Unknown bacteria

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Group presentation for identifying an unknown bacterium, done for bacteriology lab (VPA 5351) at RUSVM.

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  • -Reptiles/amphibians (especially snakes) are believed to be reservoir hosts (Meyer and Bullock 1972)-Has also been sporadically isolated from different species of mammals and birds in Zaire in this study, the bacteria was also isolated from the water (Van Damme and Vandepitte 1980)Image sources:http://serc.carleton.edu/images/eslabs/fisheries/channel_catfish.jpg)Retention of Virulence in a Viable but NonculturableEdwardsiellatardaIsolateMeng Du,1Jixiang Chen,1*Xiaohua Zhang,1Aijuan Li,1Yun Li,1, and Yingeng Wang2
  • http://sdakotabirds.com/species/photos/brown_pelican_2.jpg
  • Proteins that are translocated into host cell cytosol via NF-T3SS will form pores through which effectors can enter the infected cell (Wang et al. 2009)
  • Image sources:Grow out ponds (from MSU’s National Warmwater Aquaculture Center: http://tcnwac.msstate.edu/industry_overview3.htm )Holding tanks: http://cnre.vt.edu/fisheries/afs/fisheries_techniques/Chapter5/Holding%20tanks,%20showing%20water%20inflow,%20outflow,%20and%20aeration%20.jpg
  • -Terramycin is added at rate of 2.5 g per 100 lbs of fish per day for 10 days. Fish will respond to the treatment within 48-72 hrs if they will take the feed.
  • http://www.fws.gov/wildfishsurvey/regionalpath.htmhttp://www.treehugger.com/overview-plant.jpg
  • White F., Simpson C. Isolation of Edwarsiellatardafrom Aquatic Animal Species and Surface Waters in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases Vol. 9, July, 1972.
  • Unknown bacteria

