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New microsoft office word document.pdf

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New microsoft office word document.pdf

  1. 1. kvn& AveŸvm<br />(1587-1629 wLªt)<br />‡Kej mvdvwf es‡ki g‡a¨B bq, mgMÖ cvi‡m¨i BwZnv‡m kvn& AveŸvm wQ‡jb wbtm‡›`‡n GKRb †kªô bicwZ| wZwb 1571 wLª÷v‡ã Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib Ges gvÎ 16 ermi eq‡m mvdvwf wmsnvm‡b Dc‡ekb K‡ib| Zvi wcZv kvn& gyn¤§` Ly`vev›`vi kvmb Avg‡jB we‡`ªvnx wKwRjevm †bZvMY evjK AveŸvm‡K †Lvivmv‡bi kvn& ewjqv †NvlYv K‡iwQj| c‡i 1587 wLª÷v‡ã Zvi wcZv‡K civwRZ I ¶gZvPy¨Z K‡i we‡`ªvnxMY AveŸvm‡K cvi‡m¨i mvdvwf wmsnvm‡b AwawôZ K‡i| d‡j kvn& AveŸvm Zvi ivR‡Z¡i cÖ_g w`‡K wKwRjevm †MvÎcwZ‡`i nv‡Zi cyZz‡j cwiYZ n‡q c‡ob| G‡`i g‡a¨ Zvi cÖavb DwRi gykx©` Kzwj Lv‡bi bvg we‡klfv‡e D‡j­L‡hvM¨| wKš‘ gykx©` Kzwj Lv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ wKwRjevm‡`i evovevwo GK ch©v‡q GZ Zxeª AvKvi aviY K‡i †h, kvn& AveŸvm Ae‡k‡l G‡`i wei“‡× K‡Vvi e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡jb| ‡mbvevwnbx ms¯‹vi I ¸jvg-evwnbx MVb<br />kvn& AveŸvm KZ…©K †mbvevwnbx ms¯‹vi Zvi K…wZ‡Z¡i Ab¨Zg cÖavb NUbv| G mO¯‹v‡ii g‡a¨‡g GKvav‡i mvdvwf es‡ki kw³ e„w× cvq Ges Ab¨w`‡K wZwb wKwRjevm‡`i Aïf cÖfve n‡Z gyw³jvf Ki‡Z mg_© nb| BwZc~‡e© mvfvwf mvgªv‡R¨i †mbvevwnbx cÖavbZb wKwRjev‡mi mgš^‡q msMwVZ wQj Ges wKwRjevm `jcwZ I †mbvcwZM‡Yi n‡¯—B Awc©Z wQj mvgwiK kw³i gyj Drm| KviY, c~e© cÖPwjZ cÖ_v Abyhvqx mvdvwf mvgªvR¨ wKwRjevm `jcwZ‡`i g‡a¨B wef³ wQj| G mg¯— `jcwZMY Zvnv‡`i ¯^ ¯^ RvqwMi n‡Z LvRbv eve` cÖvß A‡_© mvgvbª GKvsk ivR‡Kv‡l †cÖiY Kwi‡Zb Ges evwK A_© wb‡R‡`i e¨w³MZ I ˆmb¨evwnbx msi¶‡Yi Kv‡R e¨q Kwi‡Zb| cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq G mKj `jcwZe„›` kvn‡K Zvnv‡`i ˆmb¨ Øviv hy‡Ï ev Ab¨ †Kvb we‡`ªvn `g‡b mvnvh¨ Ki‡Z eva¨ _vwK‡Zb| Gi GKwU g¯—eo Kzdj `uvovBqvwQj G †h, D³ `jcwZe„›` wba©vwiZ ˆmb¨ msi¶‡Y e¨_© n‡Z b Ges ˆmb¨‡`i iY‡KŠkjMZ gvb Dbœq‡bi cÖwZ we‡kl j¶¨ Kwi‡Zb bv| Bnv e¨ZxZ my‡hvMgZ D”Pvwfjvlx `jcwZMY Zvnv‡`i cÖwZ ˆmb¨‡`i AvbyM‡Z¨i my‡hvM jBqv we‡`ªvnx n‡Z b A_ev kv‡ni Dci Aïf cÖfve we¯—v‡ii †bkvq gvwZqv DwV‡Zb| Gi d‡j mvdvwf kvn‡`i we‡kl Amyweavi m¤§yLxb n‡Z nBZ| KviY †Kvb Aeva¨ A_ev D”Pvwfjvlx †mbvcwZ‡K kvw¯— cÖ`vb Ki‡Z †M‡j Zvi AbyMZ ˆmb¨MY we‡`ªvnx n‡q DwVZ| wmsnvm‡b Dc‡ekb K‡i kvn& AveŸvm G mKj Amyweav we‡klfv‡e Abyfe Ki‡jb Ges Dnvi cÖwZKviK‡í †mbvevwnbx‡Z Avg~j ms¯‹vi Avwb‡Z e×cwiKi n‡jb| Z‡e wKwRjevm Ak¦v‡ivnx-evwnbx ZLbI mvdvwf‡`i mvgwiK kw³i cÖvY‡K›`ª wnmv‡e weivR Kwi‡ZwQj| d‡j G evwnbxi †Kvb weKí †mbv`j m„wói c~e© ch©š— wKwRjevm‡`i wei“‡× †Kvb kvw¯—g~jK e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i weÁR‡bvwPZ KvR nB‡e bv g‡b K‡i kvn& AveŸvm me©cÖ_g Zunvi GKwU wbR¯^ evwnbx MV‡bi Kv‡R nvZ w`‡jb| kvn Zvngvm‡ci Avgj n‡Z B eû msL¨K Av‡g©wbqvb, RwR©qvb I mviKvwmqvb hy×ew›`i cvi‡m¨ AvMG nq| kvn& AveŸvm G Rbkw³‡K Zvi CwÝZ †mbvevwnbx MV‡bi Kv‡Ri e¨env‡ii wm×vš— MÖnY Ki‡jb | Bnvw`M‡K Bmjvg a‡g© `xw¶Z K‡i Zvnv‡`i ga¨ n‡Z evi nvRvi c`vwZK I ce©Zv‡ivnx ˆmb¨ fwZ© Ki‡jb | Bnvw`M‡K h_vµ‡g Ô¸jvgÕ Ges ÔZzdvswPÕ bv‡g AwfwnZ Kiv nj Z…Zxq ch©v‡q kvn& Zvi e¨w³MZ †`ni¶x evwnbx wnmv‡e RwR©qvb‡`i mgš^‡q MwVZ Ges ÔgyjvwRgvbÕ ewjqv AvL¨vwqZ wZb nvRvi ˆm‡b¨i GK `j MVb Ki‡jb | Bnv e¨ZxZ cuvPkZ Kvgvb m¤^wjZ evi nvRvi ˆm‡b¨i GKwU muv‡Rvqv evwnbx m„wói gva¨‡g kvn& AveŸvm Zvi G b~Zb evwnbxi msL¨v 37 nvRv‡i DbœxZ Ki‡jb | ¸jvg-evwnbxi ga¨ n‡Z Avj­vn& ew`© Lvb bvgK GKRb my‡hvM¨ I wek¦¯— e¨w³‡K wZwb cÖavb †mbvcwZ c‡` wb‡qvM Ki‡jb | Avj­vn ew`© Bs‡iR fvM¨v‡š^lx I cwieªvRK Rb wkiwji civgk© I mvnvh¨ MÖnY K‡i MZvbyMwZK ga¨hyMxi mvdvwf †mbvevwnbx‡Z weivU ms¯‹vi mvab Ki‡jb | kvn& KZ…©K m„ó G ¸jvg-evwnbx m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c kv‡ni AvÁven I nuvnvi cÖwZ AvbyMZ¨kxj wQj| Zviv ¯’vqx evwnbx wnmv‡e mivmwi ivR‡Kvl n‡Z wbqwgZ †eZb cvBZ| kvn& Zvi G me-MwVZ weivU evwnbx‡K ivR‡Kvl n‡Z bM` †eZb cÖ`vb Ki‡Z hvBqv cÖ_gZ we‡kl Avw_©K Amyweavi m¤§yLxb n‡jb| Z‡e Gi cÖwZKviK‡í wZwb AwaKv cwigvY Lvm Rwg Zvi AwaKvify³ Ki‡jb Ges G Rwg n‡Z cÖvß A_© Øviv wZwb ¸jvg-evwnbxi †eZb †`Iqvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡jb | D‡Ïk¨ I MVb-cÖYvjxi w`K n‡Z kvn& AveŸvm Zvi G ¸jvg evwnbx m„wói cðv‡Z ZzwK© myjZvb‡`i R¨vwbmvwi evwnbxi Øviv cÖfvweZ I AbycÖvwYZ n‡qwQ‡jb ewjqv g‡b nq| <br />wKwRjevm‡`i kvw¯— cÖ`vb <br />wKwRjevm-evwnbxi ¶gZv Le© K‡i kvn& KZ…©K b~Zb †mbvevwnbx msMVb‡K wKwRjevm †MvÎcwZMY mybR‡i †`wL‡Z cvwi‡jb bv Ges webv cÖwZev‡` Zvnv‡`i c‡¶ G ms¯‹vi‡K gvwbqv jIqv m¤¢e nj bv| Z‡e kvn& AveŸv‡mi wbKU wKwRjevm‡`i G cÖwZev` I we‡¶vf we›`ygvÎ AcÖZ¨vwkZ e¨vcvi wQj bv Ges Gi Rb¨ wZwb m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cÖ¯‘Z wQ‡jb| wZwb mg©cÖ_g GK loh‡š¿i Awf‡hv‡M gykx©` Kzwj Lvb‡K nZ¨v Ki‡jb Ges †mB m‡½ eû Aeva¨ I D”Q„•Lj wKwRjevm `jcwZ kv‡ni wbKU kvw¯— †evM Ki‡jb | G‡`i wei“‡× kvn& GG K‡Vvi g‡bvfve MÖnY Ki‡jb †h, A‡b‡K cÖvYf‡q A‡Uvgvb myjZvb‡`i wbKU Avkªq jB‡Z eva¨ nj| wKwRjevm †mbvcwZMY KZ©‡e¨i cÖwZ mvgvb¨ Ae‡njvi Aciv‡a A_ev wba©vwiZ ‰mb¨ †gvZv‡qb bv ivLvi Rb¨ nqZ D³ c` n‡Z eiLv¯— n‡jb bZzev RvqwMi n‡Z ewÂZ n‡jb| wKwRjevm‡`i cÖwZ G K‡Vvi kvw¯—g~jK e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi d‡j GGwK kv‡ni cÖwZ c~Y© Av¯’vkxj I AbyMZ K‡qKRb my‡hvM¨ wKwRjevm †mbvcwZI †invB cvB‡jb bv| KviY `xN©w`b awiqv wKwRjevm‡`i AZ¨vPvi I ¶gZvi Ace¨env‡i kvn& GZB AwZô n‡q cwoqvwQ‡jb †h, G m¤cÖ`vqfy³ cÖwZwU †jvK‡K wZwb Awek¦vm I N„Yvi `„wó‡Z †`wL‡Zb| kvn& AveŸvm KZ…©K Abym„Z G K‡Vvi bxwZi d‡j mvdvwf ivR¨ wKwRjevm‡`i Aïf cÖfv‡ei nvZ n‡Z i¶v cvBj| <br />kvn& †mey›` †Mv‡Îi m„wó <br />‡mbvevwnbxi G Avg~j ms¯‹vi mvab e¨ZxZ wKwRjevm †MvÎmg~‡ni cÖfvegy³ nBevi Rb¨ kvn& AveŸvm AviI GKwU Kvh©Ki c`‡¶c MÖnY Ki‡jb | wZwb mKj †Mv‡Îi mgš^‡q kv‡ni AvÁven I AvbyMZ¨kxj GKwU ¯^Zš¿ †Mv‡Îi m„wó Ki‡jb Ges Zvi bvg w`‡jb kvn †mey›`- A_©vr Òkv‡ni eÜz|Ó K…wÎg Dcv‡q m„ó kvn& †mey›` †Mv‡Îi †jvK‡`i me©cÖKvi ivRKxq c„ô‡cvlKZv cÖ`vb Kiv nj Ges AwP‡iB nvRvi nvRvi †jvK G †MvÎfy³ n‡Z jvwMj| Giv kvn& AveŸv‡mi Ges fwel¨r mvdvwf es‡ki Rb¨ wbf©‡hvM¨ GKwU kw³i Drm wnmv‡e Mwoqv DwVj| GK ch©v‡q G‡`i msL¨v cÖvq j¶vwaK cwiev‡ii wMqv `uvovBqvwQj| msL¨vq eûjvs‡k n«vm cvB‡jI A`¨vewa kvn& †mey›` †Mv‡Îi †jv‡Kiv Biv‡bi wewfbœ As‡k emevm Kwi‡Z‡Q| <br />wmsnvm‡b Dcweó n‡q kvn& AveŸvm‡K `yB mxgv‡š—B kw³kvjx kΓevwnbxi m¤§yLxb n‡Z nj| G‡`i g‡a¨ c~e© mxgv‡š— DR‡eKMY Ges cwðg mxgv‡š— A‡Uvgvb ZzwK©MY cÖ_g n‡Z B mvdvwf‡`i wei“‡× kΓZv K‡i Avwm‡ZwQj| kvn& AveŸvm GKRb ev¯—eagx© weÁ bicwZ wQ‡jb| wZwb Dcjwä Ki‡jb †h, GKB m‡½ G Dfq kΓi †gvKv‡ejv