ÖNCEL AKADEMİ: INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS

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ÖNCEL AKADEMİ: INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS

  1. 1. Introduction to Geophysics Ali O. Oncel [email_address] Department of Earth Sciences KFUPM Lecture 2 Overview
  2. 2. Geophysics <ul><li>Identify Geologic Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Data Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Data Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Write Report </li></ul>Photos from http://www.eegs.org/whatis/
  3. 3. What is Geophysics?   <ul><li>Application of physics to studies of the Earth, Moon, and other planets </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, Planetary systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Geophysics?   <ul><li>Solid-earth geophysics which is the study of the earth by quantitative physical methods, thus excluding portions of other subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration geophysics is the use of seismic, gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, etc., methods in the search for oil, gas, minerals, water, etc., with the objective of economic exploitation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of Geophysics <ul><li>Pure and Applied Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Geophysics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Applied Geophysics (economic objectives)   <ul><li>Exploration Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeo – Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Forensics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Applications?   <ul><li>Approach to earthquake hazards and ground survey </li></ul><ul><li>Plate tectonics, the study of the interior structure of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Human's ability to exploit natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrological </li></ul>http://seg.org/you-geo/definition.shtml
  8. 8. Examples of geophysical methods?   <ul><li>Gravity </li></ul>http://www.vibra-tech-inc.com/content.asp?ID=magnetics_gravity
  9. 9. Examples of geophysical methods?   <ul><li>Magnetics </li></ul>http://www.vibra-tech-inc.com/content.asp?ID=magnetics_gravity
  10. 10. Examples of geophysical methods?        Seismics   a.   Reflection   b. Refraction   c.   Surface or borehole
  11. 11. Examples of geophysical methods?        Ground Penetrating Radar
  12. 12. Examples of geophysical methods?   <ul><li>Resistivity </li></ul>
  13. 13. Geophysical Methods <ul><li>May not yield complete answer or unique solution; Non-uniqueness of forward modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Many solutions, but which ones are nonsense, which are plausible </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret within physical constraints & geological framework </li></ul>
  14. 14. Geophysics and Geology <ul><li>Geology places constraints on geophysical models </li></ul><ul><li>Geophysics places constraints on geologic interpretations </li></ul>
  15. 15. Planning a Survey - Spatial Aliasing
  16. 16. Two and Three Dimensions Location of Profiles
  17. 17. Common Sources of Geophysical Noise
  18. 18. Data Processing - Elimination of Noise
  19. 19. Displaying Data
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Applied (Environmental) Geophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity, Magnetic, Seismic, GPR & Resistivity </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Proper Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Designing a Geophysical Survey </li></ul>

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