1890 John Mackintosh & his wife
c r e a t e d a n e w k i n d o f s w e e t f r o m
i n e x p e n s i v e l o c a l i n g r e d i e n t s s u c h a s
m i l k , s u g a r b e e t a n d e g g s
• identifying quality REQUIREMENTS &/ STANDARDS
• how the project will demonstrate COMPLIANCE with quality requirements.
8.1 Plan Quality Management
• AUDITING the quality requirements and the results from QC measurements
to ENSURE that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are
8.2 Perform Quality Assurance
• MONITORING and recording results of executing the quality activities to
ASSESS performance and recommend necessary changes.
8.3 Control Quality
Knowledge Area Initiating Planning Executing M& C Closing
4. Project Integration Management
4.2 Develop Project
4.3 Direct & Manage Project
4.4 Monitor & Control Project Work
4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control
4.6 Close Project
5. Project Scope Management
5Plan Scope Management
5.2 Collect Requirements
5.3 Define Scope
5.4 Create WBS
5.5 Validate Scope
5.6 Control Scope
6. Project Time Management
6Plan Schedule Management
6.2 Define Activities
6.3 Sequence Activities
6.4 Estimate Activity Resources
6.5 Estimate Activity Durations
6.6 Develop Schedule
6.7 Control Schedule
7. Project Cost Management
7Plan Cost Management
7.2 Estimate Costs
7.3 Determine Budget
7.4 Control Costs
8. Project Quality Management 8Plan Quality Management
8.2 Perform Quality
8.3 Control Quality
9. Project Human Resource
9.1 Plan Human Resource
9.2 Acquire Project Team
9.3 Develop Project Team
9.4 Manage Project Team
10. Project Communications
10Plan Communications Management 10.2 Manage Communications 10.3 Control Communications
11. Project Risk Management
11Plan Risk Management
11.2 Identify Risks
11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
11.5 Plan Risk Responses
11.6 Control Risks
12. Project Procurement
12Plan Procurement Management 12.2 Conduct Procurements 12.3 Control Procurements
13. Project Stakeholder
13.2 Plan Stakeholder
13.3 Manage Stakeholder
13.4 Control Stakeholder
OSO OCT 2013
• as a delivered
result is “the
DEGREE to which
a set of inherent
” (ISO 9000)
• quality level that
fails to meet
always a problem
• as a design intent
is a CATEGORY
having the same
• low grade of
quality may not be
defining, and managing
requirements to meet customer
•Quality should be planned,
designed, and built into—not
•The PDCA (plan-do-check-act)
•Total Quality Management
(TQM), Six Sigma, and Lean Six
•to provide suitable resources at
Cost of quality (COQ)
•total cost of the conformance
work and the nonconformance
work that should be done as a
identifying quality requirements and/or
standards for the project and its
documenting how the project will
demonstrate compliance with relevant
provides GUIDANCE and direction on
how quality will be managed and
validated throughout the project
Cost of quality
Seven basic quality
Design of experiments
220.127.116.11 Project Management Plan
• identifying those stakeholders possessing a particular interest in, or
having an impact on, quality.
18.104.22.168 Stakeholder Register
• information on threats and opportunities that may impact quality
22.214.171.124 Risk Register
• captures the requirements that the project shall meet pertaining to
stakeholder expectations. The components of the requirements
126.96.36.199 Requirements Documentation
Rules, standards, and guidelines
Working or operating conditions
of project / deliverables
Cultural perceptions about
Organizational quality policies,
procedures, and guidelines.
Historical databases; and
The primary benefits :
increased S/H SATISFACTION
• all costs incurred over the life of the
product by investment in
• nonconformance to requirements,
• the product or service for conformance to requirements,
• to meet requirements (rework).
• Document process
• Time to do it right
• Lost of Bus.
Money spent DURING project
to AVOID failures
Money spent DURING/AFTER
BECAUSE OF failures
organize facts in a manner
that will facilitate the
effective collection of
useful data about a
potential quality problem.
gathering attributes data
inspections to identify
EX. data about the frequencies or
consequences of defects collected in
check-sheets are often displayed using
Problem Sun Mon Tues. Wed
1 Phones aren’t answered quickly enough. 3 3 4 3 2 15
2 Staff seem distracted and under pressure. 2 1 1 1 1 6
3 Engineers don’t appear to be well 1 0 1 1 1 4
Engineers don’t know what time they’ll arrive.This
means that customers may have to be in all day for an
engineer to visit.
1 0 0 0 1 2
Service center staff don’t always seem to know what
6 6 6 6 6 30
When engineers visit,the customer finds that the
problem could have been solved over the phone.
4 4 4 4 5 21
Problem Cause Score
Phones aren’t answered quickly enough. Too few service center staff.
Staff seem distracted and under pressure. Too few service center staff.
Engineers don’t appear to be well Poor organization and preparation.
Engineers don’t know what time they’ll arrive.This means that
customers may have to be in all day for an engineer to visit.
Poor organization and preparation. 2
Service center staff don’t always seem to know what they’re
Lack of training. 30
When engineers visit,the customer finds that the problem could
have been solved over the phone.