    1. 1. Rob Bovino, Heather Byrnes, Nin Cameron-Blake, Omega Cantrell, Valerie Carril, Katie Cerulli
    2. 2. Watoday.com.au Bob - Dairy Farmer Exhibiting flu-like symptoms, chills and fever Previous incidence of Q fever was reported in nearby areas Bob was treated with doxycycline (200mg 1st day; maintenance = 100mg /day, ranging from weeks to months) No improvement seen after treatment Post-treatment blood antibody test confirmed it was not Q fever Cattle were tested for other possible zoonotic diseases
    3. 3.  Caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii Affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs and many other animals Shed in feces, urine, milk and birth products Zoonotic spread via inhalation of contaminated droplets People with highest risk of infection include farmers, lab workers, and veterinarians
    4. 4.  Chest pain w/ breathing  GI symptoms  Skin redness Clay-colored stools  Skin pain Cough  Skin swelling Fever  Skin tenderness  Fever Headache  Headache Jaundice  Abdominal pain  Nausea Muscle pains  Diarrhea Rash (not common)  Liver abscess Shortness of breath  Sepsis Query fever E. tarda
    5. 5. The following results were found when the cattle were tested
    6. 6. Drug MIC S/R/I Amoxicillin 1.0 µg/mL Susceptible Gentamicin 0.75 µg/mL Susceptible Erythromycin 16 µg/mL ResistantChloramphenicol 4 µg/mL Susceptible
    7. 7. Disk Name Diameter (mm) S/R/IE Erythromycin 9 ResistantS Sulfisoxazole 9 ResistantAMC Amoxicillin- 23 Susceptible clavulanic acidD Doxycycline 13 ResistantCPD Cefpodoxime 8 ResistantENX Enrofloxacin 17 Intermediate
    8. 8. Drug MIC Drug MICAztreonam < 8 µg/mL Imipenem < 2 µg/mLCefazolin < 4 µg/mL Nitrofurantoin < 16 µg/mLCefepime < 4 µg/mL Cefoxitin < 4 µg/mLCefotetan < 8 µg/mL Piperacillin < 16 µg/mLCeftriaxone < 1 µg/mL Piperacillin/tazobactam < 16/4 µg/mL constantCeftazidime < 1 µg/mL Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid < 16/2 µg/mLCefuroxime < 4 µg/mL constantCiprofloxacin < 0.5 µg/mL Trimethoprim/ < 0.5/9.5 µg/mLGatifloxacin < 1 µg/mL sulfamethoxazoleMeropenem < 1 µg/mL Tobramycin < 4 µg/mLGentamicin < 2 µg/mL Cefpodoxime < 2 µg/mL
    9. 9. VP N PD H2S I OD LD M U E ONPG ARAB ADON INOS SORB4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 3 2 4 2 1- + - + + + + - - - - - - - - 2 7 4 0 0Code = 27400 = Edwardsiella tarda
    10. 10.  Gram negative, motile bacillus Facultative aerobic, intracellular Intestinal commensal of a wide range of reptiles and amphibians ◦ Snakes, crocodiles, toads, frogs, tortoises, lizards Primarily a pathogen of fish ◦ Channel island catfish ◦ Commensal in some tropical species of freshwater fish
    11. 11.  E. tarda has been isolated from several species of aquatic birds ◦ Brown pelicans, great blue herons, ring-billed gulls Wide variety of fish taxa, worldwide distribution in fresh and marine waters ◦ Channel catfish, striped bass, eel, tilapia, flounder, and salmonids
    12. 12.  Type III and VI secretion systems ◦ Flagellar T3SS export flagellum components ◦ Non-flagellar T3SS translocates proteins across bacterial envelope and host plasma membrane Produces hemolysins and catalases in host cells
    13. 13. Abscesses rapidly Ingestion of Abscesses develop increase in size, bacteria  likely Small cutaneous within muscles of develop into large Fish lose controlfrom contaminated lesions in postero- the flanks or cavities filled with over posterior half feces of humans, lateral areas of the caudal peduncle as gas; loss of of their body other animals, or body the disease pigmentation over reservoir host progresses lesion is common
    14. 14.  Outbreaks are most common when water temperature >30ᵒC and there are high levels of organic fertilizer in the water Necrotized tissue remnants may fill up to ⅓ of the body cavity A foul odor is noticed upon incision of the lesions Emphysematous putrefactive disease of catfish (EPDC)
    15. 15.  First identified as an etiologic agent in channel catfish in July 1969 Outbreaks have since been observed annually on fish farms in Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Incident rate spikes when stock are moved from grow out ponds (5%) to holding tanks (50%), spreading rapidly through the population.
    16. 16.  Terramycin (oxytetracycline) in the diet to control infection Minimally affected fish can heal within 10 days Several months may be required for severe lesions to heal To minimize impact, the disease should be detected prior to harvest
    17. 17.  Infected fish that enter the processing line can be problematic Release of gas and liquid elements from lesions will result in contamination Processing line must be shut down, sterilized Financial losses can be significant even when small percentages of stock are involved The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has identified Edwardsiella tarda as a Pathogen of Regional Importance (PRI)
    18. 18.  Has been isolated from fecal samples in human diarrhea cases Wide range of hosts, but fish are considered the most likely source of infection (via ingestion) Damme et al. isolated E. tarda from 57% of Zairese freshwater fish. ◦ Considered E. tarda along with P. shigelloides a source of sporadic diarrhea in tropical regions
    19. 19.  Likely from ingestion of contaminated feed or water ◦ Fish meal Few reports of isolation of E. tarda from domestic animals ◦ Cattle, pigs ◦ Not known to cause disease in cattle
    20. 20.  Bob was diagnosed with Edwardsiella tarda Since E. tarda are resistant to doxycycline, the doctor’s previous treatment was ineffective at eliminating the bacteria Treated with amoxicillin for 14 days Symptoms subsided
    21. 21.  Meyer, F.P. and G.L. Bullock. (1973). Edwardsiella tarda, a new pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Applied Microbiology. 25 (1), 155-156. "Q Fever - PubMed Health." PubMed Health. NCBI, 23 Sept. 2010. Web. 18 July 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002313/>. Van Damme, L.R. and J. Vandepitte. (1980). Frequent isolation of Edwardsiella tarda and Plesiomonas shigelloides from healthy Zairese freshwater fish: a possible cause of sporadic diarrhea in the tropics. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 39 (1), 475-479. Wang, B. et al. (2009). Investigation of EscA as a chaperone for the Edwardsiella tarda type III secretion system putative translocon component EseC. Microbiology. 155 (1), 1260-1271. White F., Simpson C. Isolation of Edwarsiella tarda from Aquatic Animal Species and Surface Waters in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases Vol. 9, July, 1972.

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