Teaching with Visual Symbols
Mariz Taylaran Ombajin
• Graphs present quantitative data for easier
analysis and interpretation. It shows
comparative relationship of data involved in
size, trends and growth.
• Graphs are best used in developing and in
summarizing a unit.
Kinds of graphs
• Line graph – is the most accurate of all
graphs used in plotting trends of
relationships between two series of data. It
is used when there is a considerable
number of data to be plotted and if these
data are continuous.
• Bar graphs – simplest of all graphs to
read. They are represented either by
vertical or horizontal bars. The lengths of
the bars represent an amount or
percentage data. It is best when number
of values to be compared is small.
• Circle or pie graph – the sections of which
are used to represent component parts of a
whole. They always present total amounts,
their parts or segments are calculated in
percentage or fractional parts of a whole.
• Pictorial Statistics or pictograph – it
makes use of related pictures in showing
quantitative data. Pictures give realism
and interest so it is widely used specially
in the elementary grades.
• Graphic organizers- (some of which are
also called concept maps, entity
relationship charts, and mind maps) are a
pictorial way of constructing knowledge
and organizing information.
• They help the student convert and
compress a lot of seemingly disjointed
information into a structured, simple-toread, graphic display. The resulting visual
display conveys complex information in a
• Maps are usually shown on flat surface
and are used to represent the surface of
the earth or some parts of it, showing the
relative size and position according to
scale or projection and position
Maps according to content
• Physical map – also called relief maps,
they are the best because of their three
dimensional representation; which
includes geographical outline of land and
• Commercial or economic maps- also
known as product or industrial map since
they show land area in relation to the
• Political map – shows national boundaries
down to the smallest division.
• Scale- shows how much the actual earth’s
surface is represented by a given
measurement on a map.
• Symbols- usually a map has a legend that
explains what each symbols example
highways, railroads, mountains, lakes and
• Color- the different colors of the map are
part of the map language.
• Geographical grids- this is the entire
system of the grid lines. These grid lines
are called meridians and parallels.
• A meridian is a north to south pole line.
• Parallels are lines drawn around the
globe with all points along each line with
equal distance from the pole.
• Longitude is a distance in degrees of
anplace east or west of the prime
meridian. Latitude is the distance in
degrees of any place north and south of
Understanding Maps, Graps and Charts,
What should you do to be successful in
reading maps, charts and graphs?
The following steps can help:
• Read the information shown along the
side and the bottom of graphs and charts
and tables, if any. This will help
understand what quantities and qualities
are being presented or what comparisons
are being made. On maps, notice how the
different parts of the map are related to
• Determine your purpose for reading the
map, chart, table or graph.