08 project quality management


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08 project quality management

  1. 1. MBA, PMP, B.Sc.(Civil Eng.) : PMO manager EWU-DIU
  2. 2. 1890 John Mackintosh & his wife c r e a t e d a n e w k i n d o f s w e e t f r o m i n e x p e n s i v e l o c a l i n g r e d i e n t s s u c h a s m i l k , s u g a r b e e t a n d e g g s
  3. 3. • identifying quality REQUIREMENTS &/ STANDARDS • how the project will demonstrate COMPLIANCE with quality requirements. 8.1 Plan Quality Management • AUDITING the quality requirements and the results from QC measurements to ENSURE that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance • MONITORING and recording results of executing the quality activities to ASSESS performance and recommend necessary changes. 8.3 Control Quality
  4. 4. Knowledge Area Initiating Planning Executing M& C Closing 4. Project Integration Management 4Develop Project Charter 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan 4.3 Direct & Manage Project Work 4.4 Monitor & Control Project Work 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.6 Close Project or Phase 5. Project Scope Management 5Plan Scope Management 5.2 Collect Requirements 5.3 Define Scope 5.4 Create WBS 5.5 Validate Scope 5.6 Control Scope 6. Project Time Management 6Plan Schedule Management 6.2 Define Activities 6.3 Sequence Activities 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations 6.6 Develop Schedule 6.7 Control Schedule 7. Project Cost Management 7Plan Cost Management 7.2 Estimate Costs 7.3 Determine Budget 7.4 Control Costs 8. Project Quality Management 8Plan Quality Management 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance 8.3 Control Quality 9. Project Human Resource Management 9.1 Plan Human Resource Management 9.2 Acquire Project Team 9.3 Develop Project Team 9.4 Manage Project Team 10. Project Communications Management 10Plan Communications Management 10.2 Manage Communications 10.3 Control Communications 11. Project Risk Management 11Plan Risk Management 11.2 Identify Risks 11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 11.5 Plan Risk Responses 11.6 Control Risks 12. Project Procurement Management 12Plan Procurement Management 12.2 Conduct Procurements 12.3 Control Procurements 12.4 Close Procurements 13. Project Stakeholder Management 13Identify Stakeholders 13.2 Plan Stakeholder Management 13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement 13.4 Control Stakeholder Engagement OSO OCT 2013
  5. 5. Quality • as a delivered performance or result is “the DEGREE to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill REQUIREMENTS ” (ISO 9000) • quality level that fails to meet quality requirements is always a problem Grade • as a design intent is a CATEGORY assigned to deliverables having the same FUNCTIONAL use but different technical characteristics. • low grade of quality may not be a problem.
  6. 6. Accuracy measure of exactness Precision assessment of correctness
  7. 7. Customer satisfaction. •Understanding, evaluating, defining, and managing requirements to meet customer expectations. Prevention over inspection •Quality should be planned, designed, and built into—not inspected into Continuous improvement •The PDCA (plan-do-check-act) Shewhart /Deming. •Total Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma Management Responsibility •to provide suitable resources at adequate capacities Cost of quality (COQ) •total cost of the conformance work and the nonconformance work that should be done as a compensatory effort
  8. 8. identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with relevant quality requirements. provides GUIDANCE and direction on how quality will be managed and validated throughout the project
  9. 9. Inputs Project management plan Stakeholder register Risk register Requirements documentation Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets Cost-benefit analysis T&T Cost of quality Seven basic quality tools Benchmarking Design of experiments Statistical sampling Additional quality planning tools Meetings Outputs Quality management plan Process improvement plan Quality metrics Quality checklists Project documents updates
  10. 10. Project Management Plan Scope baseline Schedule baseline Cost baseline Other management plans
  11. 11. • identifying those stakeholders possessing a particular interest in, or having an impact on, quality. Stakeholder Register • information on threats and opportunities that may impact quality requirements. Risk Register • captures the requirements that the project shall meet pertaining to stakeholder expectations. The components of the requirements documentation Requirements Documentation
  12. 12. Enterprise Environmental Factors Governmental agency regulations; Rules, standards, and guidelines (application area) Working or operating conditions of project / deliverables Cultural perceptions about quality. Organizational Process Assets Organizational quality policies, procedures, and guidelines. management approach; Historical databases; and Lessons learned
  13. 13. The primary benefits : less REWORK higher PRODUCTIVITY lower COSTS increased S/H SATISFACTION increased PROFITABILITY.