Kiv Zvi c‡¶ †Kvb Ae¯’v‡ZB m¤¢e nB‡e bv| AwaKš‘ wZwb G mgq Avf¨š—ixY bvbv mgm¨vq e¨vc„Z wQ‡jb| d‡j wZwb ZzwK©‡`i mwnZ mwÜi gva¨‡g kvwš— cÖwZôv K‡i DR‡eK‡`i m‡½ kw³ cix¶vq AeZxY© nIqv hyw³hy³ g‡b Ki‡jb | d‡j cÖavbZ kvn& AveŸv‡mi D‡`¨v‡MB 1590 wLª÷v‡ã A‡Uvgvb ZzwK© I mvdvwf‡`i g‡a¨ KÝUvw›U‡bvc‡j GK kvwš—Pzw³ ¯^v¶wiZ nj| G Pzw³i kZ©vbymv‡i AvRvievBRvb, KvivevM, MvÄv, KvivRvi`vM, RwR©qvmn Kzw`¯—vb I jywi¯—v‡bi Ask we‡kl ZzwK©‡`i n¯—MZ nj| Bnv e¨ZxZ mybœx Lwjdv‡`i wei“‡× wb›`vm~PK Dw³ Kiv &nw‡Z cvi‡m¨i mvdvwfMY weiZ _vwK‡e ewjqvI kvn& AveŸvm cÖwZÁve× n‡jb| BwZc~‡e© ZzwK©‡`i mwnZ mvdvwfMY Avi KLbI Giƒc M­vwbKi Pzw³ ¯^v¶i K‡i bvB| ejvevûj¨ †h, Ae¨š—ixY mgm¨v I †mB m‡½ mvgªv‡R¨i c~f© mxgv‡š— DR‡eK‡`i Øviv Avµvš— nIqvq kvn& AveŸvm‡K ZzwK©‡`i mwnZ Giƒc mwÜ k‡Z© ivwR n‡Z n‡qwQj| | <br />kvn& AveŸvm ebvg DR‡eK kw³ <br />mvdvwf iv‡R¨i Rb¥jMœ n‡ZB DR‡eK kw³i m‡½ mvdvfx‡`i weivgnxb hy×weMÖn Pwjqv Avwm‡ZwQj| kvn& AveŸvv‡mi mgq G hy× c~e©v‡c¶v ZxeªZi AvKvi aviY K‡i| Ave`yj­vn web-B¯‹v›`v‡ii Avg‡j DR‡eK kw³ we‡kl cÖwZcwË jvf K‡i| Zvi ivR¨ c~‡e© diMbv I KvmMi Ges Dˇi evj&L, †ZvLvwi¯—vb I ev`vL&kvb ch©š— we¯—vi jvf K‡i| Ave`yj­vn DR‡eK iv‡R¨i cwðg mxgv‡š— Av¯¿vev` `Lj K‡ib Ges ZzwK©‡`i AaxbZv n‡Z wMjvb gy³ K‡ib| AZtci wZwb wnivU I †g‡k` DR‡eK AwaKvify³ K‡ib Ges †LvivmvbI Zvi n¯—MZ nq| cÖavbZ mvfvwf‡`i Avf¨š—ixY M„nweev‡`i d‡j DR‡eK kw³‡K cÖwZnZ Kiv Zvnv‡`i c‡¶ m¤¢e nq bvB| kvn& AveŸvm Zvi †mbvevwnbx cybM©Vb K‡i A‡Uvgvb ZzwK©‡`i mwnZ kvwš— cÖwZôv Ki‡jb Ges mvgªv‡R¨i c~e© mxgv‡š—i DR‡eK kw³i †gvKv‡ej Kivi Rb¨ AMÖmi n‡jb| G mgq DR‡eK AwacwZ Ave`yj­vn I Ave`yj †gvwg‡bi g„Zz¨ nB‡j DR‡eK kw³ c~e©v‡c¶v `ye©j n‡q c‡o Ges Zv‡`i‡K civwRZ Kiv kvn& AveŸv‡mi c‡¶ A‡c¶vK…Z mnRZi n‡q `uvovq| KviY wmsnvmb jBqv DR‡eKMY wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ i¶¶qx M„nweev‡` wjß n‡q c‡o| 1598 wLª÷v‡ã kvn& AveŸvm DR‡eKw`M‡K GK cÖPÊ hy‡× civwRZ K‡ib Ges `xN© `k ermi ci wnivU I †g‡k` mvdvwf‡`i n¯—MZ nq| wKš‘ UªvÝAw·qvbvi b~Zb Lvb evwK gyn¤§‡`i wei“‡× cwiPvwjZ kvn& AveŸv‡mi Aci AwfhvbwU e¨_©Zvi ch©ewmZ nq| cÂvk nvRvi ˆmb¨ jBqv 1601 wLª÷v‡ã cwiPvwjZ G Awfhv‡b mvdvwfMY bvbv Kvi‡Y we‡kl ¶q-¶wZi m¤§yLxb n‡q Ae‡k‡l hyׇ¶Î cwiZ¨vM Ki‡Z eva¨ nq| mvdvwf †mbvevwnbx‡Z mecÖewZ©Z muv‡Rvqv evwnbx Zvnv‡`i Kvgv‡bi h_v_© e¨envi bv Ki‡Z cvivq mvdvwf‡`i c‡¶ G wech©‡qi m„wó n‡qwQj| wKš‘ mvgwqKfv‡e kvn& AveŸvm‡K G wech©‡qi m¤§yLxb n‡qI wZwb DR‡eK‡`i wei“‡× wfbœfv‡e ivR‰bwZK weRq m~wPZ K‡ib| mvgªv‡R¨i DËi-c~e© mxgv‡š— Aew¯’Z gvf©, evj&L I Av¯¿vev‡` wZwb Zvi AbyMZ DR‡eK cÖavbw`M‡K ¶gZvq AwawôZ K‡ib Ges Gfv‡e wZwb DR‡eK kw³‡K Zvi ek¨Zv ¯^xKvi K‡i jB‡Z eva¨ K‡ib| Gi d‡j mvfvwf mvgªv‡R¨i c~e© mxgv‡š— eûw`b ci ¯’vqx kvwš— cÖwZwôZ nj| <br />kvn& AveŸvm ebvg A‡Uvgvb ZzwK©MY <br />DR‡eK kw³‡K c`vbZ Kivi ci kvn& AveŸvm mvgªv‡R¨i cwðg mxgv‡š— mvdvwf‡`i me©v‡c¶v kw³kvjx kΓ A‡Uvgvb ZzwK©‡`i wei“‡× `„wó wbeÜ Ki‡jb | hw`I kvn& AveŸvm G mgq ZzwK©‡`i mwnZ c~e© ¯^v¶wiZ mwÜ f½ K‡i Zv‡`i‡K cvim¨ n‡Z weZvwoZ Kwiqevi msKí K‡iwQ‡jb ZeyI Dfq kw³i g‡a¨ AvbyôvwbKfv‡e mwÜ f‡½i Rb¨ cÖavbZ ZzwK©MYB `vqx wQj| KviY AvRvievBRv‡bi iw¶Z ZzwK© evwnbx mvdvwf‡`i AwaKvify³ mvjgvm AvµgY Kivi d‡j Df‡qi g‡a¨ hy× ïi“ nq| kvn AveŸvm 1605 wLª÷v‡ã AvRvievBRvb AvµgY K‡ib Ges Zvweª‡Ri A`~ieZx© wmm bvgK ¯’v‡b (Di“wgqv n«‡`i