Effects of technology and english in the classrooms setting and students exam for june 8 2012 201240.2153 geic1010 - inf and computer literacy
Effects of Technology andBilingual Language in aClassrooms Setting and Students Omaira Acevedo Student ID# A00389372
ContentsIncreased Motivation and Self Esteem.......................................................................................................... 5 Improved Design Skills/Attention to Audience ........................................................................................ 7The Need for Bilingual Education .............................................................................................................. 10 During the beginning of the twenty-first century, one language is not proficient for economic, educational success, and societal. Global interdependence and mass communication requires the capability to function in variable languages. Based on the 2000 U.S. Census, there are more than 9.7 million children starting at the ages of five through seventeen, spoke a language other than English at home, which is identified as one of every six school age children. These language minority children are the fastest growing segment in the U.S. of the school age population. During the 1990’s and the 2000, the population of language minority children has increased by 55 percent, whereas the population of children living in a home where the only language is spoken in English grew by only 11 percent. ...... 10 A language minority alumnus in the U.S. schools speak virtually all the world’s languages, and includes more than a hundred that are indigenous to the United States. Language minority students may be monolingual in his or her native language, bilingual in their native language and English, and or monolingual in English yet from a home where a language other than English is spoken. For those who haven’t developed proficiency in English, to learn content material in all English medium classrooms are recognized to be limited English proficient (LEP), also known as English language learners (ELLs). The numbers of LEP alumni’s in American schools are at close to four million. .................................. 10 Theoretical Foundations of Bilingual Education and Benefits of Bilingualism ..................................... 11 Bilingual education is grounded as, research and experience. Children will not learn academic learning material if he or she can’t understand the language of instruction. Experience documents state that alumni’s from minority language backgrounds historically have the highest dropout rate, including lower achievement scores. There’s a basis for bilingual education drawing research in language education and acquisition. Research done by Jim Cummins, of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto, who supports the basic tenet of bilingual education: children’s first language skills must develop to ensure that their linguistic and academics performance as the second language maximizes. Cummins’s developmental interdependence theory suggests that growth in a second language is dependent upon a well-developed first language, his thresholds theory also recommends a child must attain a certain level of proficiency in both the native, as well as second language in order to benefit aspects of bilingualism to accrue. Cummins introduced the concept of the common underlying proficiency, model of bilingualism; he explains how the concepts learned in line language can transfer to another. Cummins is known best for his distionction between the two concepts; cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP), as well as basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS). BICS, and everyday conversational skill, are acquired, whereas CALP, the highly decontextualized, abstract language skills used in a classroom setting, can take up to seven years or more to acquire. ......................................................................................................................... 11 Stephen Krashen, from the Education at the University of Southern California, has developed his theory of second language acquisition recognized as the monitor model. At the core of his theory there’s a distinctions between learning and acquisition being the subconscious process occurring in authentic communicative situations, including learning being the conscious process of knowing the
language. The monitor model includes the natural order of hypothesis, the input and the monitor hypothesis, and the effective filter hypothesis. These five hypotheses are structured and implemented. Educational programs for language minority alumni’s. Krashen theory is placed into practice with the creation of the natural approach and the gradual exist model, based on a second tenet of bilingual education, the concept of comprehensible input. It is ok to say, language teaching must be designed to be acquired easily, and is done by using delivery methods and levels of language that the alumni can understand the language. ......................................................................................................................... 11 Good bilingual education programs recognizes the skills the alumni brings to the school and classroom setting and gets help to build up the knowledge. They are designed to be culturally, developmental and linguistically appropriate for the alumnis and have the following characteristics: .......................... 12 Education and Its Evolution ................................................................................................................ 13 At the turn of the twenty-first century, and through the lens of historical outlook, the modern societal conditions are reshaping education, both in the United States and abroad, in a profound manner. Modern technologies coupled with global economic forces, which have contributed to a pervasive level of organizations international interdependence. Although, altering education they are changing in the home life, lifestyle, workplace and the political economy of virtually every person, in every village, and in almost every nation. ..................................................................................................................... 13 Education, as we know it, evolves in several ways. Formal educational institutions are more intertwined with society than ever. And almost a third of the American population is linked tightly to formal schooling, either as parents or as students of an enrolled student. Serving this extensive clientele requires a big workforce. Educational institutions in the United States employ individuals engaged directly in agriculture. ............................................................................................................................. 13http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdTech/effectsstudents.html. Effects of Technology onClassrooms and Students ............................................................................................................................ 25