  14. 14. • all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in • nonconformance to requirements, PREVENTING • the product or service for conformance to requirements, APPRAISING • to meet requirements (rework). FAILING
  15. 15. CostofConformance Prevention Costs • Training • Document process • Equipment • Time to do it right Appraisal Costs • Testing • DTL • Inspection CostofNonconformance Internal Failure3 • Rework • Scrap External Failure4 • Liabilities • Warranty • Lost of Bus. Money spent DURING project to AVOID failures Money spent DURING/AFTER BECAUSE OF failures
  16. 16. Staff • Non-motivation • Working condition • Rewards & recognition • Skills • Attitude Materials • Supply • Manufacturing Machine • Efficiency
  17. 17. organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem. gathering attributes data while performing inspections to identify defects. EX. data about the frequencies or consequences of defects collected in check-sheets are often displayed using Pareto diagrams.
  18. 18. # Problem Sun Mon Tues. Wed Thur s. Su m 1 Phones aren’t answered quickly enough. 3 3 4 3 2 15 2 Staff seem distracted and under pressure. 2 1 1 1 1 6 3 Engineers don’t appear to be well 1 0 1 1 1 4 4 Engineers don’t know what time they’ll arrive.This means that customers may have to be in all day for an engineer to visit. 1 0 0 0 1 2 5 Service center staff don’t always seem to know what they’re doing. 6 6 6 6 6 30 6 When engineers visit,the customer finds that the problem could have been solved over the phone. 4 4 4 4 5 21
  19. 19. # Problem Cause Score 1 Phones aren’t answered quickly enough. Too few service center staff. 15 2 Staff seem distracted and under pressure. Too few service center staff. 6 3 Engineers don’t appear to be well Poor organization and preparation. 4 4 Engineers don’t know what time they’ll arrive.This means that customers may have to be in all day for an engineer to visit. Poor organization and preparation. 2 5 Service center staff don’t always seem to know what they’re doing. Lack of training. 30 6 When engineers visit,the customer finds that the problem could have been solved over the phone. Lack of training. 21
  20. 20. • identify the VITAL few sources that are responsible for causing MOST of a problem’s effects. • The categories shown on the horizontal axis exist as a valid probability. • The relative frequencies of each specified cause decrease in magnitude until the default source named “other”. • Typically organized into categories that measure either frequencies or consequences
  21. 21. • (items 5 and 6) – 51 complaints.A: Lack of training • (items 1 and 2) – 21 complaints.B: Too few service center staff • (items 3 and 4) – 6 complaintsC: Poor organization and preparation • Items (xx) - 2 complaintsD: Others 51 72 78 80 64% 90% 98% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 A B C D frequency cause
  22. 22. • describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution. A D C B 51 2 6 21 frequency cause Unlike the control chart, the histogram does not consider the influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution.
  23. 23. • used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. • Upper and lower specification limits are based on requirements of the agreement. • They reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed. • There may be penalties associated with exceeding the specification limits. • Upper and lower control limits are different from specification limits. • The control limits are determined using standard statistical calculations and principles to ultimately establish the natural capability for a stable process. • The project manager and appropriate stakeholders may use the statistically calculated control limits to identify the points at which corrective action will be taken to prevent unnatural performance. • The corrective action typically seeks to maintain the natural stability of a stable and capable process.
  24. 24. A process is considered out of control when: (1) a data point exceeds a control limit; (2) seven consecutive plot points are above or below the mean 1 2monitor various types of output variables. track repetitive activities required for producing manufactured lots, to monitor cost and schedule variances, volume, and frequency of scope changes, or other
  25. 25. • plot ordered pairs (X, Y) seek to explain a change in the dependent variable, Y, in relationship to a change observed in the corresponding independent variable, X. • The direction of correlation may be : – proportional (positive correlation), – Inverse (negative correlation), or – a pattern of correlation may not exist (zero correlation). • If correlation can be established, a regression line can be calculated and used to estimate how a change to the independent variable will influence the value of the dependent variable
  26. 26. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 PMSkills Years of Experiences PM SKILLS Linear (PM SKILLS)
  27. 27. • comparing actual or planned project practices to those of comparable projects to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance. Benchmarked projects may exist within the performing organization or outside of it, or can be within the same application area. Benchmarking allows for analogies from projects in a different application area to be made
  28. 28. • statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production. DOE may be used during the Plan Quality Management process to determine the number and type of tests and their impact on cost of quality.
