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Covalent Bonding<br />Unit 11<br />
Covalent Bonds<br />Involve sharing outer energy level electrons.<br />
How Are They Different Than Ionic?<br />Ionic bonds work by electromagnetic attraction. A positively charged ion is attrac...
Cl<br />Cl<br />How will two chlorine atoms react?<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />Each chlorine atom wants to <br />gain one electron to achieve an octet<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />octet<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />octet<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />The octet is achieved by<br />each atom sharing the<br />electron pair in the middle<br />circle the elect...
Cl<br />Cl<br />The octet is achieved by<br />each atom sharing the<br />electron pair in the middle<br />circle the elect...
Cl<br />Cl<br />This is the bonding pair<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
Cl<br />Cl<br />Single bonds are abbreviated<br />with a dash<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<...
Cl<br />Cl<br />This is the chlorine molecule,<br />Cl2<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />t...
Covalent Bonds<br />Each oxygen has 6 valence electrons and wants two more to have a full octet.<br />6 electrons<br />6 e...
Covalent Bonds<br />If one oxygen shares two electrons with the other, the other has a full octet.<br />8 electrons – happ...
Covalent Bonds<br />But, then the other oxygen is short, so it pulls them back.<br />Now the other oxygen shares 2 electro...
Covalent Bonds<br />Thus, by each of them sharing two electrons back and forth, they both are at the full octet simultaneo...
O<br />O<br />
O<br />O<br />
O<br />O<br />
O<br />O<br />
O<br />O<br />Both electron pairs are shared.<br />
O<br />O<br />Both electron pairs are shared.<br />
So Who Covalently Bonds?<br />Alkaline or Alkali Earth Metals do not form covalent bonds!<br />Also Halogens are rarely co...
Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> C<br />.<br />Valence Electrons:		    4<br />Electrons occur in 4 fours s...
Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />Valence Electrons:		    4		   ...
Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />O<br />.<br />.<br />Valence E...
Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />O<br />.<br />.<br />Valence E...
Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />O<br />.<br />.<br />Valence E...
Exception to Octet Rule<br />Boron only has 3 valence electrons, so it is impossible to get to eight via covalent bonding<...
Single Bond<br />Ethane is C2H6<br />
Double Bond<br />Ethene is C2H4<br />
Triple Bond<br />Acetylene is C2H2<br />
Quadruple Bond???<br />Can not occur, because the last bond can not bend all the way around.<br />Too far to bend<br />Too...
Possible Covalent Bonds<br />Only where single electrons are located, can covalent bonds be made.<br />Carbon has 4 single...
Double Bonds Revisited<br />Since Oxygen can make two bonds, and Carbon can make four, it makes for some interesting combi...
Why Carbon is the Key to Life<br />It is precisely because carbon can make 4 bonds, as well as, double and triple bonds, t...
DNA and the building blocks for life<br />Carbon, plus two other flexible elements, oxygen and nitrogen form the backbone ...
Proteins are the largest molecules known<br />
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Unit 11 Covalent Bonding