mwbœK‡U) Dfq evwnbxi g‡a¨ GK cÖPÊ hy× nq| hy‡× weL¨vZ A‡Uvgvb †mbvcwZ wmKvbv cvkv civwRZ nb Ges cÖvq wek nvRvi ZzwK© ˆmb¨ hy‡× cÖvY nvivq| d‡j ZvewiR, AvRvievBRvb, bvLwPevb, Bwiwfb, cvÄv I wZdwdm `xN©w`b ci ZzwK©‡`i AwaKvi n‡Z mvdvwf‡`i n¯—MZ nq| A‡UvgvbMY Avivm b`xi `w¶Y cÖvš— n‡Z wZvwoZ nq| Bnv e¨ZxZ Kzw`©¯—vb, evM`v`, gymj, w`qvi‡ewKi, Kvievjv I bvRvd mvdvwf‡`i AwaKv‡i Av‡m| Gfv‡e †ek K‡qK ermi mvdvfx‡`i mwnZ ZzwK©‡`i hy×ve¯’v weivRgvb _vKvi ci Ae‡k‡l 1612 wLª÷v‡ã Dfq kw³i g‡a¨ mwÜ ¯^v¶wiZ nq| G mwÜi kZ©vbymv‡i 1555 wLª÷v‡ã ¯^v¶wiZ Avgvwmqvi mwÜ cybivq ejer nq Ges Dfq iv‡R¨i mxgvš—‡iLvI Abyiƒcfv‡e wPwýZ nq| ZzwK© myjZvb gyiv` I Z…Zxq gyn¤§` KZ…©K cvi‡m¨i wewRZ mKj AÂj ZzK©MY Qvwoqv w`‡Z eva¨ nq| wewbg‡q kvn& AveŸvm ZzwK© myjZvb‡K evrmwiK `yBkZ †evSv wmé cÖ`vb Kwi‡eb ewjqv w¯’i nq| wKš‘ G mwÜ †ewkw`b ¯’vqx nq bvB| kvn& AveŸvm ZzwK© myjZvb‡K wba©vwiZ wmé cÖ`v‡b A¯^xKvi K‡ib Ges RwR©qv AvµG K‡i e‡mb| Gi d‡j ZzwK© myjZvb AwZkq ivMvwš^Z nb Ges 1616 wLª÷v‡ã mvdvwf‡`i wei“‡× GKwU kw³kvjx ZzwK© evwnbx †cÖiY K‡ib| ZzwK© evwnbx Gwkqv gvBbi n‡Z Biwfb I ZvewiR AvµgY K‡i| wKš‘ ZzwK©‡`i G cÖ‡Póv e¨_© n‡q hvq Ges 1618 wLª÷v‡ã Dfq kw³i g‡a¨ cybivq mwÜ ¯’vwcZ nq| G Pzw³‡Z c~e©eZx© mxgvš—-‡iLv AcwiewZ©Z _vwK‡e ewjqv w¯’i nq| Z‡e kvn& AveŸvm `yBkZ †evSv wmé-Gi wewbg‡q ZzwK© myjZvb‡K GKkZ †evSv wmé cÖ`vb Kwi‡eb ewjqv mve¨¯— nq| wKš‘ vwP‡iB G mwÜ ¶Y¯’vqx ewjqv cÖgvwYZ nq Ges ZzwK© evwnbx 1624 wLª÷v‡ã evM`v` AvµG K‡i| kvn& AveŸvm Aek¨ mvd‡j¨i m‡½ G ZzwK© AvµgY cÖwZnZ K‡ib Ges evM`v` I w`qvi‡ewK‡ii Dci mvdvfx‡`i AvwacZ¨ A¶zYœ iwnqv hvq| <br />G mKj ivR¨ weRq Qvov kvn& AveŸvm mvdvwf iv‡R¨i mxgv‡iLv wewfbœ w`‡K AviI ewa©Z K‡ib| 1602 wLª÷v‡ã wZwb evnivBb AwaKvi K‡ib Ges 1608 wLª÷v‡ã wkiIqvbI mvdvwf mvgªv‡R¨i Aš—f~©³ nq| Bnv e¨ZxZ 1622 wLª÷v‡ã fvi‡Zi gyNj mgªvU Rvnv½xi‡`i wbKU n‡Z wZwb Kv›`vnvi cybi“×vi K‡ib| AZtci kvn& AveŸvm cZz©wMRw`M‡K weZvwoZ K‡i IigyR e›`i `Lj Kivi msKí MÖnY K‡ib| 1507 wLª÷v‡ã cZz©wMRMY cvim¨ DcmvMi ZxieZx© G e›`iwU AwaKvi K‡i Ges Zvnv‡`i Aax‡b IigyR cÖv‡P¨i GKwU wewkó evwYR¨ 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gnvbyfeZv, mnbkxjZv I cia‡g„i cÖwZ D`vi g‡bvfv‡ei f~qmx cÖksmv Kwi‡jI cyÎ I wcZvi cÖwZ Zvi G wbg©gZv ¶gvi `„wó‡Z †`wL‡Z cv‡i‡b bvB| Z‡e cÖRvmvavi‡Yi wbKU wZwb wQ‡jb AZ¨š— wcÖq Ges mvgªv‡R¨i g½j I cÖRv‡`i wnZv‡_© wZwb Zvi mKj cwikªg wb‡qvwRZ K‡iwQ‡jb| kvn& AveŸvm fvi‡Zi weL¨vZ gyNj mgªvU AvKei, Bsj¨v‡Ûi ivbx cÖ_g GwjRv‡e_, Zzi‡¯‹i myjvBgvb I d«v‡Ýi cÂg Pvj©‡`i mgmvgwqK wQ‡jb| cÖwZfv I K…wZ‡Z¡i wePvi wZwb wbtm‡›`‡n G‡`i mgch©v‡qi wQ‡jb| GGwK †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î Zvi K…wZZ¡ G‡`i g‡a¨ A‡bK‡K QvovBqv wMqvwQj| wZwb AZ¨š— `y‡h©vMc~Y© gyn~‡Z© cvi‡m¨i mvdvwf wmsnvm‡b Dc‡ekb K‡ib| G mgq †`‡ki g‡a¨ AvBb A_ev kvmb k„•Ljv ewj‡Z †Kvb wKQyiB Aw¯—Z¡ wQj bv| wKwRjevm‡`i Aeva¨ I D”Q„•Lj AvPi‡Y mvgªv‡R¨i g‡a¨ Ri“wi Ae¯’v weivR Kwi‡ZwQj| Bnv e¨ZxZ ZzwK© I DR‡eK Avµg‡Yi m¤§y‡L mvdvwf iv‡R¨i fwel¨r ¯’vwq‡Z¡i cÖkœ cÖKU n‡q †`Lv w`qvwQj| kvn& AveŸvm mvd‡j¨i m‡½ G mKj Ae¯’vi †gvKv‡ejv K‡ib Ges Zvi g„Zz¨Kv‡j mvdvwf ivR¨ DbœwZ I †MŠi‡ei kxl© wkL‡i Av‡ivnY K‡i| wZwb G es‡ki BwZnv‡m GG MwZ‡eM mÂvi K‡iwQ‡jb †h, Zvi g„Zz¨i ci A‡hvM¨ DËivwaKvix‡`i Aax‡bI Bnv `xN© GK kZvãxKvj wUwKqv _vwK‡Z m¶g nq| `xN© 42 