  29. 29. • plays a role in OPTIMIZING products or processes. • used to reduce the SENSITIVITY of product performance to sources of variations caused by environmental or manufacturing differences. • provides a statistical framework for systematically changing ALL of the important factors. • provide the OPTIMAL conditions for the product or process, highlight the factors that influence the results, and reveal the presence of interactions and synergy among the factors
  30. 30. • choosing part of a population of interest for inspection • Sample frequency and sizes should be determined during the Plan Quality Management process so the cost of quality will include the number of tests, expected scrap, etc. There is a substantial body of knowledge on statistical sampling.
  31. 31. • used to generate ideas Brainstorming. • diagrams of the forces for and against change. Force field analysis. • used to allow ideas to be brainstormed in small groups and then reviewed by a larger group. Nominal group technique. • used to link and sequence the activities identified Quality management and control tools
  32. 32. project manager; project sponsor; selected team members; Selected stakeholders; anyone with responsibility for Quality Management others as needed
  33. 33. • how the organization’s quality policies will be implemented. It • how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project. • Should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. Review : • a sharper focus on the project’s value proposition • reductions in costs and in the frequency of schedule overruns that were caused by rework.
  34. 34. Quality Roles and Responsibilities Roles Responsibilities Quality Assurance Approach: Quality Control Approach: Quality Improvement Approach: Project Title: Date Prepared:
  35. 35. Details the steps for analyzing project management and product development processes to identify activities that enhance their value. Process boundaries. •Describe the PURPOSE of the process, •the start and end , •inputs & outputs, •owner, •stakeholders Process configuration. •Provides a GRAPHIC depiction of processes, with interfaces identified, •used to facilitate analysis. Process metrics. •Along with control limits, •allows analysis of process EFFICIENCY. Targets for improved performance. •GUIDE the process improvement activities. Areas to consider include:
  36. 36. • Specifically describes a project or product attribute and how the control quality process will measure it. • A measurement is an actual value. • The tolerance defines the allowable variations to the metric. • Quality objective : • stay within the approved budget by ± 10%, • Quality metric: • measure the cost of every deliverable and determine the percent variance from the approved budget on-time performance defect frequency test coverage cost control failure rate availability reliability Quality metrics are used in
  37. 37. ID Item Metric Measurement Method
  38. 38. • component-specific structured tool, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed. • Quality checklists should incorporate the acceptance criteria included in the scope baseline simple or complex. standardized. From professional associations From commercial service providers. Checklists
  39. 39. it facilitates the improvement of quality processes
  40. 40. Inputs Quality management plan Process improvement plan Quality metrics Quality control measurements Project documents T&T Quality management & control tools Quality audits Process analysis Outputs Change requests Project management plan updates Project documents updates Organizational process assets updates
  41. 41. Quality Management Plan • Describes the quality assurance and continuous process improvement approaches for the project. Process Improvement Plan • QA activities should be supportive of and consistent with the performing organization’s process improvement plans. Quality Metrics • provide the attributes that should be measured and the allowable variations. Quality Control Measurements • QCM are the results of control quality activities. • analyze and evaluate the quality of the processes against the standards of the organization or the requirements specified. • validate actual measurements to determine their level of correctness. Project Documents • influence QA work and should be monitored within the context of a system for configuration management.
  42. 42. • similar to mind-mapping techniques in that they are used to generate ideas that can be linked to form organized patterns of thought about a problem. creation of the WBS may be enhanced by using the affinity diagram to give structure to the decomposition of scope.
  43. 43. • Used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal. • The PDPC is useful as a method for contingency planning because it aids teams in anticipating intermediate steps that could derail achievement of the goal.
  44. 44. • An adaptation of relationship diagrams provide a process for creative problem solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships for up to 50 relevant items. developed from data generated in other tools such as the affinity diagram, the tree diagram, or the fishbone diagram
  45. 45. • used to represent decomposition hierarchies such as the WBS, RBS, and OBS • useful in visualizing the parent-to- child relationships in any decomposition hierarchy that uses a systematic set of rules that define a nesting relationship. useful for establishing an expected value for a limited number of dependent relationships that have been diagramed systematically
  46. 46. • Identify the key issues and the suitable alternatives to be prioritized as a set of decisions for implementation. Criteria are prioritized and weighted before being applied to all available alternatives to obtain a mathematical score that ranks the options
  47. 47. • include both Activity On Arrow & Activity On Node formats of a network diagram. • ANDs are used with project scheduling methodologies (PERT, CPM, PDM).