Effects of Technology in the ClassroomsSetting and StudentsTeachers are expected to use computer-based technology and increasing proficiency andproficiency. The technology boom of the 1990s was accompanied by many efforts to helpteachers integrate technology into their teaching and into students learning. Although there’s aconcern about the ultimate value of the use of technology in schools, there is little doubt thatresources have been expended to advance the digital revolution. The E-rate, for example–afederal program that provides targeted discounts to libraries and schools with the goal ofincreasing access to the Internet and other telecommunications services–funneled $3.65 billioninto schools from 1997 to 2002. The federal government spent another $275 million from 1999to 2002 to train teachers to use technology via the PT 3 program.Changing societal demographics have forced changes in the practice of teaching. There are, forinstance, more than ninety languages spoken in Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia.Teachers all over the nation work with students and parents from many different cultures.Teachers themselves are students of culture. They create classroom environments to celebratevarious ethnic and religious traditions. They are expected to treat children and their familiessensitively so as to avoid the proliferation of stereotypical images of races, cultures, or religions.When students use technology as a tool or a support for communicating with others, they are inan active role rather than the passive role of recipient of information transmitted by a teacher,broadcast or textbook. The student is actively makes choices to generate, manipulate, obtain ordisplay information. Technology use allows many students to be actively thinking aboutinformation, making choices, and executing skills than is typical in teacher-led lessons.
Moreover, when technology is used as a tool to support students in performing authentic tasks,the students are in the position of defining their goals, making design decisions, and evaluatingtheir progress.The teachers role changes as well. The teacher is no longer the center of attention as thedispenser of information, but rather plays the role of facilitator, setting project goals andproviding guidelines and resources, moving from student to student or group to group, providingsuggestions and support for student activity. As students work on their technology-supportedproducts, the teacher rotates through the room, looking over shoulders, asking about the reasonsfor various design choices, and suggesting resources that might be used. Tool uses of technologyare highly compatible with this new teacher role, since they stimulate so much active mentalwork on the part of students. Moreover, when the venue for work is technology, the teacher oftenfinds him or herself joined by many peer coaches--students who are technology savvy and eagerto share their knowledge with others.
Increased Motivation and Self EsteemTeachers talked about motivation from a number of different perspectives. Some mentionedmotivation with respect to working in a specific subject area, for example, a greater willingnessto write or to work on computational skills. Others spoke in terms of more general motivationaleffects--student satisfaction with the immediate feedback provided by the computer and the senseof accomplishment and power gained in working with technology:Example: Technology is the ultimate carrot for students. Its something they want to master. Learning to use it enhances their self-esteem and makes them excited about coming to school. --Fifth grade teacher.In many of these classes, students choose to work on their technology-based projects duringrecess or lunch periods. Teachers also frequently cite technologys motivational advantages inproviding a venue in which a wider range of students can excel. Compared to conventionalclassrooms with their stress on verbal knowledge and multiple-choice test performance,technology provides a very different set of challenges and different ways in which students candemonstrate what they understand (e.g., by programming a simulation to demonstrate a conceptrather than trying to explain it verbally).A related technology effect stressed by many teachers was enhancement of student self-esteem.Both the increased competence they feel after mastering technology-based tasks and their
awareness of the value placed upon technology within our culture, led to increases in students(and often teachers) sense of self-worth.
Improved Design Skills/Attention to AudienceExperiences develop these kinds of rich, multimedia products that are produced with technology,especially when the design is done collaboratively, and it helps students’ experiences their peer’sreaction to their presentations, it appears to support a greater awareness of audience perspectivesand needs. Multiple media gave students a choices about the best way to convey a given idea(e.g., through text, video, animation).Because they have the capability to produce moreprofessional-looking products and the tools to manipulate the way information is presented,students in many technology-using classes are reportedly spending more time on design andaudience presentation issues.While most teachers were positive about the design consciousness that technology fosters, apotential downside was also noted by a few teachers. It is possible for students to get so caughtup in issues such as type font or audio clips that they pay less attention to the substantive contentof their product. We observed one computer lab within which several students with a researchpaper assignment spent the entire period coloring and editing the computer graphics for thecovers of their as-yet-unwritten reports, pixel by pixel. Teachers are developing strategies tomake sure that students do not get distracted by some of the more enticing but less substantivefeatures of technology, for example, by limiting the number of fonts and font sizes available totheir students.