ermi ivRZ¡ Kivi ci kvn& AveŸvm 1621 wLª÷v‡ã 29 Rvbyqvwi g„Zz¨gy‡L cwZZ nb| g„Zz¨Kv‡j Zvi eqm n‡qwQj| 58 ermi| <br />kvn& mvwd<br />(1629-1642 Cmvqx)<br />(1038-1052 wnRix)<br />kvn& AveŸvm Zvi g„Zz¨i mgq wb‡`©k w`‡qwQ‡jb hv‡Z Zvi cyÎ mvwd wgR©vi mšÍvb mvg wgR©v‡K cieZx© kvn wbe©vPb Kiv nq| d‡j AveŸv‡mi g„Zy¨i ci Zvi †cŠÎ mvg gxR©v 1629 wLª÷v‡ã 17B †deª“qvwi kvn& kvwd Dcvwa aviY K‡i cvi‡m¨i mvdvwf wmsnvm‡b Dc‡ekb K‡ib| G mgq Zvi eqm wQj gvÎ 18 ermi| ivR‡Z¡i wewfbœ mg‡q wZwb kvnvbkvn, mv‡n‡e †K¡ivb I myjZvb Avj mvjvZxb cÖf©wZ Dcvwa MÖnY K‡ib|<br /> kvn& nevi c~e©eZx© w`b¸wj‡Z wZwb ‡n‡igLvbvq ew›` Ae¯’vq Rxeb AwZevwnZ K‡iwQ‡jb| myZivs ivR Kvh© cwiPvjbv, mvgwiK A_ev †emvgwiK ch©v‡qi mKj cÖKvi cÖwk¶Y n‡ZB wZwb ewÂZ nb| d‡j kvn& AveŸvm ev c~e©eZx© mvdvfx kvmK‡`i DbœZ PvwiwÎK ¸Yvejxi †KvbwUiB wZwb AwaKvix wQ‡jb bv| g~jZ kvn& mvwdi Avgj n‡ZB mvdvwf es‡ki AatcZb mywPZ nq| Hanway Zvi kvmbKvj m¤ú‡K© gšÍe¨ ZrKi‡Z wM‡q e‡jb: “He interferedso little in the affairs of the government taht the Persians would have scarcely perceived they had a king, had it not been for the frequent instances of barbarity which stained his reign with blood; by his own folly he lost Kandahar and Babylon [Bagdad] two of the most important places of his frontires.” kvn& mvwd wbg©g I m‡›`ncÖeY wQ‡jb| Bnv Qvov gvÎvwZwi³ g`¨cvb I bvix mvnPh© Zvi PvwiwÎK `ye©jZv AviI evwo‡q w`‡qwQj| wZwb KLbI ivRKv‡h© g‡bv‡hvM w`‡Zb bv| bvix, myiv I wkKvi wb‡qB Zvi mgq AwZevwnZ nZ| HwZnvwmK µywmsw¯‹ Zvi m¤^‡Ü e‡jb, (There has not been in persia a more cruel and bloody reign than his, one continued series of cruelties )|Ó wc. mvBK e‡jb: “The new monarch took the title of Shah safi, and his reign of thirteen years was one long chapter of execution.”| wZwb c~e© cyi“l‡`i bxwZ AbymiY K‡i mvdvwf es‡ki hyeivRw`M‡K nZ¨v K‡ib Ges Gfv‡e wZwb Zvi fwel¨r cÖwZØ›Øx‡`i wbg~©j Kivi cwiKíbv MÖnY K‡ib| Zvi G wbôziZvi nvZ ‡_‡K GgbwK gwnjvMY ch©š— wb¯—vi 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`ye©j n‡q c‡o| G mgq Avi‡ei Igvb ivR¨ †bŠ-kw³i w`‡K we‡kl g‡bv‡hvMx nq Ges 1650 wLª÷v‡ã Igv‡bi Bgvg myjZvb Be&b-mBd KZ…©K cZz©wMR‡`i AwaKvi n‡Z gvmKvU `L‡ji gva¨‡g me©cÖ_g Zvnv‡`i G kw³i mvdj¨ m~wPZ nq| cieZx© wek ermi awiqv Bgvg myjZvb Be&b& mvB‡di cÖ‡Póvq Igv‡bi †bŠ-kw³ eû¸‡Y e„w× cvq| Z‡e ZLb ch©š— Bgv‡gi G mgi cÖ¯‘wZ cÖavbZ cZz©wMR‡`i wei“‡×B wb‡qvwRZ wQj| Bgvg myjZvb Beb mvBd 1679 wLª÷v‡ã g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib Ges Zvi cZz mvBd-Beb myjZvb Zvi ¯’jvwfwl³ nb| b~Zb Bgvg mvBd-Be&b-myjZv‡bi Avg‡j Igv‡bi †bŠ-kw³ AviI e„wÏ cvq Ges wZwbB me©cÖ_g cvi‡m¨i ¯^v_©-cwicš’x Kvh©Kjv‡c wjß nb| cvim¨ DcmvM‡ii ZxieZx A‡ji RbMY mybœx gymjgvb weavq Igv‡bi mybœx Bgvg AwZ mn‡RB wkqv mvdvwf‡`i wei“‡× Zvnv‡`i mnvbyf~wZ I mg_©b jv‡f m¶g nb| wKš‘ G mgq 1711 wLª÷v‡ã Bgvg mvBd-Be&b-myjZv‡bi g„Zz¨ nB‡j Zvi cyÎ wØZxq mvBd Bgvg n‡jb| wZwb cvi‡m¨i AwaKvi n‡Z evnivBb, wKk&g I jvivL `Lj K‡ib Ges Zvi wbKU IigyR ch©š— wecbœ n‡q c‡o| d‡j †bŠ-kw³‡Z `ye©j cvi‡m¨i mvdvwfMY wbi“cvq †eva Ki‡Z _v‡K| Kv‡RB eva¨ n‡q Igv‡bi †gvKv‡ejv 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†ejywP DcRvZxq †MvÎ Zvnv‡`i †bZv gxi Lmi“ kv‡ni †bZ…‡Z¡ we‡`ªvnx nq Ges wKigvb cÖ‡`k AwaKvi K‡i e‡m| we‡`ªvnxMY BR&`& ch©š— AMÖmi nq Ges