  48. 48. • used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. seeks to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns.
  49. 49. • a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures. • The objectives of a quality audit may include: increase in sponsor or customer acceptance. reduced cost of quality scheduled random, conducted by internal external auditors.Quality audits can confirm the implementation of approved change requests including updates, corrective actions, defect repairs, and preventive actions. Identify all good and best practices being implemented; Identify all nonconformity, gaps, and shortcomings; Share good practices introduced or implemented in similar projects in the organization and/or industry; Proactively offer assistance in a positive manner to improve implementation of processes to help the team raise productivity; and Highlight contributions of each audit in the lessons learned repository of the organization.
  50. 50. • follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements. • examines – problems experienced, – constraints experienced, – non-value-added activities • Process analysis includes root cause analysis—a specific technique used to identify a problem, discover the underlying causes that lead to it, and develop preventive actions.
  51. 51. • to allow full consideration of the recommended improvements. • to take corrective action, preventive action, or to perform defect repair Change Requests • Quality management plan, • Scope management plan • Schedule management plan • Cost management plan Project Management Plan Updates • Quality audit reports, • Training plans, and • Process documentation. Project Documents Updates • organization’s quality standards and the quality management system. Organizational Process Assets Updates
  52. 52. Identifying • the causes of poor process or product quality • recommending and/or taking action to eliminate them; Validating • that project deliverables and work meet the requirements specified by key stakeholders necessary for final acceptance. processof monitoring recording results of executing the quality activities toassess Performance recommend necessary changes.
  53. 53. INPUTS •Project management plan •Quality metrics •Quality checklists •Work performance data •Approved change requests •Deliverables •Project documents •Organizational process assets T&T •Seven basic quality tools •Statistical sampling •Inspection •Approved change requests review OUTPUTS •Quality control measurements •Validated changes •Verified deliverables •Work performance information •Change requests •Project management plan updates •Project documents updates •Organizational process assets updates
  54. 54. Prevention •keeping errors out of the process Inspection •keeping errors out of the hands of the customer Attribute sampling •the result either conforms or does not conform Variables sampling •rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity Tolerances •specified range of acceptable results Control limits •identify the boundaries of common variation
  55. 55. •contains the quality management plan, which is used to control quality. •describes how quality control will be performed within the project. Project Management Plan •describes a project or product attribute and how it will be measured. •EX: function points, mean time between failure (MTBF), and mean time to repair (MTTR). Quality Metrics •help to verify that the work of the project and its deliverables fulfill a set of requirements Quality Checklists •Planned vs. actual technical performance, •Planned vs. actual schedule performance •Planned vs. actual cost performance. Work Performance Data
  56. 56. • Approved change requests may include modifications such as defect repairs, revised work methods, and revised schedule. The timely implementation of approved changes needs to be verified. Approved Change Requests • any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability that results in a validated deliverable required by the project. Deliverables • Agreements, • Quality audit reports and change logs supported with corrective action plans, • Training plans and assessments of effectiveness • Process documentation. Project Documents • The organization’s quality standards and policies, • Standard work guidelines • Issue and defect reporting procedures and communication policies. Organizational Process Assets
  57. 57. •The seven basic quality tools are illustrated conceptually. Seven Basic Quality Tools •Samples are selected and tested as defined in the quality management plan. Statistical Sampling •Inspections also are used to validate defect repairs. Inspection (reviews, peer reviews, audits, or walkthroughs). •to verify that they were implemented as approved Approved Change Requests Review
  58. 58. Quality Control Measurements •documented results of control quality activities. •should be captured in the format that was specified through the Plan Quality Management process Validated Changes •changed or repaired items are inspected and will be either accepted or rejected before notification of the decision is provided. •Rejected items may require rework. Verified Deliverables •A goal of the QC is to determine the correctness of deliverables. •The results of performing QC are verified deliverables. •Verified deliverables are an input to Validate Scope for formalized acceptance. Work Performance Information •performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas. •Ex. (causes for rejections, rework required, or the need for process adjustments)
  59. 59. Change Requests •If the recommended corrective or preventive actions or a defect repair requires a change to the project management plan, a change request should be initiated in accordance with the defined Perform ICC Project Management Plan Updates •Quality management plan •Process improvement plan Project Documents Updates •Quality standards; •Agreements •Quality audit reports and change logs supported with corrective action plans •Training plans and assessments of effectiveness •Process documentation Organizational Process Assets Updates •Completed checklists •Lessons learned documentation