflict over ownership, depletion, pollution
    6. 6. What is a resource <ul><li>A) Things that humans can use. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Fuel supplies already discovered that can be used in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Recovery of waste products to convert into materials that can be used again. </li></ul>
    7. 7. WHY HAS RESOURCE USE INCREASED? Population Increase Increase in Technology Increase in purchasing power in LEDCs Increase in disposable income.
    8. 8. Fuel Use
    9. 9. Wealth (1990) Fuel Use (2002)
    10. 10. There is likely to be a big increase in the use of energy by the year 2010: <ul><li>A) Because there will be more people in the world so they will need more energy. </li></ul><ul><li>B) There is likely to be a big increase in the use of energy by the year 2010 because the worlds’ population will have increased meaning that there will be higher energy requirements. More people will have things like fridges and have to cook food or keep warm, which means more energy used. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Also, as countries develop they use more energy because they are able to afford labour saving devices, tools and gadgets which we take for granted in the developed world, like TVs, computers, cars etc. Energy is required not only in running these devices but also in their manufacture. </li></ul><ul><li>C) There will be a big energy increase by 2010 because statistics show that energy use has always increased over time and because there will be more people, they will use more energy than if there were less people. Also, China and India are using up lots of energy </li></ul>
    12. 12. Energy use increase as a country develops : <ul><li>A) As countries become more developed there is a greater demand for energy because people get more materialistic and buy more products which use energy both in their manufacture as well as in their use. For example, people will buy labour saving devices like cars and dishwashers. These both use up energy when they are made and every time they are used. Also, as countries develop their industries develop and industry is a large consumer of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>B) As countries get richer they use more energy because everybody gets cars and electrical goods. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>These both use lots of oil and electricity, so this is why energy use will increase. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Energy use might increase as a country gets more developed because when a country gets richer its population increases dramatically. This rise in population means that more coal and gas is needed to heat their homes. They will also need lots more petrol and diesel to fuel all the extra cars and lorries that will be on the road. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Natural resource Renewable resource Non-renewable resource Energy Fuel
    15. 15. What is meant by the term non-renewable <ul><li>A) Resources which cannot be used again and again, like water and wind. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas, which are finite, and will eventually run out are examples. Once they have been used they can’t be used again. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Fossil fuels made from trees and plants. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Advantages of Natural Resources Renewable Non renewable <ul><li>Cheap to operate - Very cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Clean - Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Do not damage the - Can produce a lot of </li></ul><ul><li>environment energy in a short time </li></ul>
    17. 17. Disadvantages of Natural Resources Renewable Non renewable <ul><li>Expensive to build - They will run out </li></ul><ul><li>Can be noisy - Very ‘dirty’ </li></ul><ul><li>Generally - Harmful to the </li></ul><ul><li>unattractive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Does not produce - </li></ul><ul><li>‘ lots’ of energy </li></ul>
    18. 18. Energy sources
    19. 19. Non-renewable energy resources Non-renewable types of energy can only be used once. There is a finite amount of these materials on the Earth so they will run out eventually. Non-renewable resources make up approximately 95% of the world’s energy. fossil fuels nuclear coal gas oil fuelwood Non-renewable energy biomass mineral
    20. 20. Fossil fuels – How much is left ?