Bilingual Education Is a Board TermBilingual education is a term that refers to two languages in aninstructional setting. The termhowever depends upon many variables; it includes the native language of the alumni, thelinguistic goal of the program and the language of instruction, to determine which type ofbilingual education is used. Alumni may be a native speaker of the majority or minoritylanguage. The alumnis ’native language may or may not be used to teach the content material.Bilingual education programs may be considered additive or subtractive in terms of alumni’s’linguistic goal, and it is determined by the encouragement the alumni adds to their linguisticrepertoire, and or to replace their native language with the majority language (see Table 1 fortypology of bilingual education). Bilingual education used here is to refer to the use of twolanguages as media of instruction.
The Need for Bilingual EducationDuring the beginning of the twenty-first century, one language is not proficient for economic,educational success, and societal. Global interdependence and mass communication requires thecapability to function in variable languages. Based on the 2000 U.S. Census, there are more than9.7 million children starting at the ages of five through seventeen, spoke a language other thanEnglish at home, which is identified as one of every six school age children. These languageminority children are the fastest growing segment in the U.S. of the school age population.During the 1990’s and the 2000, the population of language minority children has increased by55 percent, whereas the population of children living in a home where the only language isspoken in English grew by only 11 percent.A language minority alumnus in the U.S. schools speak virtually all the world’s languages, andincludes more than a hundred that are indigenous to the United States. Language minoritystudents may be monolingual in his or her native language, bilingual in their native language andEnglish, and or monolingual in English yet from a home where a language other than English isspoken. For those who haven’t developed proficiency in English, to learn content material in allEnglish medium classrooms are recognized to be limited English proficient (LEP), also known asEnglish language learners (ELLs). The numbers of LEP alumni’s in American schools are atclose to four million.
Theoretical Foundations of Bilingual Education and Benefits of BilingualismBilingual education is grounded as, research and experience. Children will not learn academiclearning material if he or she can’t understand the language of instruction. Experience documentsstate that alumni’s from minority language backgrounds historically have the highest dropoutrate, including lower achievement scores. There’s a basis for bilingual education drawingresearch in language education and acquisition. Research done by Jim Cummins, of the OntarioInstitute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto, who supports the basic tenet ofbilingual education: children’s first language skills must develop to ensure that their linguisticand academics performance as the second language maximizes. Cummins’s developmentalinterdependence theory suggests that growth in a second language is dependent upon a well-developed first language, his thresholds theory also recommends a child must attain a certainlevel of proficiency in both the native, as well as second language in order to benefit aspects ofbilingualism to accrue. Cummins introduced the concept of the common underlying proficiency,model of bilingualism; he explains how the concepts learned in line language can transfer toanother. Cummins is known best for his distionction between the two concepts; cognitiveacademic language proficiency (CALP), as well as basic interpersonal communication skills(BICS). BICS, and everyday conversational skill, are acquired, whereas CALP, the highlydecontextualized, abstract language skills used in a classroom setting, can take up to seven yearsor more to acquire.Stephen Krashen, from the Education at the University of Southern California, has developed histheory of second language acquisition recognized as the monitor model. At the core of his theorythere’s a distinctions between learning and acquisition being the subconscious process occurringin authentic communicative situations, including learning being the conscious process of
knowing the language. The monitor model includes the natural order of hypothesis, the input andthe monitor hypothesis, and the effective filter hypothesis. These five hypotheses are structuredand implemented. Educational programs for language minority alumni’s. Krashen theory isplaced into practice with the creation of the natural approach and the gradual exist model, basedon a second tenet of bilingual education, the concept of comprehensible input. It is ok to say,language teaching must be designed to be acquired easily, and is done by using delivery methodsand levels of language that the alumni can understand the language.Good bilingual education programs recognizes the skills the alumni brings to the school andclassroom setting and gets help to build up the knowledge. They are designed to be culturally,developmental and linguistically appropriate for the alumnis and have the followingcharacteristics: : Administrative and instructional staff and community support for the program. Appropriately trained personnel. Adequate resources and linguistically, culturally, and developmentally appropriate materials. Frequent and appropriate monitoring of student performance. Parental and family involvement. High expectations for students and clear programmatic goals. A curriculum that is comparable to the material covered in the English-only classroom. Instruction through the native language for subject matter. An English-language development component. Multicultural instruction that recognizes and incorporates students home cultures.