Lack of training. 21
• identify the VITAL few sources that are
responsible for causing MOST of a
• The categories shown on the horizontal axis
exist as a valid probability.
• The relative frequencies of each specified
cause decrease in magnitude until the
default source named “other”.
• Typically organized into categories that
measure either frequencies or consequences
• (items 5 and 6) – 51 complaints.A: Lack of training
• (items 1 and 2) – 21 complaints.B: Too few service center staff
• (items 3 and 4) – 6 complaintsC: Poor organization and preparation
• Items (xx) - 2 complaintsD: Others
A B C D
• describe the central tendency, dispersion,
and shape of a statistical distribution.
A D C B
Unlike the control chart, the histogram does not consider the
influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution.
• used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has
• Upper and lower specification limits are based on requirements of
• They reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed.
• There may be penalties associated with exceeding the specification
• Upper and lower control limits are different from specification limits.
• The control limits are determined using standard statistical
calculations and principles to ultimately establish the natural
capability for a stable process.
• The project manager and appropriate stakeholders may use the
statistically calculated control limits to identify the points at which
corrective action will be taken to prevent unnatural performance.
• The corrective action typically seeks to maintain the natural stability
of a stable and capable process.
A process is
of control when:
(1) a data point exceeds a control limit;
(2) seven consecutive plot points are above or below the mean
2monitor various types of output variables.
track repetitive activities required for producing manufactured lots,
to monitor cost and schedule variances, volume, and frequency of scope changes, or other
• plot ordered pairs (X, Y) seek to explain a change
in the dependent variable, Y, in relationship to a
change observed in the corresponding
independent variable, X.
• The direction of correlation may be :
– proportional (positive correlation),
– Inverse (negative correlation), or
– a pattern of correlation may not exist (zero
• If correlation can be established, a regression line
can be calculated and used to estimate how a
change to the independent variable will influence
the value of the dependent variable
0 5 10 15 20 25
Years of Experiences
PM SKILLS Linear (PM SKILLS)
• comparing actual or planned project
practices to those of comparable projects to
identify best practices, generate ideas for
improvement, and provide a basis for
Benchmarked projects may exist
within the performing organization
or outside of it, or can be within the
same application area.
Benchmarking allows for analogies
from projects in a different
application area to be made
• statistical method for identifying which factors may influence
specific variables of a product or process under
development or in production.
DOE may be used during the
Plan Quality Management
process to determine the
number and type of tests and
their impact on cost of quality.
• plays a role in OPTIMIZING products or
• used to reduce the SENSITIVITY of product
performance to sources of variations caused by
environmental or manufacturing differences.
• provides a statistical framework for systematically
changing ALL of the important factors.
• provide the OPTIMAL conditions for the product or
process, highlight the factors that influence the
results, and reveal the presence of interactions
and synergy among the factors
• choosing part of a population of interest for
• Sample frequency and sizes should be
determined during the Plan Quality Management
process so the cost of quality will include the
number of tests, expected scrap, etc.
There is a substantial body of
knowledge on statistical
• used to generate ideas
• diagrams of the forces for and against change.
Force field analysis.
• used to allow ideas to be brainstormed in small groups and then reviewed by
a larger group.
Nominal group technique.
• used to link and sequence the activities identified
Quality management and control tools
project manager; project sponsor;
others as needed
• how the organization’s quality policies will be
• how the project management team plans to meet
the quality requirements set for the project.
• Should be reviewed early in the project to ensure
that decisions are based on accurate information.
• a sharper focus on the project’s
• reductions in costs and in the
frequency of schedule overruns that
were caused by rework.
Quality Roles and Responsibilities
Quality Assurance Approach:
Quality Control Approach:
Quality Improvement Approach:
Project Title: Date Prepared:
Details the steps for analyzing project management and product
development processes to identify activities that enhance their
PURPOSE of the
•the start and end ,
•inputs & outputs,
of processes, with
•used to facilitate
•Along with control
•allows analysis of
•GUIDE the process
Areas to consider include:
• Specifically describes a project or product attribute
and how the control quality process will measure
• A measurement is an actual value.
• The tolerance defines the allowable variations to
• Quality objective :
• stay within the approved budget by ±
• Quality metric:
• measure the cost of every deliverable
and determine the percent variance
from the approved budget
Quality metrics are used in
• component-specific structured tool, used
to verify that a set of required steps has
• Quality checklists should incorporate the
acceptance criteria included in the scope
baseline simple or
it facilitates the improvement of
Quality management &
• Describes the quality assurance and continuous process
improvement approaches for the project.
• QA activities should be supportive of and consistent with
the performing organization’s process improvement plans.
• provide the attributes that should be measured and the
• QCM are the results of control quality activities.
• analyze and evaluate the quality of the processes against
the standards of the organization or the requirements
• validate actual measurements to determine their level of
• influence QA work and should be monitored within the
context of a system for configuration management.
• similar to mind-mapping techniques in that they are
used to generate ideas that can be linked to form
organized patterns of thought about a problem.
creation of the WBS may be enhanced by using the affinity diagram to give
structure to the decomposition of scope.
