Geothermal Development in Turkey


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Geothermal Development in Turkey

  1. 1. “Accelerating Geothermal Development in Turkey” 22-23 October 2013, Wyndham Kalamış - İstanbul Geothermal Development Activities in Turkey Orhan Mertoglu, Nilgun Basarir Presented by : Prof. (H.) Orhan MERTOGLU* President, Turkish Geothermal Association and Jeotermal Araştırma ve Tesisler A.Ş./Ankara-Turkey * - IGA, International Geothermal Association (Iceland-Germany), Vice President (2003-2007), European Branch Chairman (2007-2010), Honorary Member of the Board (2010-….), - EGEC-European Geothermal Energy Council (Belgium), former Vice President - Turkish Republic Ministry of Development 10th Development Plan (20142018) Chairman of Geothermal Commissions
  2. 2. Today, the geothermal electricity production in the world has reached globally 13000 MWe and the non – electrical use has reached globally 53.000 MWth. The 2050 geothermal electricity production target of the countries worlwide is 200.000 MWe install capacity .
  3. 3. EXISTING SITUATION OF GEOTHERMAL APPLICATIONS IN TURKEY (as of September 2013) GEOTHERMAL DIRECT USE APPLICATIONS (as of May 2013) GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING (CITY, RESIDENCES) GREENHOUSE HEATING THERMAL FACILITIES HEATING BALNEOLOGICAL USE GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP TOTAL GEOTHERMAL HEAT USE TOTAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION CARBONDIOKSITE PRODUCTION CAPACITY 89443 Residences Equivalence (805 MWt) ~ 3 Million m2 (612 MWt) 42.000 Residences Equivalence (380 MWt) 350 Spa, thermal facility (870 MWt) (Annual 16 million visitors) 38 MWt 2705 MWt (260.000 Residences Equivalence) 242 MWe (Aydın-Germencik, Denizli-Sarayköy, Aydın Salavatlı, Aydın-Hıdırbeyli, Çanakkale-Tuzla) 160.000 tons/year
  4. 4. Installed Geothermal Power Plants Field, Province Owner Type Kizildere, Denizli ZORLU Salavatlı (DORA-I), Aydin Operation Start-up Installed Capacity Year (MWe) F 1984 15 MENDERES B 2006 7.95 Kizildere, Denizli BEREKET* B 2007 6.85 Germencik, Aydin GÜRMAT F 2009 47.4 Tuzla, Çanakkale ENDA B 2010 7.5 Salavatlı (DORA-II), Aydin MENDERES B 2010 9.5 Hıdırbeyli (IREM), Aydin MAREN B 2011 20 Hıdırbeyli (SINEM), Aydin MAREN B 2012 24 Hıdırbeyli (DENIZ), Aydin MAREN B 2012 24 Kızıldere II ZORLU 2013 80 *expected to be operational during 2013. TOTAL 242.2 Salavatli - Dora III geothermal power plant with 17 MWe capacity is under trial operation (beginning of Sept. 2013). The second 17 MWe unit is planned to start with trial operation in March 2014.
  5. 5. Geothermal power plants projects received license from EMRA (EPDK) Field, Province Owner (MWe) Sarayköy, Denizli IN-ALTI 3 Babadere, Çanakkale MTN 3 Manisa SANKO 15 Sarıkız, Manisa TURKERLER 10 Alaşehir, Manisa TURKERLER 24 Alaşehir, Manisa ZORLU 30 Merkez, Manisa KEN KIPAS 24 Nazilli, Aydin KIPER 20 Sultanhisar, Aydin ÇELİKLER 9.9 Atça, Aydin ALRES 9.5 Umurlu, Aydin KARKEY 5 Germencik, Aydin BURÇ 163 Salavatlı (DORA-IV), Aydin MENDERES 17 TOTAL 333.4
  6. 6. Geothermal Power Plants under development and construction Field, Province Owner Type Capacity (MWe) Pamukören, Aydin ÇELİKLER B 48 Gümüşköy, Aydin BM B 13.2 Sultanhisar, Aydın ÇELİKLER B 11 Salavatlı (DORA-III) 2nci bölüm, Aydin MENDERES B 17 Manisa Alaşehir ZORLU B 45 Kütahya - Şaphane Ümran-Orya 24 Manisa - Alaşehir TÜRKERLER 24 TOTAL 182,2
  7. 7. Geothermal Power Plants planned Field, Province Owner Capacity (MWe) Buharkent, Aydin LİMAK 15 + 15 Nazilli, Aydin KİPER 20 Yılmazköy, Aydın MAREN 24 Hıdırbeyli, Aydin MAREN 24 + 24 + 24 + 24 Kalfaköy, Aydın MAREN 24
  8. 8. Development and projections of geothermal electricity production in Turkey 800 ~ 750 MWe 700 MWe 600 500 400 300 ~ 300 MWe 242 MWe 200 94,2 MWe 100 15 MWe 15 MWe 0 1 2000 2 2005 3 2010 4 5 August 2013 End of 2013 Under developing /constructing 6 End of 2018 expected/ planned
  9. 9. Turkey, has reached an important success in geothermal utilization in last years. If we lo0k to the last 15 years, at the beginning this significant progress has been achieved in; -geothermal district heating systems, then - world record (1st ranked) in rise of the geothermal greenhouse applications (3 Million m2) in last 5 years and - in the last 5 years, especially in geothermal electricity production in Turkey. From 15 MWe to 242 MWe.
