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GEOL 501 - Geology of the Middle East
Instructor: Dr. Khalid Al-Ramadan
Term Paper
Evolution of Tethys Ocean
Omar Atef Rad...
• Introduction
• Paleogeography
• Paleotectonics
• Paleoceanography
• Tethys Ocean and petroleum systems in the Middle Eas...
INTRODUCTION
3
Erickson, 2002
• Eduard Suess in 1893
• named after the ancient Greek
goddess of the sea
• an ancient ocean...
• Proto-Tethys (Precambrian-Carboniferous)
• Paleo-Tethys (Ordovician-Jurassic)
• Neo-Tethys (Permian-Paleocene)
• Para-Te...
5
PALEOGEOGRAPHY
Berra and Angiolini , 2014
Proto-Tethys
• Ediacaran to the Carboniferous
(550–330 Ma)
• formed when Panno...
6
PALEOGEOGRAPHY
Berra and Angiolini , 2014
• situated between the Siberia to
and Gondwana
• Late Silurian: started to shr...
PALEOGEOGRAPHY
7
Muttoni et al., 2009
Paleo-Tethys
• Ordovician-Jurassic
• existed when Laurasia
and Gondwana-Land
collide...
PALEOGEOGRAPHY
8
Muttoni et al., 2009
Paleo-Tethys
• major dextral motion of
Laurasia relative to
Gondwana
• transformatio...
PALEOGEOGRAPHY
9
Muttoni et al., 2009
• The Cimmerian
Continent rifted off from
the northern margin of
Gondwana-Land mostl...
Neo-Tethys
• Permian-Paleocene
• Tethys Ocean continued to
expand westward, dividing
Pangaea into the two large
continents...
• After the early Cretaceous, the Neo-
Tethys became the sole occupier of
the Tethyan Realm
• Tethys ocean reaches its max...
• In the Upper Cretaceous (84 Ma),
the Indian plate began its very
rapid northward drift at an
average speed of 16 cm/year...
• The collision of the Arabian plate
with Eurasia, the closure and the
suturing of the Neotethyan Ocean,
lasted between la...
14Sharland, 2001 Frisch et al., 2010
PALEOGEOGRAPHY
Para-Tethys
• Remnants of the Tethys Ocean include the Mediterranean, Caspian, Aral,
and Black Seas (formerly an inland ex...
PALEOTECTONICS
16
• Hercynian Orogeny
• Cimmerian Orogeny
• Alpine Orogeny
PALEOTECTONICS
17
Dèzes, 1999
• The Alpine-Himalayan chain
includes (from west to
east):
Pyrenees, European Alps,
Apennines, Dinarides,
Carpathians, Ana...
PALEOTECTONICS
19Frisch et al., 2010
• Zagros fold–thrust belt
• Semail Nappe
• Makran Trench
20
Stow, 2010
PALEOCEANOGRAPHY
Paleocurrent models for a general Pangea configuration is a westward-flowing
equatorial sur...
PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY
21
Stow, 2010
Paleoclimatology
• Oxygen-isotope analyses of
marine limestones have
shown that 125-85 Ma ...
PETROLEUM SYSTEMS IN THE MIDDLE EAST
• For petroleum to be successfully generated, migrated, accumulated, and
preserved, a...
23
TETHYS OCEAN – OIL GENERATION
Sorkhabi, 2010
• most of the giant oil and gas fields known until 2000 are related to:
– continental passive margins facing the major oce...
TETHYS OCEAN – OIL ACCUMULATION
Berra and Angiolini , 2014
25
TETHYS OCEAN – SEALS
• Apart from marine shale and marl cap
rocks, many Middle East basins also
contain evaporite beds, wh...
TETHYS OCEAN – OIL TRAPING
• Oil fields, located in the strongly
folded layers of the Zagros mountain
chains, are elongate...
CONCLUSIONS
• The Tethys Ocean developed in at least three oceanic basins:
– Proto-Tethys (Precambrian-Carboniferous).
– P...
29
• Dèzes, P., 1999. Tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the central Himalayan domain in
southeast Zanskar (Kashmir, India...
31
32
33
Frisch et al., 2010
35
Stow, 2010
36
Evolution of Tethys Ocean
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Evolution of Tethys Ocean

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Evolution of Tethys Ocean

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Evolution of Tethys Ocean

  1. 1. GEOL 501 - Geology of the Middle East Instructor: Dr. Khalid Al-Ramadan Term Paper Evolution of Tethys Ocean Omar Atef Radwan g201306050 ESD
  2. 2. • Introduction • Paleogeography • Paleotectonics • Paleoceanography • Tethys Ocean and petroleum systems in the Middle East • References OUTLINE 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 3 Erickson, 2002 • Eduard Suess in 1893 • named after the ancient Greek goddess of the sea • an ancient ocean that existed from 250–50 Mya • orientated east–west • separated the large continents of Gondwana and Laurasia.