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Unit 11 Covalent Bonding

  1. 1. Covalent Bonding<br />Unit 11<br />
  2. 2. Covalent Bonds<br />Involve sharing outer energy level electrons.<br />
  3. 3. How Are They Different Than Ionic?<br />Ionic bonds work by electromagnetic attraction. A positively charged ion is attracted to a negative ion.<br />Covalent bonds work by sharing electrons. They do not have charges, but are hard to separate due to this sharing.<br />
  4. 4. Cl<br />Cl<br />How will two chlorine atoms react?<br />
  5. 5. Cl<br />Cl<br />Each chlorine atom wants to <br />gain one electron to achieve an octet<br />
  6. 6. Cl<br />Cl<br />
  7. 7. Cl<br />Cl<br />
  8. 8. Cl<br />Cl<br />
  9. 9. Cl<br />Cl<br />octet<br />
  10. 10. Cl<br />Cl<br />octet<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
  11. 11. Cl<br />Cl<br />The octet is achieved by<br />each atom sharing the<br />electron pair in the middle<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
  12. 12. Cl<br />Cl<br />The octet is achieved by<br />each atom sharing the<br />electron pair in the middle<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
  13. 13. Cl<br />Cl<br />This is the bonding pair<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
  14. 14. Cl<br />Cl<br />Single bonds are abbreviated<br />with a dash<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
  15. 15. Cl<br />Cl<br />This is the chlorine molecule,<br />Cl2<br />circle the electrons for<br />each atom that completes<br />their octets<br />
  16. 16. Covalent Bonds<br />Each oxygen has 6 valence electrons and wants two more to have a full octet.<br />6 electrons<br />6 electrons<br />
  17. 17. Covalent Bonds<br />If one oxygen shares two electrons with the other, the other has a full octet.<br />8 electrons – happy!<br />4 electrons left<br />
  18. 18. Covalent Bonds<br />But, then the other oxygen is short, so it pulls them back.<br />Now the other oxygen shares 2 electrons<br />4 electrons left<br />8 electrons – happy!<br />
  19. 19. Covalent Bonds<br />Thus, by each of them sharing two electrons back and forth, they both are at the full octet simultaneously.<br />8 electrons<br />8 electrons<br />
  20. 20. O<br />O<br />
  21. 21. O<br />O<br />
  22. 22. O<br />O<br />
  23. 23. O<br />O<br />
  24. 24. O<br />O<br />Both electron pairs are shared.<br />
  25. 25. O<br />O<br />Both electron pairs are shared.<br />
  26. 26. So Who Covalently Bonds?<br />Alkaline or Alkali Earth Metals do not form covalent bonds!<br />Also Halogens are rarely covalently bonded.<br />Mostly it is non-metals in groups 3,4,5, and 6<br />
  27. 27. Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> C<br />.<br />Valence Electrons: 4<br />Electrons occur in 4 fours separated as far apart as possible<br />
  28. 28. Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />Valence Electrons: 4 5<br />Electrons occur in 4 fours separated as far apart as possible<br />
  29. 29. Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />O<br />.<br />.<br />Valence Electrons: 4 5 6<br />Electrons occur in 4 fours separated as far apart as possible<br />
  30. 30. Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />O<br />.<br />.<br />Valence Electrons: 4 5 6<br />Electrons occur in 4 fours separated as far apart as possible<br />Secret Question: Why do electrons first fill orbitals one at a time before pairing up?<br />
  31. 31. Electron Distribution<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />.<br /> N<br /> C<br />.<br />.<br />O<br />.<br />.<br />Valence Electrons: 4 5 6<br />Electrons occur in 4 fours separated as far apart as possible<br />Secret Question: Why do electrons first fill orbitals one at a time before pairing up?<br />It is because electrons repel each other and want to be as far apart as possible.<br />
  32. 32. Exception to Octet Rule<br />Boron only has 3 valence electrons, so it is impossible to get to eight via covalent bonding<br />Without 4 valence electrons, the shape of the molecule flattens out.<br />BH3<br />B<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />
  33. 33. Single Bond<br />Ethane is C2H6<br />
  34. 34. Double Bond<br />Ethene is C2H4<br />
  35. 35. Triple Bond<br />Acetylene is C2H2<br />
  36. 36. Quadruple Bond???<br />Can not occur, because the last bond can not bend all the way around.<br />Too far to bend<br />Too far to bend<br />Especially since triple bonds are so rigid<br />
  37. 37. Possible Covalent Bonds<br />Only where single electrons are located, can covalent bonds be made.<br />Carbon has 4 single electrons, thus it can make 4 bonds.<br />Nitrogen has 3 single electrons, thus it can make 3 bonds.<br />Oxygen has 2 single electrons, thus it can make 2 bonds.<br />
  38. 38. Double Bonds Revisited<br />Since Oxygen can make two bonds, and Carbon can make four, it makes for some interesting combinations.<br />
  39. 39. Why Carbon is the Key to Life<br />It is precisely because carbon can make 4 bonds, as well as, double and triple bonds, that makes it so critical to life.<br />Carbon chains can form virtually every formation possible.<br />
  40. 40. DNA and the building blocks for life<br />Carbon, plus two other flexible elements, oxygen and nitrogen form the backbone of DNA<br />DNA contains the genetic code for the building of life out of the largest of all molecules, proteins.<br />
  41. 41. Proteins are the largest molecules known<br />

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