  10. 10. Existing situation of geothermal district heating systems in Turkey; Number of Place residences heated Balçova+Narlıdere Geoth. Start-up Water Temp. Investor (oC) Local Governorship and Municipality equal 35.000 1983 125-140 Gönen 2500 1987 80 Municipality Inc. Simav 7500 1991 137 Municipality Kırşehir 1800 1994 57 Local Governorship and Municipality Inc. Kızılcahamam 2500 1995 70 Municipality Inc. Afyon 8.000 1996 95 Local Governorship and Municipality Inc. Kozaklı 3000 1996 90 Municipality Inc. Sandıklı 6000 1998 75 Municipality Inc. Diyadin 570 1999 70 Local Governorship Inc. Salihli 7292 2002 94 Municipality Sarayköy 2200 2002 95 Municipality Inc. Edremit 4881 2003 60 Municipality + Private Sector Inc. Dikili 2500 2010 125 Municipality Inc. Bergama 450 2008 65 Municipality Ltd. Güre 650 2009 65 Municipality Sorgun 1500 2008 80 Municipality shared Inc.
  11. 11. GEOTHERMAL IS A RELIABLE ENERGY RESOURCE: Mori GPP A RECENT EXAPMPLE 1982.11~ The geothermal power plants at the North East of 50,000kW Japan Onuma GPP 1974.6~ 9,500kW Sapporo Sumikawa GPP 1995.3~ 50,000kW Matsukawa GPP 1966.10~ 23,500kW Sendai Uenotai GPP 1994.3~ 28,800kW M9.0 YanaizuEpicenter Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear PP Nishiyama GPP 1995.5~65,000kW Kakkonda GPP Ⅰ.1978.5~ 50,000kW Ⅱ.1996. 3~ 30,000kW Onikobe GPP 1975.3~ 12,500kW Tokyo Osaka Fukuoka Hachijojima GPP 1995.5~ All geothermal power plants in the affected area by 3,300kW the earthquake on the 11th March 2011, recorded M9.0, are in operation, generating the same levels of power as those before the earthquake, although many of them automatically shut down once right
  12. 12. All geothermal power plants in the affected area by the earthquake on the 11th March 2011, recorded M9.0, are in operation, generating the same levels of power as those before the earthquake, although many of them automatically shut down once right after the event. Under such circumstances, this has been shown how reliable and sustainable the geothermal electricity production plants and in this framework the geothermal applications are. Additionally, according to Dr. Kasumi Yasukawa from Japan Institute for Geosources and Environment and being the member of Board of International Geothermal Association (IGA) declared to BBC News on 07.07.2011, that the “geothermal part in Japan’s electricity consumption is 0,3 %. The Japan Government decided to increase this geothermal portion to 10 %”. This means that the geothermal electricity install power in Japan would reach 28000 MWe. It is understood that Japan has selected geothermal energy as alternative to nucleer power among all renewable energies.
  13. 13. The Reasons of the significant Progress of Geothermal Development in Turkey : 1- The release of the Renewable Energy Law (No: 5346, May 2005) With this law incentives to the renewable energy sources was given by different electricity Feed in Tariff (5,5 Eurocents/kWh for geothermal). As it was amended in 2010 the incentives have been increased (10,5 $cents/kWh for geothermal). 2- The release of the Law on Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral Waters (No: 5686, June 2007) and its Implementation Regulation (No: 26727, Dec.2007) providing exploration license (3 years + 1 year) and exploitation license (30 years + 10 years) to the investors. 3- With the release of the geothermal law, MTA-General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration has leased the rights of the geothermal fields suitable for geothermal electricity production to the private sector in the form of operation licenses by means of tenders. The high temperature geothermal fields have been leased between 6,5 – 110 Million USD selling prices (we think that there is no another similar example in the world) to the Turkish Private Sector. 4- The risk and fast action capability of the Turkish Private Sector.
