Session 2 - Pitch Intro

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Session 2 of 10 Powerpoint lessons in Music Theory. Unfortunately cannot be presented interactively.

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Session 2 - Pitch Intro

  1. 1. Session 2 - Pitch<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> build on our Session 1 experience of note durations
  2. 2. instrument independent
  3. 3. apply theory in practical workshops
  4. 4. phased, comfortable approach
  5. 5. “play” not “work”
  6. 6. structured creativity
  7. 7. OK, let’s go....</li></ul>Perfect pitch definition....<br />30 August 2011 - 1<br />
  8. 8. Notes Revisited<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> notes represent the pitch & relative duration of a musical sound
  9. 9. pitch (wave frequency) – how high or low the note is
  10. 10. duration – period of time the note is played or held
  11. 11. notes identified by modern English alphabetical letters A, B, C, D, E, F & G as well as sharps (#) & flats (b) – the black notes on keyboard
  12. 12. notes are displayed on musical staffs or staves
  13. 13. notes are presented in “bars” or “measures”</li></ul>Lets visit those bars....<br />30 August 2011 - 2<br />
  14. 14. The Staff (revisited) <br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> all staffs are of 5 lines & four spaces
  15. 15. bars are separated by single or double “bar lines”
  16. 16. double bar lines of same width represent the end of a “section” of music (e.g. intro, verse)
  17. 17. double bar lines with thicker line at right represent the end of the entire musical piece.</li></ul>Don’t stay too long at the end of a bar…<br />30 August 2011 - 3<br />
  18. 18. Note Duration Review<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> Semibreve (an egg) = 4 beats
  19. 19. Minim (egg on a stick) = 2 beats
  20. 20. Crotchet (black egg on a stick) = 1 beat
  21. 21. Quaver ( black egg on a stick & 1 flag) = 1/2 beat</li></ul>Of course you remember these……<br />30 August 2011 - 4<br />
  22. 22. Rest Review<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>musical silences also have defined durations, called “Rests”, </li></ul>Play Symbol Rest Symbol<br /><ul><li> Semibreve = 4 beats
  23. 23. Minim = 2 beats
  24. 24. Crotchet = 1 beat
  25. 25. Quaver = 1/2 beat</li></ul>Silences are essential in improvising…..<br />30 August 2011 - 5<br />
  26. 26. Up The Staff <br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> a notes’ pitch is referenced by how far up or down the staff it is located, - higher up equals higher pitch!
  27. 27. notes can also be displayed above or below the staff – on additional “ledger lines”
  28. 28. we only use 5 lines to support optimal pitch recognition (sight efficiency)</li></ul>We can train our eyes as well as our ears!<br />30 August 2011 - 6<br />
  29. 29. Pitch Examples <br />1BAR<br />bar lines<br />sharps & flats<br />Don’t have your music upside down.....<br />30 August 2011 - 7<br />
  30. 30. More Pitch Examples <br />1BAR<br />ledger lines<br />multiple notes<br />Ah – harmony at last.....<br />30 August 2011 - 8<br />
  31. 31. Staff Notes<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> not all instruments can use the same staff mapping (5 string bass vs piccolo) as the note range is far too wide
  32. 32. the Clef (French for “key”) sign at the start of each line of music tells us how the staff is mapped (which line or space means which specific note)
  33. 33. using the correct clef means that most notes are either on the staff or “fence”, or not far above or below it, therefore making it easier to identify the pitch of the notes (without referring to too many ledger lines)</li></ul>Different instruments may use different Clefs...<br />30 August 2011 - 9<br />
  34. 34. Clefs<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> remember that lines that are used above or below the staff are called “ledger lines” – these are used to display notes that are higher or lower than those provided by the 5 lines & 4 spaces
  35. 35. there are 3 Clefs…..