  4. 4. • Proto-Tethys (Precambrian-Carboniferous) • Paleo-Tethys (Ordovician-Jurassic) • Neo-Tethys (Permian-Paleocene) • Para-Tethys (Jurassic -Pliocene ) 4 PALEOGEOGRAPHY
  5. 5. 5 PALEOGEOGRAPHY Berra and Angiolini , 2014 Proto-Tethys • Ediacaran to the Carboniferous (550–330 Ma) • formed when Pannotia was broken up into four principal Paleozoic continents: Gondwana, Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia
  6. 6. 6 PALEOGEOGRAPHY Berra and Angiolini , 2014 • situated between the Siberia to and Gondwana • Late Silurian: started to shrink • Late Devonian, the microcontinent of Kazakhstania collided with Siberia, shrinking the ocean even more. • Carboniferous: The ocean closed when the North China craton collided with Siberia- Kazakstania continent, while the Paleo-Tethys Ocean expanded.
  7. 7. PALEOGEOGRAPHY 7 Muttoni et al., 2009 Paleo-Tethys • Ordovician-Jurassic • existed when Laurasia and Gondwana-Land collided in the late Palaeozoic
  8. 8. PALEOGEOGRAPHY 8 Muttoni et al., 2009 Paleo-Tethys • major dextral motion of Laurasia relative to Gondwana • transformation of Pangea from an Early Permian configuration of the B-type to a Late Permian configuration of the A-type
  9. 9. PALEOGEOGRAPHY 9 Muttoni et al., 2009 • The Cimmerian Continent rifted off from the northern margin of Gondwana-Land mostly during the Permo- Triassic opening behind it the Neo-Tethys • Palaeo-Tethys + the Cimmerian Continent + the Neo-Tethys + their continental margins = “Tethyan Realm”
  10. 10. Neo-Tethys • Permian-Paleocene • Tethys Ocean continued to expand westward, dividing Pangaea into the two large continents of Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south, creating an oceanic extension of the Tethys, which today forms the central Atlantic Ocean 10 Berra and Angiolini , 2014 PALEOGEOGRAPHY
  11. 11. • After the early Cretaceous, the Neo- Tethys became the sole occupier of the Tethyan Realm • Tethys ocean reaches its maximum extent. 11 Berra and Angiolini , 2014 PALEOGEOGRAPHY
  12. 12. • In the Upper Cretaceous (84 Ma), the Indian plate began its very rapid northward drift at an average speed of 16 cm/year • collision of the northwestern part of the Indian passive margin with Eurasia in the lower Eocene • Indian continent continues its northwards ascent at a slower but still surprisingly fast rate of ~ 5 cm/year 12 Berra and Angiolini , 2014 PALEOGEOGRAPHY
  13. 13. • The collision of the Arabian plate with Eurasia, the closure and the suturing of the Neotethyan Ocean, lasted between late Middle Miocene in the east and Late Pliocene-Quaternary in the west. • The rate of motion of Arabia with respect to Eurasia has been fairly constant between 2 and 3 cm/yr since 56 Ma. 13 Berra and Angiolini , 2014 PALEOGEOGRAPHY
  14. 14. 14Sharland, 2001 Frisch et al., 2010 PALEOGEOGRAPHY
  15. 15. Para-Tethys • Remnants of the Tethys Ocean include the Mediterranean, Caspian, Aral, and Black Seas (formerly an inland extension of Tethys known as the Paratethys). 15 Erickson, 2002 PALEOGEOGRAPHY
  16. 16. PALEOTECTONICS 16 • Hercynian Orogeny • Cimmerian Orogeny • Alpine Orogeny
  17. 17. PALEOTECTONICS 17 Dèzes, 1999
  18. 18. • The Alpine-Himalayan chain includes (from west to east): Pyrenees, European Alps, Apennines, Dinarides, Carpathians, Anatolian Plateau, Caucasus, Alborz, Zagros, Kopeh Dagh, Makran, Hindu Kush, Karakorum, Tien Shan, Tibet, and the Himalayas stretches from Spain to Indonesia is the result of a step wise closure Neo- Tethys sea way. 18Frisch et al., 2010 PALEOTECTONICS
  19. 19. PALEOTECTONICS 19Frisch et al., 2010 • Zagros fold–thrust belt • Semail Nappe • Makran Trench
  20. 20. 20 Stow, 2010 PALEOCEANOGRAPHY Paleocurrent models for a general Pangea configuration is a westward-flowing equatorial surface current which, upon reaching the continental shelves of the western Tethys Seaway, deflected southeastward and northeastward; in the meanwhile, a deep water circulation brought cold waters from high latitudes to the equator. Ocean upwellings of these cold and nutrient-rich bottom waters were created by monsoonal wind circulation along the Gondwanan margin
  21. 21. PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY 21 Stow, 2010 Paleoclimatology • Oxygen-isotope analyses of marine limestones have shown that 125-85 Ma was a time of severe global warming due to a rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations Eustasy • This is consistent with sequence stratigraphic evidence for sea-level maxima in mid-late Cretaceous times.