    21. 21. Ten things about Fossil Fuels: <ul><li>Three main types: oil; coal; natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Take millions of years to form </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be replaced once used: non-renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Found beneath the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Can be difficult to get to </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt to give off heat </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt in power stations to generate electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Give off carbon dioxide when burnt </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelwood is a fossil fuel </li></ul><ul><li>One day they could run out </li></ul>
    22. 22. Advantages of using fossil fuels
    23. 23. Disadvantages of using fossil fuels. <ul><li>Acid Rain (due to pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming (due to pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource depletion & competition </li></ul>
    24. 24. Acid Rain
    25. 25. How can acid rain be managed? gas flue desulfurization (water is sprayed down the chimneys and this turns the gases to sulfuric and nitric acids) construct taller chimneys use less energy more efficiently fluidized bed technology (limestone is burnt with the coal so that the sulfur remains with the limestone) burn coal that contains less sulfur use more nuclear or renewable energy
    26. 26. Environmental Concerns The warming of the Earth’s atmosphere, probably due to increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Global Warming
    27. 27. Greenhouse Effect
    28. 28. The Natural Resources Defence Council lists the following 9 consequences of climate change. <ul><li>Warmer temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>More drought and wildfires </li></ul><ul><li>More intense rainstorms </li></ul><ul><li>More deadly heat waves </li></ul><ul><li>Increased spread of disease </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful & dangerous hurricanes </li></ul><ul><li>Melting glaciers </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem changes and species die-off </li></ul>
    29. 29. The predicted impacts of global warming on the world. Bangladesh is already prone to flooding, so rising water levels could devastate the country. Rising temperatures worldwide would cause ski resorts to be wrecked as heat will melt the snow & ice there. Water shortages in the Middle East would cause the River Nile to dry up due to intense evaporation. Mediterranean beaches will vanish as water levels rise. Sahara desert could move northwards, even as far as Spain. Arctic ice cap melts. Heavy storms not only threaten southern USA, but also the insurance companies in the area face bankruptcy. Forests are damaged by heat and drought Permafrost ground will melt, causing massive landslides. Oil pipelines, houses and road foundations will be disintegrated
    30. 30. Below are a list of things that could be done to try to tackle global warming. Switch off lights & appliances Taxes on high polluting industries Choose energy efficient appliances Sign up to the Kyoto Protocol Recycle Use less fossil fuels and more renewable energy sources Use energy efficient transport Car sharing Improved public transport Higher taxes on polluting cars Grants for businesses that have clean policies Energy efficient light bulbs Offset carbon emissions Local Holidays
    31. 31. <ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>An international conference that took place in 1997 focussing on climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals: </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory reduction in CO2 emissions by 5% for MEDCs by 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>LEDCs did not have to reduce emissions as they were still developing. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>US did not ratify the agreement – their emissions have increased by 3% a year since. </li></ul><ul><li>LEDCs are now very industralised – China & India </li></ul><ul><li>The reduction wasn’t big enough to have an effect – environmentalists suggest 60% reduction is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Several MEDC even find it hard to meet the 5% target – due to costs – The UK emissions have increased by 5.5% between 1997 and 2005. </li></ul>
    32. 32. What is global warming <ul><li>A) Global warming is the filling up of the earth’s atmosphere with pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Global warming is the increase in the earths overall temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Global warming is the hole in the earth’s atmosphere letting more heat in from the sun. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Why it is important to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide being released? <ul><li>A) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because it is one of the greenhouse gases that is responsible for accelerating the natural greenhouse effect which is causing global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>B) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because it is one of the greenhouse gases that is responsible for causing a hole in the earth’s ozone layer which is causing global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>C) It is important to reduce the amount of CO2 because It is responsible for causing acid rain which erodes buildings. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Why the control of pollution needs to be agreed by many countries if it is to be successful <ul><li>A) Pollution is a worldwide problem and can cross the borders of many countries so all countries need to work together to control pollution. An example of this is acid rain which has been caused by coal fired power stations in the UK but effects Sweden and Germany because of wind blown air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Pollution control needs to be agreed by many countries because the more countries controlling pollution the less pollution there is in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>C) If more countries agree to control pollution it means that global warming will stop and the ice caps will not melt. This will be good for us because it means that we will not have another ice age like in the film “The Day After Tomorrow”. </li></ul>
    35. 35. How else can we preserve resources and reduce pollution? Resource Substitution This is where you use one product in place of another one. For example using aluminium instead of tin cans as it is cheaper and easier to recycle. Recycling Recovery of waste products by converting them into materials that can be used again. For example glass bottles, aluminium cans (only uses 5% of energy it takes to make them from scratch) Energy Efficiency Measures to reduce heat and energy loss. Individually this means switching off lights, using low energy light bulbs, insulating our homes. Also government has introduced building regulations and energy efficiency ratings on electrical products, more energy efficient cars – car in Europe is on average 90% cleaner than 10 years ago. Reducing Pollution Measures to stop emission reaching atmosphere or cleaning the emissions before they do. For example. fitting giant scrubbers on coal power stations, trying to switch from coal to gas power stations and fitting catalytic converters to cars. Alternative Energy Sources Energy sources that can be used instead of fossil fuels. These can include nuclear or renewable sources such as wind or solar.