e›`i AveŸvmI Zvnv‡`i ûgwKi m¤§yLxb n‡q c‡o| mvdvwf †mbvevwnbx G mgq we‡klfv‡e Ae‡nwjZ nIqvi d‡j `ye©j n‡q cwoqvwQj| d‡j we‡`ªvnx †ejyP‡`i nvZ n‡Z wKigvb cybi“×vi Kivi g‡Zv †Kvb kw³kvjx †mbvcwZ wKwRjevm A_ev ¸jvg-evwnbxi g‡a¨ wQj bv| myZivs eva¨ n‡q kvn& myjZvb ûmvBb wRIiwM‡K wKigv‡bi cÖv‡`wkK kvmbKZ©v wbhy³ K‡i Zvi Dci G we‡`ªvn `g‡bi `vwqZ¡ Ac©Y K‡ib| wRIiwM 1700 wLª÷v‡ã ‰m‡b¨ wKigvb Dcw¯’Z nb Ges Zvi åvZv wjI‡bi we‡kl mn‡hvwMZvi d‡j we‡`ªvnx †ejyP‡`i †bZv gxi Lmi“ kvn‡K civwRZ I weZvwoZ K‡ib| wRIiwM 1709 wLª÷vã ch©š— wKigvb cÖ‡`‡ki kvmbKZ©v wQ‡jb| Kv›`vnv‡i MvjRvB AvdMvb‡`i we‡`ªvn `g‡bi mgq wZwb wbnZ nb| wRIiwMi g„Zz¨‡Z mvdvwf ivR¨ GKRb my‡hvM¨ I wek¦¯— †mbvcwZ‡K nvivBj| <br />cvi‡m¨i m‡½ ivwkqv I Zzi‡¯‹i m¤úK©<br />ivwkqvi Rvi gnvgwZ wcUvi kvn& myjZvb ûmvB‡bi mgmvgwqK wQ‡jb| wZwbB me©cÖ_g cvi‡m¨i wei“‡× D”Pwejvmx bxwZ Aej¤^b K‡ib| 1708 wLª÷v‡ã wZwb BmivBj IivB-Gi †bZ…‡Z¡ mvZ kZ m`m¨wewkó GKwU K~U‰bwZK wgkb B¯úvnv‡b †cÖiY K‡ib| K~U‰bwZK wgk‡bi QÙ‡ek aviY Kwi‡jI cÖK…Zc‡¶ ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZK D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi Rb¨B G wgkb †cÖwiZ n‡qwQj| | Z‡e Dwj­wLZ wgk‡bi D‡Ïk¨ m¤^‡Ü kv‡ni m‡›`n I fxwZi m„wó nB‡jI Zvnv‡`i cÖwZ †mŠRb¨g~jK e¨envi Ki‡Z wZwb eva¨ n‡qwQ‡jb| 1715 wLª÷v‡ã †fwj‡bvw¯‹i †bZ…‡Z¡ wcUvi AviI GKwU wgkb cvi‡m¨ †cÖiY K‡ib| G wgk‡bi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ wQj cvi‡m¨i mwnZ ivwkqvi evwYR¨ Pzw³ m¤úv`b Kiv| wØZxqZ, wmwiqv I Zzi‡¯‹i c‡_ BD‡iv‡ci mwnZ wmé evwY‡R¨i wewbg‡q ivwkqvi gva¨‡g G evwYR¨ m¤úv`‡b cvim¨‡K eva¨ Kiv| Ges Z…ZxqZ, cvi‡m¨i ivR‰bwZK, A_©‰bwZK I †fŠ‡MvwjK wel‡q we¯—vwiZ Z_¨ msMÖn Kiv| †fwj‡bw¯‹ Zvi G wgk‡b e¨vcK mvdj¨ AR©b K‡ib Ges 1717 wLª÷v‡ã Dfq †`‡ki g‡a¨ GK evwYR¨ Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z nq| G Pzw³i kZ©vbymv‡i ivwkqvi ewYKMY Aev‡a cvi‡m¨ evwYR¨ Kivi Ges B”QvgZ KuvPv wmé µq Kivi AwaKvi jvf K‡i| Bnv e¨ZxZ kvn& cvi‡m¨ evwYR¨iZ G mKj i“k ewYK‡`i mKj cÖKvi wbivcËvi `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡ib| kvn& ûmvBb Rvi wcUv‡ii eÜzZ¡ KvGv K‡i Zuv‡K`yBwU wmsn I 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b¨vq `ye©j I A‡hvM¨ wQ‡jb| wZwb gvngy‡`i mwnZ kw³ cix¶vq e¨_© n‡q ivwkqvi Rvi wcUv‡ii mvnvh¨ I mn‡hvwMZv KvGv Ki‡jb | wcUvi Bnv‡K myeY© my‡hvM g‡b Ki‡jb | KviY Gi d‡j ivwkqv KZ…©K cvim¨ Avµg‡Yi ˆeaZv cÖgvwYZ nj| 1723 wLª÷v‡ã kvn& wØZxq Zvngvmc wcUvv‡ii m‡½ GK mwÜ ¯^v¶i Ki‡jb | G mwÜi kZ©vbymv‡i AvdMvbw`M‡K cvim¨ n‡Z weZvwoZ Kivi e¨vcv‡i ivwkqv Zvngvmc‡K mvnvh¨ Kwi‡e Ges wewbg‡q wkiIqvb, `v‡M¯—vb, wMjvb, Av¯¿vev` I †gRv›`vivb cÖf„wZ AÂj ivwkqvi AwaKvify³ nB‡e ewjqv g‡b nq bv| KviY AvdMvbw`M‡K weZvwoZ Kivi Rb¨ wZwb †Kvb c`‡¶cB MÖnY Ki‡jb bv Ges GKgvÎ wMjvb AwaKvi K‡iB NUbvi AMÖMwZ ch©‡e¶Y Ki‡Z jvwM‡jb| <br />Zzi‡¯‹i A‡Uvgvb ZzwK©MYI cvi‡m¨i G gnv`y‡h©v‡Mi my‡hvM MÖnY Kiv n‡Z weiZ iwnj bv| 1639 wLª÷v‡ã Zzi¯‹ I cvi‡m¨i g‡a¨ ¯^v¶wiZ Rynv‡ei mwÜi ci n‡Z cÖvq 80 ermi Dfq kw³i g‡a¨ kvwš— weivRgvb wQj| wKš‘ AvdMvb ‡bZv gvngy` cvim¨ AvµG K‡i B¯úvnvb `Lj Kwi‡j G m¤ú‡K©i †¶‡Î dvU‡ji m„wó nj| AwaKš‘ †Muvov wkqv †gvj­v‡`i cÖfv‡e cwoqv kvn& myjZvb ûmvBb wkiIqvb cÖ‡`‡ki mybœx m¤cÖ`v‡qi gymjgvb‡`i Dci 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Kjn I cÖvmv`-loh‡š¿i g‡a¨ wb‡R‡`i Aïf cÖfve we¯—vi Ki‡Z cðvrc` n‡Z b bv| A_P `ye©j kvn&‡`i c‡¶ †Kej bxie `k©‡Ki g‡Zv G mKj NUbv Ae‡jvKb Kiv Ges loh‡š¿i wkKvi nIqv e¨ZxZ Avi †Kvb DcvqB wQj bv| †Kvb †Kvb mgq `ye©j, m‡›`ncÖeY Ges †¯^”QvPvix kvn&MY e¨vcKnv‡i I wbwe©Pv‡i G mKj Kjngvb cvwil`eM©‡K nZ¨vi wb‡`©k w`‡Zb| wKš‘ Bnv‡Z Ae¯’vi e¯‘MZ †Kvb cwieZ©bB nBZ bv| KviY, D™¢yZ cwiw¯’wZ Avq‡Ë Avwbqv ¯^n‡¯— kvmb cwiPvjbv Kivi g‡Zv †Kvb †hvM¨ZvB Zvnv‡`i wQj bv| myZivs kvn&‡`i G ai‡bi cÖwZwµqv I cvBKvwi nZ¨vi wb‡`©k †Kej Ae¯’v‡K AviI RwUj I †Nvjv‡U K‡i ZzwjZ| G mKj cwiw¯’wZ j¶¨ K‡i R‰bK HwZnvwmK mwZ¨B gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb †h, Òg`, bvix I †LvRv m¤cÖ`vqÓ mvdvwf es‡ki cZ‡bi g~‡j weivU f~wgKv cvjb K‡iwQj| <br />mvfvwd es‡ki cZ‡bi cðv‡Z ewntkΓi AvµgY Avi GKwU Ab¨Zg KviY wQj ejvevûj¨ †h, G es‡ki Rb¥jMœ n‡Z B †Lvivmv‡bi DR‡eK kw³ I Zzi‡¯‹i mybœx myjZvbMY Gi cÖejZg kΓ wnmv‡e †`Lv w`qvwQj| wewfbœ mg‡q mvdvwf kvnMY DR‡eK kw³‡K civwRZ Ki‡Z cvwi‡jI mvgªv‡R¨i c~e© mxgv‡š—i G wec` n‡Z Zviv KLbI wb®K…Z cvq bvB| wVK Abyiƒcfv‡e gv‡S g‡a¨ ZywK©‡`i mwnZ mvdvwf‡`i mwÜ cÖwZwôZ nB‡jI g~jZ A‡Uvgvb ZzwK©MYB mvdvwf‡`i Ab¨Zg cÖavb kΓ wQj| mvfvwf‡`i †h-‡Kvb `yie¯’vi my‡hvM MÖnY Kiv n‡Z Zviv KLbI weiZ nq bvB| Bnv e¨ZxZ mvdvwf es‡ki ivR‡Z¡i †kl w`‡K ivwkqvi Rvi, Igv‡bi Bgvg I MvjRvB AvdMvbMY mvdvwf‡`i Dci cÖPÊ AvNvZ nvwb‡Z jvwMj| wKš‘ G mKj kw³kvjx ewntkΓi †gvKv‡ejv Kivi g‡Zv †Kvb ¶gZvB kvn&‡`i wQj bv| d‡j 1722 wLª÷v‡ã MvjRvB AvdMvb †bZv gvngy` I Avkiv‡di n‡¯— mvdvwf mvgªvR¨ GK cÖKvi wbwðý n‡q wMqvwQj| wKš‘ †mŠfvM¨ekZ kvn& myjZvb ûmvB‡bi cyÎ kvn& wØZxq Zvngvmc RxweZ _vKvi d‡j G es‡ki cZb mvgwqKfv‡e wejw¤^Z nj| Zvngvmc Aek¨ wb‡R‡K kvn& ewjqv †NvlYv Ki‡jb , wKš‘ wZwb wQ‡jb m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c `ye©j I A‡hvM¨| wZwb AvdMvb mybœx kw³i wei“‡× ivwkqvi Rvi wcUvi I A‡Uvgvb ZzwK© myjZvb Z…Zxq Avng‡`i wbKU mvnvh¨ KvGv Ki‡jb | ivwkqvi Rvi evKz I `viev›` AwaKvi Ki‡jb Ges Kvw¯úqvb mvMixq A‡jI Zvi AwaKvi cÖwZwôZ nj| wKš‘ wewbg‡q wZwb kvn& Zvngvmc‡K mvnv‡h¨i Rbª mivmwi AMÖmi n‡jb bv| Ab¨w`‡K 1724 wLª÷v‡ã mvdvwf mvgªv‡R¨i Aek¨¤¢vex cZb j¶ K‡i Zzi¯‹ I ivwkqv wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ cvim¨‡K wef³ K‡i jBevi wbwg‡Ë GK Aïf mwÜ ¯^v¶i Kwij Ges AvdMvb †bZv Avkiv‡di wbKU n‡Z ZzwK©MY cvi‡m¨i GK weivU Ask `Lj K‡i jBj| kvn& Zvngvmc Aek¨ bvw`i Kzwj Lvb bvgK (c‡i bvw`i kvn&) GK my`¶ †mbvcwZi mvnv‡h¨ cvim¨ n‡Z AvdMvb, ZzwK© I i“k evwnbx‡K weZvwoZ Ki‡Z m¶g n‡jb| wKš‘ mvdvwf es‡ki cybtcÖwZôv D”Pvwfjvlx I cÖK…Z ¶gZvi AwaKvi bvw`‡ii D‡Ïk¨ wQj bv| 1736 wLª÷v‡ã wZwb mvdvwf es‡ki me©‡kl Ges bvggvÎ kvn& Z…Zxq AveŸvm‡K wmsnvmbPz¨Z K‡i P~ovš—fv‡e HwZn¨evnx mvdvwf es‡ki cZb NUvB‡jb| <br />mvdvwf es‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK Ae`vb<br />cvi‡m¨i RvZxq BwZnv‡m mvdvwf esk GKwU wewkó Aa¨v‡qi ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQj| | G Avg‡ji e¨vcK ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZK DbœwZi m‡½ m‡½ mvdvwfMY we¯§qKi mvs¯‹…wZK Ae`vb ivwL‡Z m¶g nb| mvdvwf wkíKjvi Dci hyMcr †gv½j, ‰Zgyixq Ges Pxbv cÖfve cwijw¶Z nq| mvfvwf Avg‡j ¯’vcZ¨ I wPÎwk‡íi Pig DrKl© mvwaZ nq| we‡kl K‡i gnvgwZ kvn& AveŸv‡mi Avg‡j mvdvwf ms¯‹…wZ DbœwZi wkL‡i Av‡ivnY K‡i| ¯’vcZ¨ wk‡íi †¶‡Î B¯úvnvb bMix ZrKvjxb we‡k¦i †miv my›`i I g‡bvig bMix‡Z cwiYZ nq| ivRavbx B¯úvnv‡b Aew¯’Z cÖvq Aa© gvBj cwiwa wewkó ivRKxq gq`v‡bi K_v G cÖm‡½ we‡klfv‡e D‡j­L‡hvM¨| G gq`vb PZzw`©‡K n‡Z my`„k¨ Bgvi‡Z mymw¾Z wQj Ges GLv‡b gnvmgv‡iv‡n †cv‡jv †Ljv AbywôZ nBZ| ivRKxq gq`v‡bi c~e© cÖv‡š— wQj ÓAvjv KvwcÓ bvgK mye„nr †ZviY| Bnv wQj ivRcÖvmv‡` cÖ‡ekØvi| G †Zvi‡Y Kvô wbwg©Z ¯—‡¤¢i e¨envi Av‡Q Ges Bnv GKvš—fv‡e mvdvwf ¯’vcZ¨ wk‡í ˆewkó¨| G †Zvi‡bi wbw`©ó ¯’vb n‡Z mvdvwf kvn&MY ivRKxq gq`v‡b AbywôZ †cv‡jv †Ljv Dc‡fvM Kwi‡Zb Ges cÖwZ ermi bI‡ivR Drme c‡e©i AwffvlY cÖ`vb Kwi‡Zb| mvdvwf ¯’vcZ¨ wk‡íi g‡a¨ Ò‡P‡nj myZzbÓ wewkó ¯’vb AwaKvi K‡i iwnqv‡Q| Bnv Pwj­kwU ¯—‡¤¢i Dci Aew¯’Z wQj ewjqv Gi Giƒc bvgKiY Kiv n‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ mvdvwf ivRKxq wmsnvmb msiw¶Z wQj| Bnv e¨ZxZ G Avg‡ji ÒgmwR`-B-kvn&Ó, ÔPvnvi evMÕ, Òkvn& ûmvB‡bi gv`ªvmvÓ, ÒAvjew`© Lv‡bi †mZzÓ Ges ÒBgvg Avjx †iRvi mgvwa‡mŠaÓ we‡klfv‡e D‡j­L‡hvM¨| wewPÎ e‡Y©i Uvwj Øviv G BgviZ¸wj Av”Qvw`Z I my‡kvwfZ Kiv wQj Ges G ixwZ mvdvwf ¯’vcZ¨ wk‡íi Ab¨Zg GKwU ˆewkó¨ wnmv‡e DrKl© jvf K‡i| <br />mvdvwf Avg‡ji mvs¯‹…wZK Ae`v‡bi g‡a¨ ¯’vcZ¨ wk‡íi ciB wPÎ wk‡íi ¯’vb| mvdvwf wPÎwk‡í †g‡mvc‡Uwgqvb, ˆZgyixq I Pxbv cÖfve cwijw¶Z nq Z‡e Gi g‡a¨ Pxbv cÖfveB cÖej ewiqv g‡b nq| mvdvwf‡`i Avg‡j wniU n‡Z wPÎwk‡íi †K›`ª Zvewi‡R ¯’vbvš—wiZ Kiv nq| cvi‡m¨i me©‡kªô wPÎv¼b wQ‡jb Kvgvj DwÏb wen&Rv`| wZwb cÖZx‡P¨i i¨vdv‡qj ewjqv AvL¨vwqZ| 1440 wLª÷v‡ã wen&Rv` wniv‡U Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib Ges 1524 wLª÷v‡ã Zvi g„Zz¨ nq| d‡j hyMcr ˆZgyixq Ges mvdvwf ivR `iev‡i c„ô‡cvlKZv jvf Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ‡jb| kvn& BmgvBj wen&Rv`‡K wnivU n‡Z Zvewi‡R Avbqb K‡ib Ges 1522 wLª÷v‡ã Zuv‡KZvewi‡R wbwg©Z wPÎKjv GKv‡Wwgi cÖavb cwiPvjK wbhy³ Kiv nq| wen&Rv‡`i n‡¯—B cvi‡m¨i wPÎwk‡íi Pig DrKl© mvwaZ nq Ges mvdvwf kvn& gnvgwZ AveŸvm wen&Rv`‡K Zvi mvgªv‡R¨i Aa©vs‡ki b¨vq g~j¨evb ewjqv we‡ePbv Kwi‡Zb| wen&Rv‡`i g„Zz¨i ci Zvi my‡hvM¨ wkl¨MY Zvi Abymi‡Y wnivU I Zvewi‡R wPÎv¼b Kv‡R eªZ _v‡Kb Ges G‡`i gva¨‡G wen&Rv‡`i cÖej cÖfve mvdvwf wPÎwk‡íi Dci cÖwZdwjZ nq| e¯‘Z wen&Rv‡`i G wkl¨MYB mvdvwf wPÎwk‡íi cÖwZôvZv wQ‡jb| mvdvwf wPÎKi‡`i g‡a¨ myjZvb gyn¤§`, wgivR gxi bv°vk, I¯—v` gyn¤§w` I gyn¤§` wKIqv‡gi bvg D‡j­L‡hvM¨| mvdvwf bicwZ kvn& Zvngvmc e¨w³MZev‡e GKRb DrK…ó wPÎKi wQ‡jb Ges Zvi n¯—wjwjI wQj Ac~e© my›`i| mvdvwf wPÎwk‡íi DrK‡l©i cðv‡Z kvn& Zvngvm‡ci Ae`vb Ab¯^xKvh©| mvdvwf wPÎKiMY c~e© cÖ_v Abyhvqx cvi‡m¨i weL¨vZ Kwe †di‡`Šwmi ÔkvnbvgvÕ, mv`xi Ôey¯—vbÕ Ges Rvwgi ÔBDmyd Ry‡jLvÕ cy¯—K n‡Z cÖPzi cwigv‡b NUbv I welqe¯—yi Dci wPÎ A¼b Ae¨vnZ iv‡Lb| gnvgwZ kvn& AveŸv‡mi Avg‡j wPÎwkí PP©vi Rb¨ GKwU GKv‡Wwg cÖwZôv Kiv nh| G Avg‡ji †`IqvjwPÎ Ges my›`i n¯—wjwcwe`¨vI we‡klfv‡e DrKl© jvf K‡i| <br />mvdvwf Avg‡j g„rcvÎ wbg©vY †KŠkj, e¯¿wkí I Kv‡c©U cÖ¯‘Z cÖYvjx we‡kl DrKl© jvf K‡i| gnvgwZ kvn& AveŸvm Pxb n‡Z wZbkZ Kz¤¢Kvi‡K cvi‡m¨ Avg`vwb K‡ib Ges ¯’vbxq wkíx‡`i m‡½ Zvnv‡`i mn‡hvwMZv I mgš^‡qi d‡j G †¶Î Ac~e© DbœwZ †`Lv †`q| Pxbv cÏwZ AbyKi‡Y G mKj g„rcvÎ jvj, bxj, meyR I †Mvjvwc cÖf„wZ wewPÎ e‡Y© mvRv‡bv nBZ| Kv‡c©U ˆZwii †¶‡Î cvi‡m¨i mvdvwf Avgj wQj AZzjbxq| wewfbœ AvKv‡ii D‡ji Kv‡c©U wkíxMY bvbv ai‡bi `„k¨ Øviv g‡bvig K‡i Zzwj‡jb| Bnv e¨ZxZ 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