Curriculum Philosophies


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Curriculum Philosophies

  1. 1. CURRENT CHALLENGES IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: CASE STUDIES AND NETWORKING FOR CHANGE Curriculum philosophies for the twenty-first century: what is old an what is new?
  2. 2. Isaac Asimov: the three laws of futurology <ul><li>What’s taking place now will continue in the future (i.e. ‘What happened in the past will also occur in the future’)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Try to identify the obvious for only few people will be able to see it </li></ul><ul><li>Think at consequences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Curriculum ‘philosophies’ <ul><li>Questioning the foundations of our decisions and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Asking the right questions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Issuing guidelines for effective change </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging in productive dialogue </li></ul>
  4. 4. What challenges? <ul><li>Future sellers: ‘The second oldest profession’ (William A. Sherden)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Asimov: ‘If I were asked to guess what people are generally most insecure about, I would say it is the content of the future. We worry about it constantly.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sherden: ‘…just because we cannot predict it does not mean we can ignore the future.’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. What challenges? A review of the obvious… <ul><li>Language & Identity </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Knowledge society’ </li></ul><ul><li>Brain research </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management & Interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>School organization </li></ul>
  6. 6. Language & Identity <ul><li>Newsweek (7 March 2005)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li> School-level maths and sciences taught in English (p. 50)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li> Recommendation of a Commission of the ‘Académie Française’: basic English be treated like basic maths, as part of the mandatory core curriculum (p. 50)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>German language schools no longer target English beginners, but those pursuing more expert-niches: business English, phone manners or English for presentations (p. 59)‏ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Language & Identity <ul><li>Language, computers and mass migrations as the turbine engines of globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual education </li></ul><ul><li>New identities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Knowledge society <ul><li>From an information society towards a ‘knowledge society’ </li></ul><ul><li>Networks, knowledge and new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Learning communities </li></ul><ul><li>Life-long education </li></ul>
  9. 9. Knowledge society: complex knowledge is preconditioning our success in daily life & action
  10. 10. Brain research <ul><li>Time (7 March 2005)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Women: ‘…have more connections between the left and right hemispheres. They tend to use more parts of their brains than do men for the same task’ (p.48-49)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Men: ‘Do their thinking in more focused regions of the brain, whether they are solving a math problem, reading a book or feeling a wave of anger or sadness’ (idem)‏ </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brain research <ul><li>The size of the brain does not predict intellectual performance </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women perform similarly on IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women seem to handle emotions quite differently </li></ul><ul><li>HAIER: ‘Men and women have different brain architectures , and we don’t know what they mean’ (p. 50)‏ </li></ul>
  12. 12. Brain research <ul><li>Leonard SAX: ‘Why gender matters?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation of senses </li></ul><ul><li>Never underestimate the brain: </li></ul><ul><li>adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul><ul><li>evolution </li></ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Memory and learning <ul><li>STERN, 14.10.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Different memory models: </li></ul><ul><li>The partitioned-brain model </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘whole’ brain model </li></ul><ul><li>Short term and long term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative Non declarative </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic - Semantic (Procedural)‏ </li></ul>
  14. 14. Memory and learning <ul><li>Conscious and unconscious memory </li></ul><ul><li>The emotional context of memorisation and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating the memory/neuronal ‘charts’ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Memory and learning <ul><li>Memory and higher-order intellectual skills </li></ul><ul><li>Old tricks in new contexts: how to train our memory? </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids Searching for meaningful links </li></ul><ul><li>Positive routine/methods and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Rimes </li></ul><ul><li>Wording </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gender <ul><li>Iceland : a land where girls rule in Math (Time, 7 March 2005)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations matter </li></ul><ul><li>Germany : ‘Educationalist are worried about the men’s faith in tomorrow’s world: more and more boys and young men leave school and achieve only low results. Boys and young men feel unsecured, and reliable models for them are missing…’ (Der Spiegel, No. 21/17.05.05, p. 82)‏ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gender <ul><li>Time, 7 March 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Who says a woman can’t be Einstein? </li></ul><ul><li>Science is still a man’s world – will today’s girls change that? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Self-management and interpersonal relationships <ul><li>Stern, 25.11.04 </li></ul><ul><li>How to control our fears? </li></ul><ul><li>Sciences humaines, June 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>How to build meaningful interpersonal relationships? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Authority <ul><li>What went wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Spiegel, no. 29/18.07.05 </li></ul><ul><li>The right of children and young to discipline and self-structuring </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 137)‏ </li></ul>
  20. 20. School organization <ul><li>Spiegel, no. 29/18.07.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Rebirth of boarding schools? </li></ul><ul><li>Time, 7 March 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>All women: Smith College grads benefit from single-sex classes (p. 54)‏ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lessons for the future… <ul><li>Old habits die hard – but before killing them for good, we should revisit our assumptions… </li></ul><ul><li>STERN, 25.11.04 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ For corrections we would need like five years, while for a new learning culture we would need at least 15…’ </li></ul><ul><li>A new curriculum & learning culture: we need to be sure of what this means… </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lessons for the future <ul><li>Stern, 25.11.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons of the PISA study: </li></ul><ul><li>Poland: ‘We don’t need to learn only rough facts, what we really need is to understand the world’ (p. 48)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Core curriculum and freedom to choose </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive basic/compulsory education for all while avoiding early streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ participation in the development of their curriculum </li></ul>