Medium towns as future growth centers


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India is a developing country. As the population grows rapidly, the development of cities is imminent. Urbanisation as an outcome of this development is being addressed here. Two case studies of medium towns are done underlining the factors of growth determining the structure of development. The objective is to learn from these experiences and make generalisations that could be helpful for the future development of many other similar towns and for developing a framework for balanced urban development in India.

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  • China’s GDP grew by 11.9 percent in 2007.. India was 8.
    refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. Standard of living..
    GNP allocates production based on ownership. GDP the geographical location of production..
    GDP (+) total capital gains from overseas investment (-) income earned by foreign nationals domestically.
    India 11..US,JAPAN,Germany, China 6 –GDP
    GNP India 10
  • Leadership, administration, commitment to growth..
    High investment, high savings..
    Market valuation..
    Economic stability, modest inflation..
    Global demand assessment.
    society becomes more tightly organized, more densely interwoven.. Growing economy is one in which energies are better directed; resources better deployed; techniques mastered
  • Against every 100 Ruralites there are 38 Urbanites in India in 2001..
    India's urbanization is often termed as over-urbanisation, pseudo- urbanization. Urbanisation is occurring not due to urban pull but due to rural push.
    Urbanisation is a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural-urban migration. The big cities attained inordinately large population size leading to virtual collapse in the urban services and followed by basic problems in the field ofhousing, slum, water, infrastructure, quality of life etc.
  • This is largely due to the fact that the towns in lower categories have grown in size and entered the next higher category..
    Does Growth ultimately lead to Urbanization?
    Is the prevailing definition of urbanization accute in its sense?
    Does the Lewis Mumford theory of evolution of cities in city in history hold true?
    How can development be achieved without the side effects of growth?
  • Globalisation, liberalization, privatization are addressing negative process for urbanization in India…
  • National Development Council (NDC)
  • Environmental problems of the hills are deforestation and soil erosion, both leading to the drying up of water sources, flash floods and decline in the yield of food and cash crops, fodder, fuel and other minor forest produce..
    Intensive human and livestock pressures along with indiscriminate felling of trees for commercial purposes have already led to loss of soil and rapid depletion and destruction of forest cover. Besides, to this, water retention capacity and productivity of land have been adversely affected.
    Traditional agricultural practices, especially shifting cultivation, have also contributed to destruction of forests and soil erosion. Seemingly harmless activity as prolonged grazing by livestock, especially goats and sheep, have further exposed many hill areas to serious ecological degradation. Development activities like construction of buildings, roads, dams, large and medium industries and mining etc., have aggravated environmental problems. Consequently, perennial sources of water springs and small streams have dried up in many areas. The major challenge, therefore, is to devise suitable location-specific solutions, so as to reverse the process and ensure sustain-able development of the growing population and ecology of the hill areas.
  • Controlling the process of desertification, mitigating the effects of drought in the areas, restoring the ecological balance in the affected areas and raising productivity of land, water livestock and human resources.
  • India's major mineral resources include Coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Titanium ore, Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Limestone and Thorium (world's largest along Kerala's shores).
    India's oil reserves, found in Bombay High off the coast of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and in eastern Assam meet 25% of the country's demand
  • 51.09% of the land is under cultivation, 21.81% under forest and 3.92% under pasture. Built up areas and uncultivated land occupy about 12.34% (Kundra, 1999). About 5.17% of the total land is uncultivated waste, which can be converted into agricultural land. The other types of land comprises up 4.67%.

  • Realization: India quality of life…not GDP & economics..
  • As is evident from the statistics above, the funds required to cover the demand is way above what the government (and grants from international funding agencies) alone can achieve.
    Hence the most plausible solution is for others to participate and for alternative sources of investment.