  36. 36. G Clef or Treble Clef
  37. 37. C Clef
  38. 38. F Clef or Bass Clef</li></ul>Don’t be confused by Clef Richards…<br />30 August 2011 - 10<br />
  39. 39. Clefs & Piano<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> piano music typically uses 2 sets of staff – the treble clef (right hand) – known as “the Grand Staff”
  40. 40. & below it, but joined, is the Bass Clef for the left hand
  41. 41. full size harps also use this convention</li></ul>No, not mouth organs!<br />30 August 2011 - 11<br />
  42. 42. Clefs & Guitar<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> 6 string guitar, steel guitar etc typically use the treble clef
  43. 43. bass guitarists typically use music mapped to the bass clef
  44. 44. all work in this Course will use the Treble or G clef
  45. 45. it is called the G Clef as its “tail” indicates the note G on the second line up from the bottom of the staff
  46. 46. all other notes will be mapped from this “G”</li></ul>But what about the drummer?<br />30 August 2011 - 12<br />
  47. 47. Other Clefs<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> C – Alto Clef, mainly used for Viola & Alto Trombone, placed on the third line of the Staff
  48. 48. C – Tenor Clef – for upper ranges of Bassoon, Cello & Euphonium, placed on the 4th line of the Staff
  49. 49. Neutral Clef – also called the “Percussion Clef”, is different in that each line or space refers to a specific percussion instrument which has no precise pitch
  50. 50. TAB – used for guitars & other stringed instruments, staff lines may vary & represent the strings of the instrument.</li></ul>From the Bar to the TAB.....<br />30 August 2011 - 13<br />
  51. 51. Note Names<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> 12 different notes
  52. 52. 7 Alphabet characters A, B, C, D, E, F, G plus another 5 “ring ins” – known as incidentals, the sharps &/or flats
  53. 53. alphabet characters are the white notes on the piano, the incidentals (sharps & flats) are the black notes
  54. 54. each note repeats itself when its frequency is doubled or halved
  55. 55. octave numbers (Scientific Pitch Notation) can also be used to identify which octave a note is in (A3, A4 etc) – not required when represented on the Staff</li></ul>Most musicians have never seen a $100 note....<br />30 August 2011 - 14<br />
  56. 56. Note Names (2)<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> a Sharp is represented by “ # “ (hash sign)
  57. 57. a Flat is represented by “b” (small b)
  58. 58. here we go with sharps… A A# B C C# D D# E F F# G G#
  59. 59. here we go with flats… A Bb B C Db D Eb E F Gb G Ab
  60. 60. obviously some notes can be called more than 1 name!!!</li></ul>Most musicians are called by more than 1 name…<br />30 August 2011 - 15<br />
  61. 61. Octaves<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>an octave is the interval between a specific musical pitch (any note) & another pitch with half or double its frequency
  62. 62. notes an octave apart will always have the same name</li></ul>So now we know where “A” lives on the staff……..<br />30 August 2011 - 16<br />
  63. 63. Middle C<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>refers to a note that is in the middle of the tonal range for a specific instrument
  64. 64. for a full piano keyboard (88 keys) – this note is on the first ledger line below the staff in the treble clef
  65. 65. however on guitar “Middle C” is played 1 octave higher, first fret on the B string</li></ul>Used as a “pitch” reference point….<br />30 August 2011 - 17<br />
  66. 66. Note Names – Piano & Guitar<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>the 440 Hz (A) is the fifth fret on the top E string of the guitar
  67. 67. once again middle C is first fret on the second (B string) of the guitar, up an octave from the Piano “Middle C”
  68. 68. the G referred to by the “Treble Clef” is the third open string on the guitar (G string)</li></ul>Does the # (hash) sign make you sharper?<br />30 August 2011 - 18<br />
  69. 69. Guitar String Notes<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>top “E” string
  70. 70. “B” string
  71. 71. “G” string
  72. 72. “D” string
  73. 73. “A” string
  74. 74. bottom (lowest) “E” string</li></ul>Don’t get your G strings confused…<br />30 August 2011 - 19<br />
  75. 75. Staff Line & Space Names<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> Lines – (from bottom line up) – E G B D F
  76. 76. Spaces – (from bottom line up) – F A C E</li></ul>No sharps or flats here… yet….<br />30 August 2011 - 20<br />
  77. 77. Note Names On The Staff<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> all lines & spaces represent a specific note of a specific octave
  78. 78. the note names move UP THE STAFF IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER & must include the accidentals (sharps & flats)
  79. 79. sharps (#) make a note a semitone (1 fret higher)
  80. 80. flats (b) make a note a semitone (1 fret) lower
