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Unit 12 Chemical Naming and Formulas

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Unit 12 Chemical Naming and Formulas

  1. 1. Unit 12: Writing and Naming Chemical Formulas<br />Physical Science<br />
  2. 2. Chemical Symbols<br />
  3. 3. How to writing chemical formulas<br />Use the chemical symbol for each element<br />Usually, the element abbreviations come from the word <br />(He for Helium or Ti for Titanium)<br />Some elements have just one letter, such as H for Hydrogen or N for Nitrogen<br />
  4. 4. How to writing chemical formulas<br />Sometimes the abbreviation does not look like the element such as:<br />K for Potassium<br />Na for Sodium<br />Pbfor Lead<br />Cu for Copper <br />Ag for Silver<br />Au for Gold<br />
  5. 5. How to writing chemical formulas<br />That is because their name came from Latin or other languages<br />K for Potassium (Kalium)<br />Na for Sodium (Natrium)<br />Pb for Lead (Plumbum)<br />Cu for Copper (Cuprum)<br />Ag for Silver (Argentum)<br />Au for Gold (Aurum)<br />
  6. 6. The 11 Odd Elements to Memorize<br />
  7. 7. How to writing chemical formulas<br />Most elements have two letters<br />Always capitalize the first letter and use lower case on the second one.<br />Example: Cobalt is Co<br />If you used two capitals (CO), it would be mistaken for Carbon Monoxide which has one Carbon (C) and one Oxygen (O)<br />
  8. 8. Subscript Numbers<br />The subscript number specifies how many atoms of that element you have<br />N2 is a nitrogen molecule with two atoms <br />C2H4 has two carbons and four hydrogens.<br />CO2 is carbon dioxide and contains one carbon and two oxygens<br />If no number is listed, it means there is only one<br />
  9. 9. More Examples<br />C2H3Cl <br />what elements and how many of each?<br />
  10. 10. More Examples<br />C2H3Cl <br />what elements and how many of each?<br />
  11. 11. More Examples<br />H2SiCl2<br />what elements and how many of each?<br />
  12. 12. More Examples<br />H2SiCl2<br />what elements and how many of each?<br />
  13. 13. Numbers in Front Versus Behind <br />What should this molecule look like?<br />For example CH4=<br />
  14. 14. Numbers in Front Versus Behind <br />What should this molecule look like?<br />It is called Methane<br />For example CH4=<br />
  15. 15. Numbers in Front <br />When there are large numbers in front, that tells you how many molecules there are.<br />For example 3CH4 =<br />
  16. 16. Numbers in Front <br />When there are large numbers in front, that tells you how many molecules there are.<br />For example 3CH4 = 3 methane molecules<br />12NaOH = ?<br />
  17. 17. Numbers in Front <br />When there are large numbers in front, that tells you how many molecules there are.<br />For example 3CH4 = 3 methane molecules<br />12NaOH = <br />12 different <br />Sodium Hydroxide molecules.<br />
  18. 18. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />Part One: Writing Ionic Formulas<br />Always say the metal name first and then the <br />non-metal with an -ide<br />
  19. 19. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />Part One: Writing Ionic Formulas<br />Example: CaCl2 would be called calcium chloride<br />
  20. 20. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />Part One: Writing Ionic Formulas<br />Example: What if you saw the name <br />Magnesium chloride …What is the formula?<br />
  21. 21. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />Magnesium Chloride =<br />Mg+2<br />Cl-1<br />
  22. 22. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />Magnesium Chloride = MgCl2<br />Mg+2<br />Cl-1<br />
  23. 23. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate<br />Magnesium= Mg2+<br />Phosphate = PO43-<br />Remember, the charges have to balance<br />
  24. 24. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate<br />Magnesium= Mg2+<br />Phosphate = PO43-<br />Remember, the charges have to balance<br />2 X 3 = 6<br />
  25. 25. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate<br />Magnesium= Mg2+<br />Phosphate = PO43-<br />Remember, the charges have to balance<br />Mgx(PO4)y<br />2 X 3 = 6<br />+6<br />-6<br />
  26. 26. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />OK, here is one for you Magnesium Phosphate<br />Magnesium= Mg2+<br />Phosphate = PO43-<br />Remember, the charges have to balance<br />Mg3(PO4)2<br />
  27. 27. Examples of naming for metals with multiple charges <br />
  28. 28. Examples of naming for metals with multiple charges <br />
  29. 29. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />What about Iron (II) Oxide<br /> Step One: Determine the charges<br />Iron (II) = Fe2+ and Oxide = O2-<br />
  30. 30. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />What about Iron (II) Oxide<br /> Step One: Determine the charges<br />Iron (II) = Fe2+ and Oxide = O2-<br />Step Two: See how to balance the charges<br />Step Three: Find the combination that balances<br />
  31. 31. Part One: Ionic Formulas<br />What about Iron (II) Oxide<br /> Step One: Determine the charges<br />Iron (II) = Fe2+ and Oxide = O2-<br />Step Two: See how to balance the charges<br />Step Three: Find the combination that balances<br />Iron (II) Oxide = FeO<br />
  32. 32. How do you know if you use Roman numerals?<br />Do not use Roman Numerals for groups 1 or 2 as they are always (+1) and (+2) accordingly.<br />K = +1 and Ca = +2<br />+1<br />+2<br />
  33. 33. How do you know if you use Roman numerals?<br />Do not use Roman numerals for anything in the P-block since they tend to form covalent bonds.<br />The exceptions are Tin (Sb) and Lead (Pb)<br />
  34. 34. How do you know if you use Roman numerals?<br />Do not use Roman numerals for Zn or Ag because they have dominant oxidation states that rarely change:<br />Ag = +1 and Zn = +2.<br />
  35. 35. Prefixes for Covalent Bonds<br />Example<br />1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)<br />
  36. 36. Prefixes for Covalent Bonds<br />Example<br />1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)<br />2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />
  37. 37. Prefixes for Covalent Bonds<br />Example<br />1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)<br />2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3) <br />As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one<br />
  38. 38. Prefixes for Covalent Bonds<br />Example<br />1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)<br />2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3) <br />4 =Tetra DinitrogenTetroxide (N2O4)<br />As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one<br />
  39. 39. Prefixes for Covalent Bonds<br />Example<br />1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)<br />2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3) <br />4 =Tetra DinitrogenTetroxide (N2O4)<br />5 = Penta Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl5)<br />As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one<br />
  40. 40. Prefixes for Covalent Bonds<br />Example<br />1 = Mono Carbon Monoxide (CO)<br />2 = Di Carbon Dioxide (CO2)<br />3 = Tri Nitrogen Triiodide (NI3) <br />4 =Tetra DinitrogenTetroxide (N2O4)<br />5 = Penta Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl5)<br />6 = Hexa Sulfur Hexaflouride (SF6)<br />As you can see, you don’t label the first with a prefix unless it is more than one<br />
  41. 41. Drawing Covalent Compounds<br />In general, the first named compound is the central compound.<br />Sulfur dioxide<br />Nitrogen Triiodide<br />Carbon Tetrachloride<br />

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