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  1. 1. Organizational Behavior Session 20
  2. 2. Groups and teams: Part I
  3. 3. Differences between ‘group’ and ‘team’ Team is a group that generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. Collective performance in a team may be more than the sum of individual performance. A team is formed for a limited time. Team tasks require members to work interdependently.
  4. 4. Types of team tasksApproach 1 (Steiner):1- additive tasks: require the summing of every team member’s performance.2- conjunctive tasks: every team member should perform their tasks at least at a minimally acceptable level.3- disjunctive tasks: refer to tasks that require only one team member to perform well in order to gain group achievement.
  5. 5. Types of team tasks (continued) Approach 2 (McGrath):2. Generative3. Executing4. Negotiating5. Decision making
  6. 6. Types of teams Problem solving teams: Members share ideas and offer suggestions on how a situation or a process can be improved. Self-managed teams: are groups of employees who perform interdependent tasks and take the responsibilities of their actions. Self-managed teams may be involved in planning, scheduling, assigning tasks to members, collective controlling, decision making, and even selecting their own members.
  7. 7. Types of teams (continued) Cross-functional teams: consist of employees from different work areas but with similar hierarchical levels who come together to accomplish a task. The main idea in forming cross-functional teams is that every aspect of a client’s work can be handled within one team instead of separate departments.
  8. 8. Types of teams (continued) Virtual teams: collaboration on-line. Virtual teams can be effective in many situations. However, it may have limitations in non-verbal communications and using emotional signs. Some have recommended using virtual teams for task-oriented jobs.
  9. 9. Important factors in forming a team Inspirational team leadership; Clarification of team tasks; designing different roles to cover all aspects of team tasks; Allocation of roles based on individuals’ strengths; Considering appropriate size (5-10) Composition/Diversity (gender, age, expertise, ethnic backgrounds, cultural/industrial/departmental values and norms, etc.); Socialization and trust building.
  10. 10. Social loafing
  11. 11. What is social loafing? Consciously or unconsciously, individuals may not exert as much effort in group settings as when they are alone. Social loafing is based on the de-individuation that can occur when people work in groups as opposed to working alone.
  12. 12. Important antecedents of social loafing Lack of identification and uniqueness of individual contribution to the group; Low intrinsic involvement; Individualistic orientation; Lack of peer appraisal; Large group size; Task visibility (hiding in the crowed); Distributive justice
  13. 13. Social loafing and expectancy theory Expectancy: A group member may realize that other factors aside from their own effort will influence his/her group’s performance. Instrumentality: A group member may realize that valued outcomes (rewards) are divided among all group members, and she/he may not receive a fair share given his or her level of effort.
  14. 14. Reading Please read page 242 to 267 and 280 to 296 of the text book. Please read the social loafing document.