• Used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for
getting to the goal.
• The PDPC is useful as a method for contingency
planning because it aids teams in anticipating
intermediate steps that could derail achievement of the
• An adaptation of relationship diagrams provide a
process for creative problem solving in moderately
complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical
relationships for up to 50 relevant items.
developed from data
generated in other tools
such as the affinity
diagram, the tree diagram,
or the fishbone diagram
• used to represent decomposition
hierarchies such as the WBS, RBS,
• useful in visualizing the parent-to-
child relationships in any
decomposition hierarchy that uses a
systematic set of rules that define a
useful for establishing an expected value for a
limited number of dependent relationships that have
been diagramed systematically
• Identify the key issues and the suitable
alternatives to be prioritized as a set of
decisions for implementation.
Criteria are prioritized and weighted before being applied to all available
alternatives to obtain a mathematical score that ranks the options
• include both Activity On Arrow & Activity
On Node formats of a network diagram.
• ANDs are used with project scheduling
methodologies (PERT, CPM, PDM).
• used to perform data analysis within the
organizational structure created in the
seeks to show the
factors, causes, and
objectives that exist
between the rows and
• a structured, independent process to determine
if project activities comply with organizational
and project policies, processes, and procedures.
• The objectives of a quality audit may include: increase in
auditors.Quality audits can confirm the implementation of approved
change requests including updates, corrective actions,
defect repairs, and preventive actions.
Identify all good and best practices being implemented;
Identify all nonconformity, gaps, and shortcomings;
Share good practices introduced or implemented in similar projects in
the organization and/or industry;
Proactively offer assistance in a positive manner to improve
implementation of processes to help the team raise productivity; and
Highlight contributions of each audit in the lessons learned repository
of the organization.
• follows the steps outlined in the process
improvement plan to identify needed
– problems experienced,
– constraints experienced,
– non-value-added activities
• Process analysis includes root cause analysis—a
specific technique used to identify a problem,
discover the underlying causes that lead to it, and
develop preventive actions.
• to allow full consideration of the recommended improvements.
• to take corrective action, preventive action, or to perform defect repair
188.8.131.52 Change Requests
• Quality management plan,
• Scope management plan
• Schedule management plan
• Cost management plan
184.108.40.206 Project Management Plan Updates
• Quality audit reports,
• Training plans, and
• Process documentation.
220.127.116.11 Project Documents Updates
• organization’s quality standards and the quality management system.
18.104.22.168 Organizational Process Assets Updates
• the causes of poor process
or product quality
• recommending and/or
taking action to eliminate
• that project deliverables
and work meet the
requirements specified by
key stakeholders necessary
for final acceptance.
recording results of
executing the quality
•Project management plan
•Work performance data
•Approved change requests
•Organizational process assets
•Seven basic quality tools
•Approved change requests
•Quality control measurements
•Work performance information
•Project management plan
•Project documents updates
•Organizational process assets
•keeping errors out of the process
•keeping errors out of the hands of
•the result either conforms or does
•rated on a continuous scale that
measures the degree of conformity
•specified range of acceptable results
•identify the boundaries of common
•contains the quality management plan, which is used to control quality.
•describes how quality control will be performed within the project.
22.214.171.124 Project Management Plan
•describes a project or product attribute and how it will be measured.
•EX: function points, mean time between failure (MTBF), and mean time to repair (MTTR).
126.96.36.199 Quality Metrics
•help to verify that the work of the project and its deliverables fulfill a set of requirements
188.8.131.52 Quality Checklists
•Planned vs. actual technical performance,
•Planned vs. actual schedule performance
•Planned vs. actual cost performance.
184.108.40.206 Work Performance Data
• Approved change requests may include modifications such as defect repairs, revised work methods, and
revised schedule. The timely implementation of approved changes needs to be verified.
220.127.116.11 Approved Change Requests
• any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability that results in a validated deliverable required by the
• Quality audit reports and change logs supported with corrective action plans,
• Training plans and assessments of effectiveness
• Process documentation.
18.104.22.168 Project Documents
• The organization’s quality standards and policies,
• Standard work guidelines
• Issue and defect reporting procedures and communication policies.
22.214.171.124 Organizational Process Assets
•The seven basic quality tools are illustrated conceptually.
126.96.36.199 Seven Basic Quality Tools
•Samples are selected and tested as defined in the quality management plan.
188.8.131.52 Statistical Sampling
•Inspections also are used to validate defect repairs.
184.108.40.206 Inspection (reviews, peer reviews, audits, or walkthroughs).
•to verify that they were implemented as approved
220.127.116.11 Approved Change Requests Review
of control quality
•should be captured in
the format that was
specified through the
•changed or repaired
items are inspected
and will be either
accepted or rejected
before notification of
the decision is
•Rejected items may
•A goal of the QC is to
•The results of
performing QC are
are an input to
Validate Scope for
in context and
integrated based on
•Ex. (causes for
required, or the need
•If the recommended
preventive actions or
a defect repair
requires a change to
management plan, a
should be initiated in
accordance with the
defined Perform ICC
•Quality audit reports
and change logs
•Training plans and