Ws 110 reproductive rights and health


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Womens Rights and Health

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  • Ws 110 reproductive rights and health

    1. 1. Women’s Health & Reproduction WoS 110 – Haghighatjoo 2011
    2. 2. Definitions: <ul><li>Health: State of “complete physical, mental & social well-being”; not just the “absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization) </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction: process of generating offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning: program to regulate number, timing, and spacing of children in family through contraception or other birth control methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services may include: providing education, information, contraceptives, abortions, fistula repair, maternal & infant health care, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Challenges for women in developing world <ul><li>Reproductive health problems remain the leading cause of ill health & death for women of child-bearing age (ages 15-49) (UNFPA) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor women suffer disproportionately from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintended pregnancies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal death & disabilities (see example of fistulas in West Africa, H&J) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexually transmitted infections (HIV & more) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender-based violence </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Health & Women’s Agency <ul><li>“… Good health is essential to leading a </li></ul><ul><li>productive and fulfilling life, and the right </li></ul><ul><li>of all women to control all aspects of their </li></ul><ul><li>health, in particular their own fertility, is </li></ul><ul><li>basic to empowerment.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beijing Platform for Action (1995), Paragraph 92 </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Foundations in Human Rights & Development <ul><li>Under CEDAW women are accorded </li></ul><ul><li>basic rights related to health: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to education & information on health & family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Not be discriminated against in the field of health care </li></ul>
    6. 6. Women’s Health & UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) <ul><li>Promoting gender equality & empowering women </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing child mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Improving maternal health </li></ul><ul><li>Combating HIV/AIDS </li></ul>
    7. 7. Reproductive Health <ul><li>Reproductive choice </li></ul><ul><li>Physical health of women & children (all age groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological health & well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Access to family planning & maternal & infant health services </li></ul>
    8. 8. Question of Access to Information & Health Services in Rural Egypt <ul><li>Population: 79 million </li></ul><ul><li>Contraception: 60% </li></ul>
    9. 9. Environmental Pollutants Key Concern for Women’s & Family Health
    10. 10. Health through NGO services (Quesna, Egypt)
    11. 12. Key questions : reproductive health <ul><li>Can a woman control when & with whom she has sexual relations? </li></ul><ul><li>Can she have sexual relations without fearing infection or unwanted pregnancy? </li></ul><ul><li>Can she choose whether or not to have children? </li></ul><ul><li>Can she go through pregnancy & childbirth safely? </li></ul><ul><li>Can she obtain safe contraceptives? </li></ul><ul><li>Can she access information on reproductive health? </li></ul>
    12. 13. Social Institutions Affecting Women’s Reproductive Health <ul><li>Family (males and females) </li></ul><ul><li>Government—national & international levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social politics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global & domestic economies </li></ul><ul><li>Religious organizations </li></ul>
    13. 14. Governmental Controls <ul><li>They vary widely from country to country: </li></ul><ul><li>Level of state funding for health & family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of cooperation with international organizations & NGOs is important for developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Legal limits: state defines access to some services </li></ul><ul><li>State demographic & family planning policies (e.g., China’s population control policies) </li></ul>
    14. 15. Global Gag Rule & U.S. Social Politics Abroad <ul><li>Reagan instated Mexico City Policy (1984) & Clinton reversed in 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>2001: G.W. Bush reinstated the Mexico City Policy known as the “Global Gag Rule” </li></ul><ul><li>Bars U.S. family planning assistance to foreign NGOs, who w/ own funds support abortion-related activities in their own country </li></ul><ul><li>USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) largest donor for all contraceptive supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts? </li></ul>
    15. 16. Resources: <ul><li>Kaiser Family Foundation site on global health </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Population Fund </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>