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  1. 1. Mansoura university Faculty of pharmacy Clinical pharmacyDepartment of Biochemistry
  2. 2. cancer ?What is cancerCancer is the general name for a group of morethan 100 diseases. Although there are manykinds of cancer, all cancers start becauseabnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated.cancers can cause serious illness and death
  3. 3. Aetiology of cancerCancer is ultimately the result of cells thatuncontrollably multiplicate and do not die. Normalcells in the body follow an orderly path of growth,division, and death. Programmed cell death iscalled apoptosis, and when this process breaksdown, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells,cancer cells do not experience programmatic deathand instead continue to grow and divide. Thisleads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of.control
  4. 4. Treatment of cancerCancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, thestage of the cancer (how much it has spread), age,health status, and additional personalcharacteristics. There is no single treatment forcancer, and patients often receive a combination oftherapies and palliative care in advanced cases.Treatments usually fall into one or more of thefollowing categories: surgery, radiation,chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy,.or gene therapy
  5. 5. (Melanoma (skin cancerMelanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer)cells form in the skin cells called melanocytes((cells that color the skin The Melanomaare found throughout the lower part of the epidermisThey make melanin pigment that gives skin itsnatural color. When skin is exposed to the sun,melanocytes make more pigment, causing the skinto tan, or darken
  6. 6. Cause of MelanomaAll cancers are caused by damage to theDNA inside cells. This damage can be inherited inthe form of genetic mutations, but in most cases, itbuilds up over a persons lifetime and is caused byfactors in their environment. DNA damage causesthe cell to grow out of control, leading to a tumor.Melanoma which is usually caused by damagefrom UV rays from the sun, but UV rays from.sunbeds can also contribute to the disease
  7. 7. Treatment of MelanomaConfirmation of the clinical diagnosis is doneby skin and lymph node biopsy with awider excision of the scar or tumor(safety(marginDepending on biopsy results and the stage ofthe tumor other lines of treatment is to be. tailored for every single case
  8. 8. /BYOmar Hesham Abd-Alaziz

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