Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Seismic Reflection 2: Acquisiton, Processing, and Waveform Analysis

Published in: Education, Technology, Business


  1. 1. Introduction to Geophysics Ali Oncel [email_address] Department of Earth Sciences KFUPM Seismic Reflection 2: Acquisiton, Processing, and Waveform Analysis Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  2. 2. Previous Lecture <ul><li>What Seismic Reflection Provides? </li></ul><ul><li>What requires for a successful study of Reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>What provides Seismic Reflection on subsurface geological Model? </li></ul><ul><li>On Land- Seismic Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>On Sea- Seismic Reflection: Photos from Seismic Crew </li></ul><ul><li>Equipments: Vibrator Track and Receiver Truck, Geophones, Battery </li></ul><ul><li>What is a seismic section? </li></ul><ul><li>what is a Seismic Line? </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Seismic Section? </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustic Impedance </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement the quality for Compressional waves? </li></ul><ul><li>Single Channel Seismic Reflection? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a seismic Profile? </li></ul>Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  3. 3. Reflection Seismology Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  4. 4. Seismic Methods Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  5. 5. Snell’s Law Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  6. 6. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  7. 7. Reflection “Presentation” Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Refraction (first arrival) Reflection 1 Reflection 2 Reflection 3 (dipping) Reflected refractions
  8. 8. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Angle Incidence = Angle Reflection Multifold Reflections Four fold coverage of the CMP
  9. 9. Receiver Arrays Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM
  10. 10. Common Depth Point Common Midpoint Many Source Receiver Offsets Sample Same Depth Point Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM CMP Method Figure 6.4 of Reynolds Sixfold coverage of the CDP
  11. 11. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM CMP Method Sample Same Subsurface Point – Common Depth Point 4 Times
  12. 12. Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM Processing Fold of Stack Coverage Redundancy Improve Signal to Noise Ratio
  13. 13. =Travel time from source, to interface, to receiver X= horizontal distance from source to receiver V 1 = seismic velocity of layer above distance T 0 = T-axis intercept (time directly down to interface, straight back up to shot location h = thickness of layer above interface V 1 = seismic layer of above interface Introduction to Geophysics-KFUPM T NMO = T f - t 0 Normal moveout is the difference between the travel time and hyperbola (T f ) and the intercept time (t 0 ). Normal Moveout See EQ 4-10 of Robinson and Coruh, 1988