  22. 22. PETROLEUM SYSTEMS IN THE MIDDLE EAST • For petroleum to be successfully generated, migrated, accumulated, and preserved, all elements and processes of the petroleum system should be present, including: – organically rich and thermally matured source rocks – porous-permeable reservoir rocks – effective extensive cap rocks – appropriate time relations between oil migration and trap formation Obviously, the Middle East qualifies all these conditions to a high degree and quality. • The paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of the southern Tethys area during the Phanerozoic plays an important role in determining the distribution of the source rocks and reservoirs as well as the origin of stratigraphic and tectonic traps 22
  23. 23. 23 TETHYS OCEAN – OIL GENERATION Sorkhabi, 2010
  24. 24. • most of the giant oil and gas fields known until 2000 are related to: – continental passive margins facing the major ocean basins (34.66%) – continental rifts and overlying sag basins (especially failed rifts at the edges or interiors of continents; 30.90%) – collisional margins produced by terminal collision between two continents (19.73%). • Due to the geodynamic evolution of this area, rift basins (mainly formed due to the opening of the Tethys oceans and to the extensional events affecting North Africa) rapidly evolved to passive margins (e.g., evolution of the peri- Gondwanan blocks) and then to active margins, with the development of collision-related basins (e.g., foredeep related to the accretion of the peri- Gondwanan blocks to the southern margin of Eurasia). 24 TETHYS OCEAN – OIL ACCUMULATION
  25. 25. TETHYS OCEAN – OIL ACCUMULATION Berra and Angiolini , 2014 25
  26. 26. TETHYS OCEAN – SEALS • Apart from marine shale and marl cap rocks, many Middle East basins also contain evaporite beds, which are efficient seals because of their ductility. The main evaporate horizons include; – Triassic interbedded evaporates – Late Jurassic Gotnia-Hith Formation – Miocene Gachsaran Formation. 26 Sorkhabi, 2010
  27. 27. TETHYS OCEAN – OIL TRAPING • Oil fields, located in the strongly folded layers of the Zagros mountain chains, are elongate and parallel to the NW-SE trending folds. The petroleum was trapped during folding in the anticlines. • On the Arabian Peninsula and in the western part of the Arabian Gulf, the oil fields trend N-S. Folds occur above similarly oriented horst structures which formed along normal faults in the Precambrian basement of the Arabian Shield. • Circular oil fields in the eastern Arabian Gulf formed above salt diapirs that were formed by the rise of Early Paleozoic salt deposits. 27 Frisch et al., 2010
  28. 28. CONCLUSIONS • The Tethys Ocean developed in at least three oceanic basins: – Proto-Tethys (Precambrian-Carboniferous). – Paleo-Tethys (Ordovician-Jurassic). – Neo-Tethys (Permian-Paleocene). • The Paleo-Tethys formed by gathering the continents around its frame forming the Pangaea as opposed to the Neo-Tethys that later formed by rifting. • Palaeo-Tethys + the Cimmerian Continent + the Neo-Tethys and their continental margins = “Tethyan Realm” • A double orogenic system resulted from the destruction of the Tethyan Realm: – the products of the closure of the Paleo-Tethys are the Cimmerides. – the products of the closure of major parts of the Neo-Tethys are called the Alpides. • Remnants of the Tethys Ocean include the Mediterranean, Caspian, Aral, and Black Seas (Paratethys). • The paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of the southern Tethys area during the Phanerozoic plays an important role in determining the distribution of the source rocks and reservoirs as well as the origin of stratigraphic and tectonic traps. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. • Dèzes, P., 1999. Tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the central Himalayan domain in southeast Zanskar (Kashmir, India) (Vol. 145). Institute of Geology and Paleontology, University of Lausanne. • Muttoni, G., Gaetani, M., Kent, D.V., Sciunnach, D., Angiolini, L., Berra, F., Garzanti, E., Mattei, M., Zanchi, A., 2009. Opening of the Neo-Tethys Ocean and the Pangea B to Pangea A transformation during the Permian. GeoArabia 14, 17–48. • Frisch, W., Meschede, M., Blakey, R.C., 2010. Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building, 2011 edition. ed. Springer, Berlin; London. • Berra, F. and L. Angiolini , 2014. The evolution of the Tethys region throughout the Phanerozoic: A brief tectonic reconstruction, inL. Marlow, C. Kendall and L. Yose, eds., Petroleum systems of the Tethyan region: AAPG Memoir 106, p. 1–27. • Stow, D., 2010. Vanished Ocean: How Tethys Reshaped the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford. • Erickson, J., 2002. Historical Geology: Understanding Our Planet’s Past, 2nd edition. ed. Facts on File, New York. • Sorkhabi, Rasoul (2010) Why So Much Oil in the Middle East? GeoExpro, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 20- 26). REFERENCES 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33 Frisch et al., 2010
  34. 34. 35 Stow, 2010
  35. 35. 36

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