    36. 36. How recycling can help reduce damage to the environment <ul><li>A) Recycling old or waste products can help reduce damage to the environment by conserving the natural resources that are needed to make these products. Also, energy can be saved in recycling goods rather than make new goods from raw materials. An example of this is the recycling of old aluminium cans which only uses 5% of the energy required to make new cans from bauxite, it’s raw material. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Recycling means using alternative materials to make products. This saves both energy and natural resources. An example of this is the use of copper to make pipes for plumbing when lead became scarce. We have preserved our lead supplies and copper is also cheaper. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Recycling is good for the environment because it means that we are conserving valuable resources for the future. It also means that if we recycle we will use less energy by driving to take all our old products to the bottle and paper banks, than if we just threw these things in the bin and let the council sort the rubbish out for us. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Why there is an increasing demand for resources such as those found in Antarctica ? <ul><li>A) Because Antarctica has lots of supplies of oil, coal and gas which other countries need. </li></ul><ul><li>B) There is an increased demand for the fossil fuels which Antarctica is believed to be rich in because the world’s known reserves of these resources are finite and will eventually run out. Society has come to be reliant on these resources to help meet their energy needs. Also, there is a huge demand for fish which could help to feed the growing populations of some countries. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Countries will eventually run out of some resources which are unsustainable, like fossil fuels. They can get these from Antarctica instead. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Renewable Energy Resources
    40. 42. Overview of renewable energy <ul><li>Energy from </li></ul><ul><li>a non-nuclear source. </li></ul><ul><li>is in constant supply over time. </li></ul>
    41. 43. Renewable energy scenario in India <ul><li>Promotion of renewable energy technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an environment conducive to promote renewable energy technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an environment conducive for their commercialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy resource assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Research and development, Demonstration and Extension. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of biogas units, solar thermal devices, solar photovoltaics, cook stoves, wind energy and small hydropower units. </li></ul>
    42. 44. Sources of renewable energy <ul><li>SUN </li></ul><ul><li>WIND </li></ul><ul><li>FLOWING WATER </li></ul><ul><li>BIOMASS </li></ul><ul><li>GEOTHERMAL ENERGY </li></ul>
    43. 45. Use of renewable sources of energy heat electricity Vehicle fuel Water power yes Biomass energy yes yes yes Wind power yes Solar energy yes yes Geothermal energy yes yes
    44. 46. SOLAR ENERGY <ul><li>Solar energy is energy that comes directly from the sun. The sun is a constant natural source of heat and light, and its radiation can be converted to electricity. </li></ul>
    45. 47. Solar technologies <ul><li>Solar electric </li></ul><ul><li>Solar water heating </li></ul><ul><li>Solar space heating </li></ul>
    46. 48. Solar electric <ul><li>Energy from the sun can be directly converted to electricity using solar cells, also known as photovoltaics or PVs. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>-pollution free </li></ul><ul><li>-20-25 year warranty </li></ul><ul><li>-used to offset utility power </li></ul><ul><li>-stand-alone power for remote applications </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><li>- Costs 3-5 times more than utility power </li></ul>
    47. 49. <ul><li>Energy Payback Times for Photovoltaic Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Energy payback time (EPBT) is the length of deployment required for a photovoltaic system to generate an amount of energy equal to the total energy that went into its production . </li></ul>
    48. 50. <ul><li>The value of EPBT is dependent on three factors: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) the conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic system; </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the amount of illumination (insolation) that the system receives (about 1700 kWh/m2/yr average for southern Europe and about 1800 kWh/m2/yr average for the United States); and </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) the manufacturing technology that was used to make the photovoltaic (solar) cells. </li></ul>
    49. 51. Solar Space Heating <ul><li>Well-built passive solar homes offer: </li></ul><ul><li>Better temperature control </li></ul><ul><li>Bright day-lit spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Lower energy bills </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements  </li></ul><ul><li>Building layout must maximize passive solar gain (less used areas on north side, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>At least half of the window area must be facing within 30 degrees of due south. </li></ul><ul><li>South window area greater than 7 to 9 percent of total floor area. </li></ul><ul><li>Average window U-factor not greater than 0.35 (area weighted). </li></ul><ul><li>  South window Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) at least 0.55 </li></ul>
    50. 52. WIND ENERGY <ul><li>Natural conditions of climate and geography produce the winds that blow across the landscape. Historically, windmills were used to supply mechanical energy, for example to pump water or grind grain. Modern day wind turbines produce electricity. </li></ul>
