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- 1. Unit 6<br />Kinetic Theory of Gases<br />
- 2. Kinetic Theory<br />3 Parts to Kinetic Theory<br />All particles are in constant random motion<br />
- 3. Kinetic Theory<br />3 Parts to Kinetic Theory<br />All particles are in constant random motion<br />The motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles unless they collide.<br />
- 4. Kinetic Theory<br />3 Parts to Kinetic Theory<br />All particles are in constant random motion<br />The motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles unless they collide.<br />Forces of attraction among particles in a gas can be ignored under ordinary conditions.<br />
- 5. Kinetic Theory<br />The molecules move in straight lines and at constant velocity<br />They only change directions or speed when they collide with other molecules or the sides of the container<br />
- 6. Boyle’s Law<br />As the volume of a gas decreases (Squeezing), the pressure increases.<br />The volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure applied. <br />Temperature and number of particles are held constant.<br />P1V1= P2V2<br />
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- 11. Charles’ Law<br />As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume increases.<br />The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature.<br />Pressure and number of particles are held constant.<br />V1/T1= V2/T2<br />
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- 16. Hot Air Balloons work on Charles Law<br />
- 17. Hot Air Balloons work on Charles Law<br />
- 18. Try It At Home!<br />Seal an empty water bottle <br />Throw into the freezer.<br />Wait 20 minutes<br />
- 19. Try It At Home!<br />Seal an empty water bottle <br />Throw into the freezer.<br />Check it out after it gets cold!<br />Charles Law in effect<br />
- 20. Why do you always launch balloons early in the morning?<br />
- 21. Why do you always launch balloons early in the morning?<br />Early morning is cooler, so the temperature difference between the air in the balloon and the outside is greater.<br />Once up high, the air is cooler and you can stay up for a long time.<br />
- 22. Guy-Lussacs’ Law<br />Guy-Lussacs’ Law. The number of particles of the substance are held constant.<br />P1/T1= P2/T2<br />
- 23. Why is this a problem?<br />
- 24. The heat will increase the pressure in the tank until it explodes<br />
- 25. Try It At Home!<br />Seal an empty water bottle on a high mountain road.<br />Drive down to sea level<br />
- 26. Try It At Home!<br />Seal an empty water bottle on a mountain road.<br />Check it out at sea level!<br />Guy-Lussac’s Law<br />
- 27. Combined Gas Law<br />Combination of Boyle’s and Charles’ Law. The number of particles of the substance are held constant.<br />P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2<br />
- 28. Why are weather balloons not filled completely at launch?<br />
- 29. Combined Gas Law<br />Ground: <br />T = 293 K<br />P = 1 Atm<br />V = 100 L<br />5,000 m: <br />T = 263 K<br />P = 0.5 Atm<br />V = ?<br />16,000 m <br />T = 213 K<br />P = 0.1 Atm<br />V = ?<br />P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2<br />
- 30. Combined Gas Law<br />Ground: <br />T = 293 K<br />P = 1 Atm<br />V = 100 L<br />5,000 m: <br />T = 263 K<br />P = 0.5 Atm<br />V = ?<br />16,000 m <br />T = 213 K<br />P = 0.1 Atm<br />V = ?<br />1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.5atm*V2/263K<br />P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2<br />
- 31. Combined Gas Law<br />Ground: <br />T = 293 K<br />P = 1 Atm<br />V = 100 L<br />5,000 m: <br />T = 263 K<br />P = 0.5 Atm<br />V = 179 L<br />16,000 m <br />T = 213 K<br />P = 0.1 Atm<br />V = ?<br />1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.5atm*V2/263K<br />V2 = 179 L<br />P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2<br />
- 32. Combined Gas Law<br />Ground: <br />T = 293 K<br />P = 1 Atm<br />V = 100 L<br />5,000 m: <br />T = 263 K<br />P = 0.5 Atm<br />V = 179 L<br />16,000 m <br />T = 203 K<br />P = 0.1 Atm<br />V = ?<br />1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.1atm*V2/203K<br />P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2<br />
- 33. Combined Gas Law<br />Ground: <br />T = 293 K<br />P = 1 Atm<br />V = 100 L<br />5,000 m: <br />T = 263 K<br />P = 0.5 Atm<br />V = 179 L<br />16,000 m <br />T = 203 K<br />P = 0.1 Atm<br />V = 693 L<br />1.0atm*100L/293K = 0.1atm*V2/203K<br />V2 = 693 L<br />P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2<br />
- 34. Why are weather balloons not filled completely at launch?<br />
- 35. Why are weather balloons not filled completely at launch?<br />The Atmosphere is much thinner, so the balloon expands<br />
- 36. Try It At Home!<br />Seal an empty water bottle on a mountain road.<br />Check it out at sea level!<br />Guy-Lussac’s Law<br />

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