  81. 81. as the treble clef tells us where “G” is & we know where “A” is we can easily map out the rest
  82. 82. let’s climb that fence</li></ul>In a short time you will remember most of these…<br />30 August 2011 - 21<br />
  83. 83. Note Names<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> let’s make life easier but selecting just 1 name for each accidental……</li></ul>RESTS do not have Note Names, just duration values…<br />30 August 2011 - 22<br />
  84. 84. Taking the "Note Name Ladder<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> this is what our new 12 letter musical alphabet now looks like……
  85. 85. going up the staff from where “A” lives, one fret at a time</li></ul>Taking The “A Train”…<br />30 August 2011 - 23<br />
  86. 86. Staff Note Names<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>let’s start with just the actual lines & spaces on the staff itself
  87. 87. we can easily extend this to using ledger lines later</li></ul>E<br />G<br />F#<br />F<br />#<br />See how the “G” matches up with the Clef tail?<br />30 August 2011 - 24<br />
  88. 88. Staff Note Names (2)<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>let’s keep moving up the staff…</li></ul>G#<br />B<br />Bb<br />A<br />b<br />#<br />Sharp or Flat signs are always before the note…<br />30 August 2011 - 25<br />
  89. 89. Staff Note Names (3)<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>over halfway already……
  90. 90. each note is 1 guitar fret or 1 piano key higher</li></ul>C<br />Eb<br />D<br />C#<br />b<br />#<br />Can you hear the small note difference (A Semitone)<br />30 August 2011 - 26<br />
  91. 91. Staff Note Names (4)<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>higher up the staff – the higher the note pitch
  92. 92. type of note displayed determines duration (how long to hold)</li></ul>E<br />G<br />F#<br />F<br />#<br />To go any higher we need ledger lines…<br />30 August 2011 - 27<br />
  93. 93. Staff Notes - Octaves<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>same note name – but an octave apart
  94. 94. position on staff tells us which one to play</li></ul>E<br />G<br />G<br />E<br />“Oct”means 8, the 8 note names (A B C D E F G A)…<br />30 August 2011 - 28<br />
  95. 95. Note Duration Review<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> Semibreve (an egg) = 4 beats
  96. 96. Minim (egg on a stick) = 2 beats
  97. 97. Crotchet (black egg on a stick) = 1 beat
  98. 98. Quaver ( black egg on a stick & 1 flag) = 1/2 beat</li></ul>Of course you remember these……<br />30 August 2011 - 29<br />
  99. 99. Staff Notes – Exercise 1<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>for each of the 8 notes presented (ignore the rests they are being used to fill in each bar which must contain 4 beats) - write out…
  100. 100. note name (A, C# etc)
  101. 101. type (e.g. crotchet)
  102. 102. number of beats to hold (1, 4 etc)</li></ul>Too many drummers, too little time…<br />30 August 2011 - 30<br />
  103. 103. Staff Notes – Exercise 2<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>for each of the 8 notes presented (ignore the rests they are being used to fill in each bar which must contain 4 beats) - write out…
  104. 104. note name (A, C# etc)
  105. 105. type (e.g. crotchet)
  106. 106. number of beats to hold (1, 4 etc)</li></ul>In time you will associate name & pitch automatically<br />30 August 2011 - 31<br />
  107. 107. Staff Notes – Exercise 3<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>for each of the 8 notes presented below, position correctly on the music paper staff) provided…</li></ul> Crotchet - E<br /> Quaver – B<br /> Semibreve - Bb<br /> Semibreve - F<br /> Minim – F#<br /> Quaver – C<br /> Crotchet – G#<br /> Minim - D<br />Some can have more than 1 answer…<br />30 August 2011 - 32<br />
  108. 108. Staff Notes – Exercise 4<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li>for each of the 8 notes presented below, position correctly on the music paper staff) provided, some are double or triple notes …</li></ul> Crotchet – C E G<br /> Quaver – Eb<br /> Semibreve - Bb F<br /> Semibreve – E G# B<br /> Minim – D F#<br /> Quaver – Ab<br /> Crotchet – G Bb<br /> Minim – G E B <br />Some can have more than 1 answer…<br />30 August 2011 - 33<br />
  109. 109. Session 2 - Summary<br />1BAR<br /><ul><li> we use the Treble Clef for our work
  110. 110. each line or space on the staff represents a specific note
  111. 111. higher up the staff, the higher the pitch
  112. 112. ledger lines support notes above or below the staff
  113. 113. notes with their frequency doubled or halved have the same name but are an octave apart
  114. 114. we have given sharps & flats a single name
  115. 115. with a little effort we can identify the note type & its pitch name on the staff</li></ul>Now we are ready to make some music…<br />30 August 2011 - 34<br />

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