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Unit 28 Human Body


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Unit 28 Human Body

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT The human body has five levels of organization.<br />
  2. 2. red blood cell<br />nerve cell<br />Specialized cells develop from a single zygote.<br />Organisms are made up of specialized cells. <br />
  3. 3. Zygotes first divide into embryonic stem cells. <br /><ul><li>Stem cells develop in two stages.
  4. 4. determination, or committing to become one cell type
  5. 5. differentiation, or acquiring specialized structures and functions</li></li></ul><li>cell<br />tissue<br />Specialized cells function together in tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism. <br />Specialized cells perform specific tasks. <br /><ul><li>Tissues are groups of similar cells working together.
  6. 6. epithelial tissue
  7. 7. connective tissue
  8. 8. muscle tissue
  9. 9. nervous tissue</li></li></ul><li>ORGANS<br />ORGAN SYSTEM<br />ORGANISM<br />Organs are different tissues working together.<br /><ul><li>Organ systems are two or more organs working together.
  10. 10. Organism is all organ systems working together. </li></li></ul><li>There are 11 major organ systems in the human body.<br />
  11. 11. KEY CONCEPT Homeostasis is the regulation and maintenance of the internal environment. <br />
  12. 12. Conditions within the body must remain within a narrow range.<br />Homeostasis involves keeping the internal environment within set ranges. <br />
  13. 13. pore<br />sweat <br />glands<br />hair<br />follicle<br />muscle<br />goose<br />bump<br />Control systems help maintain homeostasis. <br /><ul><li>sensors gather data
  14. 14. control center receives data, sends messages
  15. 15. communication system delivers messages to target organs, tissues
  16. 16. targets respond to change</li></li></ul><li>Holding breath, CO2 levels rise,<br />O2 /CO2 level returns to normal<br />Control system forces exhale, inhale<br />Negative feedback loops are necessary for homeostasis. <br />Feedback compares current conditions to set ranges.<br />Negative feedback counteracts change. <br />Negative Feedback Loop<br />
  17. 17. platelets<br />blood vessel<br />fibrin<br />clot<br />white blood cell<br />red blood cell<br />Positive feedback increases change. <br /><ul><li>Torn vessel stimulates release of clotting factors
  18. 18. growth hormones stimulate cell division</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT Systems interact to maintain homeostasis. <br />
  19. 19. Each organ system affects other organ systems. <br />An organ system must do a specific job. <br /><ul><li>Organ systems must also work together to keep the organism healthy.</li></li></ul><li>UV light<br />1<br />Skin absorbs UV light<br />2<br />Liver produces inactive vitamin D<br />3<br />4<br />Kidneys produce active vitamin D<br />Active vitamin D used in bones<br />Organ systems must also work together to keep the organism healthy.<br /><ul><li>Organ systems work together to produce Vitamin D.
  20. 20. Thermoregulation maintains a steady body temperature. </li></li></ul><li>A disruption of homeostasis can be harmful. <br />Homeostasis can be disrupted for several reasons. <br />sensors fail <br />targets do not receive messages<br />injury <br />illness <br />
  21. 21. pancreas<br />1<br />Pancreas cells attacked;insulin declines<br />fats<br />2<br />Blood glucose levels rise, <br />kidneys<br />3<br />4<br />Body burns fat; blood more acidic,<br />Cells impaired; all organs damaged.<br />Short-term disruption usually causes little or no harm.<br /><ul><li>Long-term disruptions can cause more damage.
  22. 22. Diabetes is a serious long-term disruption of homeostasis. </li>