Forensic sciences and miscarriages of justice copia

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Forensic sciences and miscarriages of justice copia

  1. 1. Chapters by : Centre Divide FORENSIC SCIENCES AND MISCARRIAGES OF JUSTICE
  2. 2. English <ul><li>A miscarriage of justice primarily is the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime they did not commit. </li></ul><ul><li>The term travesty of justice is sometimes used for a gross , deliberate miscarriage of justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Miscarriage of justice&quot; is sometimes synonymous with wrongful conviction, referring to a conviction reached in an unfair or disputed trial. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Spanish
  4. 4. Causes of miscarriages of justice include: <ul><li>Plea bargains that offer incentives for the innocent to plead guilty . </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation bias on the part of investigators </li></ul><ul><li>Withholding or destruction of evidence by police or prosecution . </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrication of evidence or outright perjury by police or Biased editing of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice towards the class of people to which the defendant belongs </li></ul><ul><li>Poor identification by witnesses and/or victims </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Perjured evidence by supposed victim or their accomplices . </li></ul><ul><li>Conspiracy between court of appeal judges and prosecutors to uphold conviction of innocent. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Causas en los errores de justicia
  7. 7. Vocabulary <ul><li>Miscarriage :Error /fallo </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily : principalmente </li></ul><ul><li>Conviction : condena </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: castigo </li></ul><ul><li>Travesty: farsa </li></ul><ul><li>Gross : grave </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate : deliverar </li></ul><ul><li>Bias: prejuicio </li></ul><ul><li>Withholding: denegación </li></ul><ul><li>Outright : total/absoluto </li></ul><ul><li>Wrongful : ilegal / injusto </li></ul><ul><li>Reached: alcanse </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair: injusto </li></ul><ul><li>Disputed : discutido / polemico </li></ul><ul><li>Trial: juicio </li></ul><ul><li>Plea: declaración </li></ul><ul><li>Bargains : pacto /negociación </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives : incentivos </li></ul><ul><li>Plead : defender a alguien </li></ul><ul><li>Guilty : culpable </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vocabulary <ul><li>Perjury: perjurio (jurar en falso) </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice Towards: prejuicios hacia </li></ul><ul><li>Belongs: pertenecer a </li></ul><ul><li>Poor : pobre </li></ul><ul><li>Witnesses: testigo/ testimonio </li></ul><ul><li>court : corte / tribunal </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal : apelación </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecutors : fiscal </li></ul><ul><li>Uphold : confirmar /respetar la ley </li></ul>
  9. 9. Criminal Sciences <ul><li>Crime science is the study of crime in order to find ways to prevent it. Three features distinguish crime science from criminology: it is single-minded about cutting crime, rather than studying it for its own sake ; accordingly it focuses on crime rather than criminals; and it is multidisciplinary, notably recruiting scientific methodology rather than relying on social theory. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Crime <ul><li>Crime is the breach of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction . Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently, in different localities (state, local, international), at different time stages of the so-called &quot;crime&quot; ( planning , disclosure , supposedly intended , supposedly prepared, incompleted, completed or futuristically proclaimed after the &quot;crime&quot;). </li></ul>
  11. 13. Forensic science <ul><li>Refers to the study of crime scene evidence such as blood , bodily fluids , DNA and clothing fibers . Those pursuing a degree in forensic science can major in forensic biology, psychology, pathology or toxicology. Degree programs in forensic science prepare students for careers in investigations, court evidence and management-level positions in the field of criminal science . </li></ul>

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