  • PRIs only partially able to meet these expectations; Elite capture of PRIs ; Welfare of weaker sections ignored
    Mid 60s : Focus shifted to agriculture production; Technological orientation to agriculture; Central Govt. brings special Program's bypassing PRIs
    SFDA (Small Farmers Development Agency),
    IAAP (Intensive Agricultural Programmes)
    IADP (Intensive Agricultural District Programme)
    TDA (Tribal Development Agency)
    MFAL (Marginal, Small Farmers and Agricultural Laborers Development Agency )
    Command Area Development,
    Drought Prone Area and Hill Area
    All these were financed and operated directly by the Central Govt.
    Agri initiative of late 60s increase food production
    Benefits reaped by rich, non-poor farmers in irrigated areas.
    Small and Marginal Farmers trailed
    Productivity increase from the Green Revolution in 1970s- 80s, however, did reduce rural poverty
  • By Mid 80s – there are improvements in meeting the minimum needs of poor .
    Progress in Elementary education, Health, Water supply, Roads. Still around 1993-94, was 32% of population was poor In SC & ST this was higher by 17-22%.
    Small land holding , Landlessness, Illiteracy were key factors.
  • Human Development Index
  • Medium towns as future growth centers

    1. 1. S T UD Y I N I N D I A N C O N T E X T Medium towns as future Growth Centers Efforts by: Ar. Omkar Parishwad MURP, SPA, Bhopal
    2. 2. What is Growth? A growing GDP is evidence of a society getting its collective act together. As its economy grows, a society becomes more tightly organized, more densely interwoven. A growing economy is one in which energies are better directed; resources better deployed; techniques mastered, then advanced. It is not just about making money. Gross domestic product (GDP): It is a statistical compression, reducing national economy into a single number, which can increase over time.
    3. 3. Leadership and governance; Credible commitment to growth, inclusion; Capable administration.. Future orientation; High investment, High saving Market allocation; Guide prices; Resources follow prices Openness to Import knowledge; Exploit global demand.. Macroeconomic stability; Modest inflation; Sustainable public finances.. The common characteristics of a Growth Centre: Growth 1. Urbanization (Concentration of population; Density; Occupation..) 2. Infrastructure facilitation.. 3. Economic Growth/ Standard of living..
    4. 4. India’s Urbanization Urbanisation is an index of transformation from traditional rural economies to modern industrial one. Process of Urbanization in India
    5. 5. Degree & Pace of Urbanization in India Degree of Urbanisation in India Pace of Urbanisation in India
    6. 6. Growth of City by Size Class • The share of class I cities, with population size of 100,000 or more, has gone up significantly from 26 % in 1901 to 69 % in 2001. • The percentage share of class IV, V and VI towns, having less than 20,000 people, on the other hand, has gone down drastically from 47% to 10% only.
    7. 7. Conception _ Urbanization.. • Does Growth ultimately lead to Urbanization? • Is the prevailing definition of urbanization accute in its sense? • Does the Lewis Mumford theory of evolution of cities in city in history hold true? • How can development be achieved without the side effects of growth? • Regional Development vs. Urbanization… • Future of Small & Medium cities in India.. • Agriculture vs. Industrialization… • Economy vs. nature!
    8. 8. Classification- Special Regions : India • Eco – Sensitive Regions • Coastal Regions • Hilly Regions (HADP) • Western Ghats (Coastal + Hilly) (WGDP) • Desert Regions (DDP) • Resource Rich Regions • Backward Regions • North Eastern Regions (NEC) • Strategic Regions • Border Area Regions (BADP) • Naxalite Regions
    9. 9. Eco Sensitive: Hilly area Regions.. (ii) Areas which form part of a State, which are termed as Designated Hill Areas', namely : a. Two hill districts of Assam - North Cachar and Karbi Anglong b. Eight districts of Uttar Pradesh - Dehradun, Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal, Chamoli, Uttar Kashi, Nainital, Almora and Pithoragarh. c. Major part of Darjeeling District of West Bengal. d. Nilgris District of Tamil Nadu. e. 163 talukas of Western Ghats area comprising parts of Maharashtra (62 talukas), Karna-taka (40 talukas) Tamil Nadu (29 talukas), Kerala (29 talukas) and Goa (Stalukas). (i) Areas which are co-extensive with the boundaries of the State or Union Territory, i.e., Hill States/Union Territories, namely, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
    10. 10. Desert Regions: India • The hot desert regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Haryana.. • The cold desert areas in Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh..
