Addictions ecv


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Addictions ecv

  2. 2. What is and Addiction? <ul><li>Historically, addiction has been defined as physical and/or psychological dependence on psychoactive substances, which cross the blood-brain barrier once ingested, temporarily altering the chemical milieu of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadly, addiction is defined as the continued use of a mood altering addictive substance or behaviors despite adverse consequences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Alcohol dependence <ul><li>Alcohol dependence is a psychiatric diagnosis (a substance related disorder (DSM-IV) describing an entity in which an individual uses alcohol despite significant areas of dysfunction, evidence of physical dependence, and/or related hardship , and also may cause stress and bipolar disorder. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Opioid dependency <ul><li>Opioid dependency is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individual's inability to stop using opioids (morphine/heroin, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, etc.) even when objectively it is in his or her best interest to do so . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Benzodiazepine dependence <ul><li>Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is the condition resulting from repeated use of benzodiazepine drugs. It can include both a physical dependence as well as a psychological dependence and is typified by a withdrawal syndrome upon a fall in blood plasma levels of benzodiazepines, e.g., during dose reduction or abrupt withdrawal. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cocaine dependence <ul><li>(or addiction ) Is a psychological desire to use cocaine. It can result in cardiovascular and brain damage , causing heart attacks specifically in the central nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of cocaine can cause mood swings , paranoia, insomnia, psychosis, high blood pressure , tachycardia, panic attacks, cognitive impairments and drastic changes in the personality that can lead to aggressive and compulsive, or criminal behaviors. The symptoms of cocaine: dysphoria, depression, anxiety, psychological and physical weakness , pain and compulsive craving . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cannabis dependence <ul><li>The essential feature is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral and physiologic symptoms indicating that the individual despite substance-related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristic withdrawal symptoms as: insomnia, cravings , restlessness , loss of appetite, difficulty concentrating, sweating , mood swings , depression, irritability, anger, anxiety, nervousness, stress and depression. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also viewed as a motivational medicine, st imulating energy, creativity and concentration. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Amphetamine dependence <ul><li>Amphetamine dependence refers to a state of dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance is developed rapidly in amphetamine abuse, thereby the amount of the drug that is needed to satisfy the addiction needs to be increased at regular intervals. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hallucinogen dependence <ul><li>This general group of pharmacological agents can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics , dissociatives , and deliriants . </li></ul><ul><li>These classes of psychoactive drugs have in common that they can cause subjective changes in perception, thought , emotion and consciousness . Unlike other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Inhalants dependence <ul><li>Inhalants are a broad range of drugs whose volatile vapors are taken in via the nose and trachea. For example, amyl nitrite and toluene are considered inhalants, but tobacco, marijuana, and crack are not. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nicotine dependence <ul><li>Nicotine acts on the brain to produce a number of effects. Specifically, its addictive nature has been found to show that nicotine activates the Mesolimbic pathway (&quot; reward system &quot;) —the circuit within the brain that regulates feelings of pleasure and euphoria. </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine is one of the key neurotransmitters actively involved in the brain. Nicotine acts as a chemical with intense addictive qualities. In many studies it has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine and heroin. </li></ul>