Education and Its EvolutionAt the turn of the twenty-first century, and through the lens of historical outlook, the modernsocietal conditions are reshaping education, both in the United States and abroad, in a profoundmanner. Modern technologies coupled with global economic forces, which have contributed to apervasive level of organizations international interdependence. Although, altering education theyare changing in the home life, lifestyle, workplace and the political economy of virtually everyperson, in every village, and in almost every nation.Education, as we know it, evolves in several ways. Formal educational institutions are moreintertwined with society than ever. And almost a third of the American population is linkedtightly to formal schooling, either as parents or as students of an enrolled student. Serving thisextensive clientele requires a big workforce. Educational institutions in the United States employindividuals engaged directly in agriculture.Serving this extensive clientele requires a huge workforce. Educational institutions in the UnitedStates currently employ more individuals than are engaged directly in agriculture. The UnitedStates now spends more money annually on education than it spends on any other publiclysubsidized practical activity, except health care. Not even the national defense spending exceeds$3 billion per day nation appropriate to support colleges and schools.And the 2nd is, it’s more complicated and its various components aren’t any more reciprocallylinked than previously recognized. Example, before a child goes to school or outside of theschool is now recognized as influencing a student achievement. Preschools and kindergarteninfluence the effectiveness of elementary schooling; the students’ success in elementary schoolmay influence success in high school, and college admission procedures shape high, admission
procedures shape high school curricula; graduate school admission standards shape collegeundergraduate courses of study.Thirdly, the interconnected and global nature of the larger society renders American educationsusceptible to being compared the influence by other national schools and colleges and theirsystems. The way different nations may teach their children are seen as issues that matter inprofound ways. Including through the student exchange, distance education, and campuses,education has risen to be among the nation’s largest overseas export categories.
Learning EnglishLearning English is beyond the importance of description. English is an international languagethat is widely used l sharing information throughout the world. It is used from technology toentertainment in all sectors of this global world of English reigns; like the emperor of languages.The following analysis and statistics will clarify the importance of learning English as a secondlanguage. Less than 10% of the total population of the world speaks English as their nativelanguage but they possess one third of the total economic force of the world that shows howstrongly English influences the global economy.In a statistics it has been seen that 95% of the total available articles online are written in Englishby native English speakers. English is the only language that is used in a nonnative use thannative users. About 61,850,000 people throughout the world use English as their mother tongue,whereas a total of 1.68 billion individuals use English as a second language, or learn it as aforeign language. The language is most used language both in written and spoken form oflanguage usages. 46% of total population within the world including native and non-nativespeakers communicates in English. 80% of the data stored in the computers of the world isdocumented in English. Most of the books necessary for universal information and education arewritten in English. More than 60% scientific and technical journals and periodicals are publishedin English. All the top universities of the world use English as a medium of education. In termsof vocabulary English is the richest language of the world to express feelings and situations.500,000 unlisted methodological and scientific words there are another 500,000 words listed inthe Oxford English Dictionary.
Information exchange English is the most worldwide used communication medium. Three forthof all the mails, tales and cable are held in English. Hollywood the most famous and reputedmovie industry of the world is in USA that is an English speaking country. The world’s topbroadcasting bands like CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC and CBC broadcast in English and servemillions of people all over the world. English is the language of navigation and aviation. It is theofficial language of more than 53 countries of the world. All the leading internationalorganizations like UNO, UNDP, UNICEF, WHO, ILO etc. use English as their official language.All of these English language statistics scream the importance of learning English. This studyclearly points out why learning English is so important for becoming successful both in personaland global life. For getting a good job, to visit a foreign country, to become an online freelancecontent writer, to company the new English speaking online girlfriend to chat with aninternational buyer, to apply for higher education, everywhere we need good command overEnglish.
WHAT I HAVE LEARNEDI have learned through this research, as a future teacher, am that I will findmyself repeating andrephraseconstantly. As a teacher of English as a second languageneed to repeat everything atleast three times. They should vary the wording of their remarks. While a student may learn orknow one set of vocabulary, but not another, even when discussing the same topic. Although astudent may not understand the concept upon the first explanation, he/she will greatly benefitfrom the repletion and variation of the words spoken in the language. It will expose him/her tolearn new words and phrases. I don’t believe a teacher should over correct a student. Although Ibelieve that the first instinct as a teacher of English as a second language is to correct thestudent’s language error or errors. I believe that over correction can make students reluctant touse the language. If a student becomes afraid of being corrected every time they speak, thestudents will simply stop speaking and therefore learning the language. I’m sure there areappropriate times to correct language mistakes. If a concept for example; the past tense, has beendiscussed at length in class, it is appropriate to correct students when they form the past tenseimproperly. Even when creating a safe atmosphere, while learning English as a second languageis not an easy thing emotionally, students will still feel self-conscious about their lack of Englishability and will thus be reluctant to use the language. The job of the teacher of English as asecond language is to continue to create a safe and supportive environment, one of which Ibelieve the student will eventually create a comfortable experimental use of the language. Thatmeans that laughing at or putting down others in a classroom setting cannot be tolerated in anyway, shape, or form.
TECHING A SECOND LANGUAGE IN A WORLD OF TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTTeachers and students who engage with technology and learning with such materials demonstrateimproved learning performance. Which include elements of stimulation interactive diagrams,images, video, audio materials that provides academics with an opportunity to create a richlearning environment for students. Bilingualism is associated with positive cognitiveconsequences and studies that suggest that bilingualism might adversely affect cognitive andscholastic progress, bilingual setting and technology are likely to have attain a high level ofcompetence in the second language causing”a balance effect”, which is hypothesized that thelevel of linguistic competence attained by a bilingual child may mediate the effects of his or herbilingual learning experiences cognitive growth.However, when students are placed in a group, and if the teacher is constantly talking, learners ofEnglish as a second language will never get a chance to practice. Giving group work givesstudents an opportunity to practice the language, via computers, research on line, or throughpractical practice of the language. Groups work the best with 2 to 5 people; with any morepeople, not everyone may get an opportunity to participate. It is also a good ideas to groupstudents with different first languages together when possible using bilingual materials. In theevent the teacher speaks the same language(s) as the students, the situation is greatly simplified.Bilingual materials can help a teacher of English as a second language to draw on a student’snative language without knowing him/herself. English as a 2nd language in particular teachers of
foreign students, set forth in a technical manner and linguistic approach employed throughtechnology and writing instructional materials used in English as a second language. This studyanalysis the effect of communicative approach on speaking and listening proficiency and aremeasured can also be measured through the use of technology.
Referencia de artículo en enciclopedia en líneaCATHERINE E. SNOW and MARGARET FREEDSON-GONZALEZ. Cell. In Encyclopediaof Education (Vol. 1. 2ndEd. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003. P181-185.DORA V.SMITH JAMES R.SQUIRE and NANCY E. GRATTON. Cell. In Encyclopedia ofEducation (Vol. 5. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2002.NANCY F. ZELASKO. ED. JAMES W. GUTHRIE. Cell. In Encyclopedia of Education.(Vol. 1.2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003.
REFERENCIA DE PÁGINAS EN EL WORLD WIDE WEBhttp://www2.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdTech/effectsstudents.html. Effects ofTechnology on Classrooms and Studentshttp://learning-teaching-esl.blogspot.com/2011/01/importance-of-learning-english-language.html. Posted by Shifa Saleheenhttp://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume5/ej20/ej20r4/. March 2002 — Volume 5,Number 4Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (3rd Edition)Marianne Celce-Murcia, Editor. (2001)University of California, Los Angeles.Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.Pp. xii + 584