    11. 11. Backward Regions of India North Eastern Council (NEC): The most neglected areas of India are the seven sisters of the east. The Naxals affect the development almost similarly to the Terrorists. The integrity of our country breaks and so does Growth in positive sense.
    12. 12. Resource Rich Regions: India • Purvanchal Region • North Eastern Plateau Region • Coastal/Hilly Regions
    13. 13. Border Area Regions • States of Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Subsequently, Jammu and Kashmir.. • Need for balanced development of the sensitive border areas in the western region through provision of infrastructure facilities and promotion of a sense of security among the local population.
    14. 14. Per Capita Income • Sikkim • Andaman and Nicobar Islands • Mizoram • Arunachal Pradesh • Nagaland • Manipur • Meghalaya • Tripura • Goa • Jammu & Kashmir • Himachal Pradesh • Uttarakhand • Assam • Jharkhand • Chattisgarh • Orissa • Bihar • Punjab • Haryana • Madhya Pradesh
    15. 15. INDIA • Diverse conditions: Need to tackle different problems regionally. • Central governance is not too strong, thus need for a systems approach. • Need to set definite goals region-wise.
    16. 16. Small & Medium Towns: India awakening.. • Until 70’s rural development was agro. development. • 80’s – ‘a strategy designed to improve the socio-economic life of a specific group of people – the rural poor. Concerns were • The deepening rural poverty. • Changing concept of development. • Emergence of diversified rural economy. • Non-income dimensions of poverty recognized. • Today – Inclusive development, Regional development. • Goes beyond growth, income and output. IDSMT, UIDSSMT.. • Quality of life – health, education, nutrition, living conditions, reduction in gender inequalities..
    17. 17. Infrastructure (electricity and productive end-uses, telecommunication, transport and drinking water and sanitation) is a necessary and critical ingredient for the economic growth and decline of absolute poverty.. • 18% of villages don’t have electricity and 46% of households are not covered – leads to no lighting, no productive end uses thus minimal economic activity – Requires Rs 1,07,823 crores for full coverage; average annual investments for last two decades is Rs 8,800 crores • Telecommunication – 1.9 per hundred of population; 98% of villages have public telephones but this is not sufficient; Rs 92,690 crores for full coverage; BSNL average annual budget Rs 2,700 crores • 44% of rural population not covered by road network and transportation; Rs 15, 643 crores for full coverage; average annual investments Rs 2,133 crores • 95% of rural population have access to some sort of drinking water source. The operation and maintenance is poor due to lack of funds. India’s SMT Infrastructure Statistics
    18. 18. SMT Development programs..  Gandhian notion of Community Development Programme: • Rural upliftment and reconstruction • 19 Point programme – Khadi & Village, Industries, Sanitation, Health care, Economic equity, Communal Harmony, Education, Women Empowerment..  Panchayti Raj Institutions: • Three tier system of local Govt. – • Gram Panchayat (Village level), Panchayat Samiti (Block level), Zilla Parishad (District level) • The three-tier system aimed to link Govt. and elected representative. • To decentralize decision making & shift decision making closer to people and encourage their participation. • To place Bureaucracy under people’s control
    19. 19. SMT Development programs.. Integrated Rural Development Programme: • IRDP introduced in 1979 for rural poor and weaker sections of society • Earlier Programmes relied on delivery systems which suppressed self-reliance • Shift from community development. to schematized planning • Linkage between infrastructure and employment scheme drawn • Programme design has credit based self- employment activity and not as subsidy distribution exercise • Decentralization of programme implementation through DRDA and Block Authority • Sub schemes – • Development. Of women and children (DWCRA), • Training of Rural Youth for Self -employment (TRYSEM), • National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), • Jawahar Rojgar Yojana (JRY)
    20. 20. SMT Development programs.. Between 1990 & Present Phase: • Liberal economic policies and reforms introduced in the early 1990s • Driven by rapid growth in the manufacturing and service sectors • Growth rate in agriculture has declined since 1997 and remains low. • The share of agriculture in GDP has declined from 43% in 1970 to 22% in 2004. • Public investment in irrigation has fallen..
    21. 21. Central schemes for SMT development: · Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY): This is a scheme launched and fully sponsored by the Central Government of India. The main objective of the scheme is to connect all the habitations with more than 500 individuals residing there, in the rural areas by the means of weatherproof paved roads. · Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY): This was implemented as a total package with all the characteristics of self employment such as proper training, development of infrastructure, planning of activities, financial aid, credit from banks, organizing self help groups, and subsidies. · Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY): This scheme aims at increasing the food protection by the means of wage employment in the rural areas which are affected by the calamities after the appraisal of the state government and the appraisal is accepted by the Ministry of Agriculture. · Indira Awaas Yojana (Rural Housing): This scheme puts emphasis on providing housing benefits all over the rural areas in the country.
    22. 22. Industrial growth in Gobindgarh, Punjab, India. The town is located on the GT road, 270 km north-west of delhi and 35 km from Rajpura, another industrial town in the state.. Case Studies.. Gobindgarh
    23. 23. Growth of SMT & Industrial dispersal… • Population redistribution through three phases of population change: (a) replacement of a large number of Muslims by the non-Muslims at the time of partition in 1947; (b) population redistribution during 1947-66 mainly with extension of irrigation facilities and reclamation of new agricultural lands; and (c) spatial containment of the population due to a check on agricultural out-migration since its reorganisation in 1966. • Green Revolution in the 1960s gave a boost to agro-processing activities in Punjab. This led to a growth in the demand for agricultural implements and the consequent establishment of a number of engineering units. Economic prosperity of the people also led to investment in dwelling units and infrastructural facilities which was behind the increase in demand for steel and engineering products in construction linked activities. • The growth of small and medium scale industries in Punjab in the post- Independence period has a distinct regional pattern. The major factor behind this growth process is the emergence of an urban industrial corridor along the Ludhiana, Jalundhar and Amritsar highways.
    24. 24. Policy Boost.. Annual exponential growth rates of the population in the town of Gobindgarh & Punjab. • The policy of the GOI to make steel products available to producers in distant regions at uniform prices in the post-Independence period. This helped the units located away from the integrated steel plants since under this policy, the government absorbed a part of the freight. The units in the towns in Punjab, therefore, got a de-facto subsidy on the cost of transportation, which was as high as about 10 per cent of the price of steel. • Gobindgarh was one of the major beneficiaries of the policy since steel production there became highly cost-effective. As a consequence, the steel rolling mills grew in number and capacity during the first three decades after Independence.
    25. 25. Provision of basic amenities & Infrastructure • Water Supply: The town depends on underground water extracted through eleven tube wells operated by the MC. Three quarters of the households in Gobindgarh enjoy the tap water facility. Most of the industries have their own water supply system through tube wells, reducing the pressure on the local body. • Sewerage: The sewerage system in the town covers 90 percent of the area and population. The total length of the sewerage line is about 79 km. At present, there is no proposal to extend the system, as the MC believes that it is covering almost the entire city. There is no sewer treatment plant as yet. The sewage is released untreated into an open "nallah", which at times is used for irrigation. Discharge systems for industrial effluents and storm water are also connected with the sewerage lines.
    26. 26. Provision of basic amenities & Infrastructure • Electricity: The Punjab State Electricity Board provides electricity to the town covering residential, commercial and industrial units. About 96 percent of the households have a power connection. All the streets, bazaars, parks and roads including the GT road are well lit. There is a proposal by the MC to put all the wires and cables of electricity underground. • Roads: Gobindgarh is well connected by roads to the neighbouring towns and cities namely, Fatehgarh Saheb, Rajpura, Chandigarh, Sirhund, Ambala, Amloh, Khanna, Morinda etc. The GT road passes through the centre of the town as well as a broad guage railway line.
    27. 27. Provision of basic amenities & Infrastructure • Land & Housing: In Gobindgarh, no major housing project has been taken up so far by the private or public sector. No state level agency has launched a project for developing and disposing residential plots in the town or neighbouring areas. This can possibly be attributed to the lack of demand for housing as the town has a large number of migrant populations, for whom housing is a low priority. Education & Health: The number of schools, thus, has not kept pace with the fast growing population in the town, possibly due to the migrant workers not putting up a demand for educational facilities. Besides these, there is an Arts and Science college and a separate Girls’ College in the town, which provides education up to graduation level. To cater to the needs of technical manpower requirements of Steel re-rolling mills, the National Institute of Secondary Steel Technology (NISST) was established in 1990. There is also a college offering management courses. However, people prefer to go to the nearby towns of Khanna and Sirhind for higher education.
    28. 28. Conclusions & generalizations..
    29. 29. 2. Small Town Development (Malkapur) due to a Medium town growth centre (Karad, Satara District, Maharashtra, India).. Case Studies..
    30. 30. Location of Malkapur wrt. Karad, Dist Satara.. KARAD CITY MALKAPUR
    31. 31. Malkapur Landuse • The current census (2001) population of Malkapur Municipal Corporation is 22,392. Expected 2011 is 36,000; 2026 is 75,000 and 2036 is 1,26,000. • The density has increased three-fold from 2192 persons/ sq. km in 1991 to 4644 persons/ sq. km in 2001. • Area under Malkapur municipal Council is 9 sq. km.
    32. 32. Development of Malkapur as a satellite town of Karad city.. • Agriculture • Open Spaces • Hill Areas • Facilities • Economy • City Plng. • AGRO based • Other • Social • Water • Power • Sewage • Transport Infra MIDC Land- Use HDI
    33. 33. Social Infrastructure: Education, Hospital vs. Housing
    34. 34. 24X7 Water Supply Scheme:
    35. 35. Ecology & Environment
    36. 36. Transportation
    37. 37. Agriculture..
    38. 38. Indian States ranking by Human Development Index (HDI) Small Towns: A: < 20,000 B: 20 to 50,000 C: 50,000 to1L Medium Towns: D: 1L to 3L E: 3L to 5L Large Towns: Above 5L Source: 2008 Meghalaya Human Development Report
    39. 39. Inferences.. • There is no relation between Urbanization and Human Development Index. Kerala ranking first has a very even distribution, whereas Mizoram & Goa ranking second & third have high percentage of urbanization (abt. 85%). The Relation lies mostly within Regional analysis. • The changes in the settlement hierarchy are primarily due to the towns in lower categories entering the next higher category as a consequence of the natural growth of population. Unfortunately, however, there has not been a corresponding increase in the number of urban centres, especially at the lower levels, through transformation of rural settlements.
    40. 40. • Cities with more than 1,00,000 people have a large share of workers in manufacturing compared to other urban centres. Being linked to the national or global economy, they usually experience high and stable demographic growth. The small and medium towns, exhibit a low and fluctuating growth, which can be attributed to their poor and uncertain economic base and failure to attract private investment from within or outside the country. • People in small and medium towns in India, particularly those with less than 50,000 people, have low per capita income due to lack of employment opportunities in the organised sector, low incidence of secondary activities and poverty induced growth of tertiary employment. The percentage of people below the poverty line increases systematically as one goes down the population size categories. Inferences..
    41. 41. Conclusions… • Urbanization should mean moderate dense, multi nodal, almost self sustainable regions. • A need to solve Literacy/Education shortages as a priority. Employment, poverty/standard of life and many problems in the forefront on the way to development can get solved simultaneously. • Energy sector also needs to be prioritized as India is a developing country. • Development refers mostly to basic Infrastructural facilitation. Economy follows HDI. • There is a need to realize the Identity of a place than depending on foreign notions of Growth.
    42. 42. Thank u for Listening… Omkar Parishwad School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal +91 9922952801