    51. 53. WATER <ul><li>Snowmelt and runoff from precipitation at higher elevations flow toward sea level in streams and rivers. In an earlier era, water wheels used the power of flowing water to turn grinding stones and to run mechanical equipment. Modern hydro-turbines use water power to generate hydroelectricity. </li></ul>
    52. 54. BIOMASS ENERGY <ul><li>Biomass is a renewable source of energy because the natural process of photosynthesis constantly produces new organic matter in the growth of trees and plants. Photosynthesis stores the sun´s energy in organic matter. Biomass is used to make heat, electricity and liquid fuels. </li></ul>
    53. 55. Biomass Energy. <ul><li>Biomass is solar energy stored in organic matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The Department of Energy estimates that the total energy value of biomass fuel consumed in Oregon was 79 trillion Btu in 2003. This is about 10 percent of the total amount of non-transportation energy consumed in the state. Biomass supplies about 9 percent of all industrial energy consumed in the state </li></ul>
    54. 56. Consumption of Renewable Energy in the India 2002
    55. 57. Biomass Technology chart. Technology Conversion process type Major Biomass Feedstock Energy or fuel produced . Direct Combustion Thermo chemical Wood, agri waste etc. Heat, steam, elec Gasification Thermochemicl Wood, agri waste, solid waste. low or med Btu producer gas. Pyrolysis Thermochemicl Same as above Synthetic fuel oil Anaerobic digestion Biochemical Anaerobic Animal Manure,landfills Medium Btu Gas. Ethanol Production Biochemical Aerobic Sugar, starch,pulp etc. Ethanol Bio diesel Productn Chemical Soy beans,animal fats. Biodiesel Methanol Production Thermochemical Wood, agri waste, solid waste. Methanol
    56. 58. Biogas technology <ul><li>Digester technology </li></ul>Anaerobic digestion -a biochemical process in which particular kinds of bacteria digest biomass in an oxygen-free environment. Several different types of bacteria work together to break down complex organic wastes in stages, resulting in the production of &quot;biogas.“
    57. 59. Requirements <ul><li>An airtight chamber- Digester </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature-- at least 68 F-150 F </li></ul><ul><li>Close monotoring and diligent maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Biogas – Mixture of carbon dioxide and methane- 90% </li></ul>
    58. 60. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>Heat from deep within the earth is called &quot;geothermal energy.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    59. 61. Cont….. <ul><li>Dry steam-steam out of fractures in the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Flash-steam from hot water usually at temp above 200 deg celcius. </li></ul><ul><li>Binary-the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine </li></ul>
    60. 62. Ethanol as a fuel. <ul><li>Ethanol has a higher octane than gasoline, but its energy content is only about two-thirds the energy content of gasoline. </li></ul><ul><li>Most new cars are designed to run on a blend of gasoline and ethanol. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Gasohol&quot; is a mixture of 90-percent unleaded gasoline and 10-percent denatured ethanol. With modification, spark ignition engines can run on 100-percent ethanol. E-85 fuel consists of 85-percent ethanol and 15-percent gasoline. </li></ul><ul><li>The major automobile manufacturers in the United States now produce flexible fuel vehicles that can use either E-85 fuel or gasoline. </li></ul>
    61. 63. Regulations of Hydro Projects. <ul><li>Access to water and the use, control and diversion of water flows is subject to federal and state regulation. Other regulations apply to any physical alteration of a stream channel or bank that may effect water quality or wildlife habitat.   </li></ul><ul><li>The larger the system, the more complicated, drawn out, and expensive the permitting and approval process will be. Penalties for not having the permits or necessary approvals can be severe. Although the legal process may seem burdensome, the intention of the laws is to protect all users of the resource, including the plant, fish, and animal communities that utilize the water.   </li></ul><ul><li>When planning a hydroelectric system, your first point of contact should be the county engineer. He or she will be the most informed about what restrictions govern the development and/or control of water resources in your area.   </li></ul>
    62. 64. Regulations of Hydro Projects. <ul><li>The two primary federal agencies that you will need to deal with are the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Try contacting the nearest office to you to see if they will assist you; both may be listed in the U.S. government section of your phone book.   </li></ul><ul><li>FERC is responsible for licensing all non-federal government hydroelectric projects under its jurisdiction. You will need to consult with FERC in order to determine whether or not your project falls under FERC’s jurisdiction. If it does, then you will need to apply for a license or exemption from FERC. The FERC application process will require contacting and consulting other federal, state and local government agencies, and providing evidence that you have done so. </li></ul><ul><li>US Army Corp of Engineers  (engineer manuals)   You will also need to determine whether, and to what extent, you can divert water from the stream channel, and what restrictions apply to construction and operation of the system </li></ul>
    63. 65. Power production status of non-conventional energy in India Renewable Power Potential Achieved Wind Power 20,000 MW 1,000 MW Small Hydro Power 10,000 MW 172 MW Biomass 20,000 MW 141 MW Solar photo-voltic Power 20 MW/ 810 KW
    64. 66. Thanks!!! <ul><li>Save Resources to use it in future!!!!! </li></ul>