Phases of od~
1: Recognition: Recognition of a need for change can be brought about by many different
events. An updated disaster assessment, a budget analysis, or periodic audits may reveal
problems which must be dealt with. It is important that managers identify sources of feedback so
that an information system can be developed and the need for change can be identified promptly.
2: Diagnosis of Problems: Before appropriate action can be taken, the problem is defined and all
its aspects are examined. To diagnose the problem: identify the problem; determine what must be
changed to resolve it; and determine what objectives are expected from the change (and how
they can be measured).
3. Planning for Change: When the real problem of the organization is identified, OD consultant
plans the various courses of action in the light of these problems. Since there are many
techniques involved programme, attempts are made to transform diagnosis of the problems into
proper action plan involving over all goals for OD, determination of the approach suitable for
attaining goals, and sequence for implementing the approach.
4. Intervention in the System: After the techniques for OD programme and time sequence are
determined, OD consultant attempts to change the organization and its people. It is a long affair
and hence a gradual process. For example, most OD programmes begin with training the people
in the light of the proposed organizational
change. Gradually intervention may be attempted at all the three level – individual, group and
5. Evaluation and Feedback: OD work must include a high degree of accountability for results.
Processes, results, successes and failures should be measured and documented. Progress of
implementation as reflected in data associated with indicators should be monitored and
adjustments should be made as needed. Careful monitoring and evaluation of the results of OD
programmes provide feedback regarding what is going on. When any discrepancy appears
between what is intended and what is happening, the change agent goes back almost to the first
step, that is problem identification and diagnosis, though in this case, work involved may be
slightly different. In the very beginning of problem identification and diagnosis, emphasis
is more on data collection and its analysis; at this stage, emphasis may be more on analysis of
OD programme techniques themselves. Moreover, feedback can be used as an energizing factor
which will indicate what further action is necessary. Most common techniques for getting
feedback are critique sessions, systematic appraisal of change efforts, and analysis of pre-training
and post-training behavioural patterns based on actual operation.
Benefits of OD
adapt to the accelerating rate of change brought about by market forces embrace the demands of
new technologies and processes make long-range comprehensive transformations vs. quick
fixes initiate and manage change, particularly, complex change foster employee alignment and
commitment to new ways of working expand everyone's ideas, beliefs, and behaviors to solve
problems develop the organization's fitness for continuous innovation and renewal.