  14. 14. TOTAL GEOTHERMAL THEORETICAL HEAT POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (HYDROTHERMAL 0–3 km) - 60000 MWt = 7,5 Million Residences Equivalence heating or 300 billion m2 greenhouse heating = Over 1 million thermal facility bed capacity = 60 Billion m3/year natural gas equivalence TOTAL GEOTHERMAL THEORETICAL ELECTRICITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (HYDROTHERMAL) (0-3 km) - 4500 MWe (36 Billion kWh/Year) theoretical potential TOTAL GEOTHERMAL TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL ELECTRICITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (HYDROTHERMAL) (0-3 km) - 2000 MWe (16 billion kWh/Year), with additional incentive (15 USAcent/kWh feed in tariff, 15-20 years) THE GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION TARGET OF TURKEY FOR 2018 -750 MWe (6 Billion kWh/Year) (10,5 USAcent/kWh existing feed in tariff, 10 years)
  15. 15. THE EGS- ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM TECHNICAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (3-5 km) -250.000 MWe Total EGS-Enhanced Geothermal System Electricity production technical potential of Turkey THE EGS- ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF TURKEY (3-5 km) -25.000 MWe Technical and Economical EGS Electricity production potential expected to be realized during next 20 years period and feed in tariff of 15 US$cent/kWh
  16. 16. THE GEOTHERMAL PROJECTIONS FOR 2014 – 2018 OF TURKEY (Acc. To the 10th development plan (2014 – 2018) of the Ministry of Development Geothermal Utilizations Targets for 2018 Additional investment USD (until 2018) Electricity generation 750 MWe (6 Billion kWh) 2,0 Billion USD 4000 MWt (500.000 Residences Equivalence) 1,4 Billion USD Greenhouse Heating 2040 MWt (6 billion m2) 300 Million USD (including wells) Drying 500 MWt (500.000 tons/year) 180 Million USD Heating (residences, hotels, thermal facilities and others) Thermal Tourism Air conditioning 1100 MWt 400 Thermal Facility equivalence 300 MWt (50.000 Residences Equivalence) 1,2 Billion USD 300 Million USD Aquaculture + others 400 MWt 150 Million USD Total Direct Use 8340 MWt 5,53 Billion USD Natural Gas Equivalence of all the above mentioned geothermal direct use utilizations 6,1 Billion USD/Year The economical value added to the Turkey’s economy by means of above mentioned utilizations until the end of 2018 32 Billion USD/year The created employment (Direct and Indirect) 300.000 person
  17. 17. Some examples about geothermal greenhouses in Turkey: Izmir-Dikili Manisa-Salihli,Urganli Kutahya-Simav Denizli-Kizildere Sanliurfa-Karaali Diğerleri : 880.000 m2 : 250.000 m2 : 310.000 m2 : 152.740 m2 : 424.000 m2 : 885.000 m2 TOTAL : ~ 3 Million m2
  18. 18. Especially in the Western Turkey, many deep wells have been drilled. In some of them, 200-250°C downhole temperatures has been measured and ab0ut half of them have very low permeability (like dry). These achieved temperatures gave us the thoughts about EGS systems applications. According to our approach and calculations, we have obtained huge geothermal electricity potential by taking EGS applications into account, our work is continuing to be able to harness this potential. We have conveyed the necessity about additional incentive demand for geothermal heating and EGS applications to the Turkish Government. The additional incentives for geothermal heating and EGS applications are expected until the end of 2013 or mid of 2014. A remarkable development is expected at the power generation with EGS in Europe in 2020.
  19. 19. The foreign investors are welcome for technical cooperation, information exchange and joint venture investments in geothermal in Turkey. Hereafter; We will give importance especially to geothermal district cooling (air-conditioning) and fish farming utilizations in Turkey.
  20. 20. We would like to thank to and congratulate Turkish Government, MTA, Geothermal Experts and Turkish Private Sector for this success’. We would like to thank Green Power Conferences for this excellent organisation MANY THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION. TURKISH GEOTHERMAL ASSOCIATION And sokak 8/2, 06880 Çankaya/Ankara Tel: +90-312-4404319 Fax: +90-312-465 0375 E-mail: