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ÖNCEL AKADEMİ: INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS

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Seismic Reflection 2: Acquisiton, Processing, and Waveform Analysis

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ÖNCEL AKADEMİ: INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS

  1. 1. Introduction to Geophysics Ali Oncel [email_address] Department of Earth Sciences KFUPM Seismic Reflection 2: Acquisiton, Processing, and Waveform Analysis Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  2. 2. Previous Lecture <ul><li>What Seismic Reflection Provides? </li></ul><ul><li>What requires for a successful study of Reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>What provides Seismic Reflection on subsurface geological Model? </li></ul><ul><li>On Land- Seismic Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>On Sea- Seismic Reflection: Photos from Seismic Crew </li></ul><ul><li>Equipments: Vibrator Track and Receiver Truck, Geophones, Battery </li></ul><ul><li>What is a seismic section? </li></ul><ul><li>what is a Seismic Line? </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Seismic Section? </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustic Impedance </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement the quality for Compressional waves? </li></ul><ul><li>Single Channel Seismic Reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a seismic Profile? </li></ul>Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  3. 3. Reflection Seismology Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  4. 4. Seismic Methods Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  5. 5. Snell’s Law Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  6. 6. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  7. 7. Reflection “Presentation” Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Refraction (first arrival) Reflection 1 Reflection 2 Reflection 3 (dipping) Reflected refractions
  8. 8. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Angle Incidence = Angle Reflection Multifold Reflections Four fold coverage of the CMP
  9. 9. Receiver Arrays Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  10. 10. Common Depth Point Common Midpoint Many Source Receiver Offsets Sample Same Depth Point Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM CMP Method Figure 6.4 of Reynolds Sixfold coverage of the CDP
  11. 11. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM CMP Method Sample Same Subsurface Point – Common Depth Point 4 Times
  12. 12. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Processing Fold of Stack Coverage Redundancy Improve Signal to Noise Ratio
  13. 13. =Travel time from source, to interface, to receiver X= horizontal distance from source to receiver V 1 = seismic velocity of layer above distance T 0 = T-axis intercept (time directly down to interface, straight back up to shot location h = thickness of layer above interface V 1 = seismic layer of above interface Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM T NMO = T f - t 0 Normal moveout is the difference between the travel time and hyperbola (T f ) and the intercept time (t 0 ). Normal Moveout See EQ 4-10 of Robinson and Coruh, 1988

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