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  1. 1. By: J. Barreto-Abrams P.3 – Advocacy Project Hagerty High School Ms. S. Thomas Law Studies "Landmines are among the most barbaric weapons of war, because they continue to kill and maim innocent people long after the war itself has ended. Also, fear of them keeps people off the land, and thus prevents them from growing food." --Kofi Annan
  2. 3. <ul><li>What is a landmine? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A landmine can be defined as an explosive charge concealed just under the surface of the ground or of a roadway, designed to be detonated by pressure, proximity of a vehicle or person, etc ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another definition that will make understand the concept of this advocacy project is “the use of explosive devices that kills or maims an individual.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Landmines are popular weapons of war because they cost as little as $3 to make and can be easily deployed in a variety of locations.” ( </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Mines come in many different shapes, sizes and colors. </li></ul><ul><li>They may not always be the brightly colored objects seen in the posters and displays. </li></ul><ul><li>Age and weathering can change their appearances with the metal mines rusting and the wooden and plastic mines breaking down. </li></ul><ul><li>Landmines can be broken into 2 categories: below ground mines and above ground mines. </li></ul><ul><li>Every mine has a specific way of working, because the person that made it is the individual that may deactivate or an expert with a time of observation and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more than 350 types of antipersonnel mines. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: On arrival in a mined country a person should visit one of the demining and/or mine awareness agencies to find out which types of landmines are found in that country (as well as the location of known mined areas, the official warning signs/clues, etc). </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Maim, injure and disfigure people. </li></ul><ul><li>Tear limbs of women, men and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological harm of the survivors. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutilate productive individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive rehabilitations </li></ul><ul><li>Amputations </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Losing income due to the injury of one of their members. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering of the survivor members. </li></ul><ul><li>Loosing their property </li></ul><ul><li>Put the family thru additional burden due to the care of the injured. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help for injured in mostly all of the countries affected by mines is limited or none. Women have less rights, they get less attention than men. Many hospitals marginate the affected and leave them without any treatment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>UN stop landmines awareness commercial. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>By the beginning of the 20 th century 80% of landmines casualties were military. </li></ul><ul><li>By this century people 75% of landmine casualties are civilians </li></ul><ul><li>According to UNICEF’s records 30-40 % of the affected, are children under the age 15. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Communities are terrorized </li></ul><ul><li>Children in landmine contaminated communities can’t play outside their homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are limited to go to school. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities abandon their towns </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is slow and sometimes inexistent in landmines contaminated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Countries are kept on the list of third world countries </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural farms are </li></ul><ul><li>Landmines are an obstacle for development activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of the landmines is dangerous and costly. </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated countries can’t develop tourism </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>It is estimated that 60-70 million landmines are currently in the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 70 countries are affected by landmines. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries not contaminated with landmines give to little to those contaminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty such as the Ottawa Treaty has little impact in controlling the number of victims. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has one of the highest antipersonnel landmine casualty rates in the world.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While a majority of the casualties are military, hundreds are civilians who have no part in Colombia’s decades-long internal armed conflict and were injured or killed in the course of ordinary activities, while at work or play. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Also known as: “Convention On The Prohibition Of The Use, Stockpiling, Production And Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines And On Their Destruction.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies that landmines should be banned around the World. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>States-parties commit to not using, developing, producing, acquiring, retaining, stockpiling, or transferring anti-personnel landmines, which are defined by the treaty as mines &quot;designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>From today 154 countries have signed it. Some of the countries are: Afghanistan, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico… </li></ul><ul><li>Countries that have not signed this treaty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States have not signed the Ottawa treaty because this country controls its landmine inventory in a very rigorous manner. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>There are approximately 26 countries that produce landmines these are: (The Arms Project of Human Rights Watch ; World Vision, “Land Mines: Steps on the Road to Eradication,” 1997. ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran South Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Korea United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia Vietnam </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>States Parties (Signed and ratified or Acceded) </li></ul><ul><li>Signatories (signed, but not ratified) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Signatories (Not yet Acceded) </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>This show how in long term effects </li></ul>
  16. 30. <ul><li>This is a real situation portrayed in the video. </li></ul>
  17. 31. <ul><li>This video is made in honor to all victims of anti-personnel mines. The people interviewed in this video are native and have experienced this terrible cause of landmines. </li></ul>