Directional Terms You Must Know <ul><li>Caudal – towards the tail </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral – towards the belly </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Distal – farther from the core of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal – closer to the core of the body </li></ul><...
Chordate Evolution
Four defining characteristics of the phylum Chordata <ul><li>Notochord </li></ul><ul><li>Post-anal tail </li></ul><ul><li>...
Advantages of Chordate Characteristics <ul><li>Notochord – provides stabilizing structure and muscle attachment = mobility...
Subphyla of the Chordates <ul><li>Urochordata – tunicates (sea squirts) </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalochordata – Lancelets (amp...
Hypotheses on Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>Urochordate Ancestor: (1928) proposes larval tunicates are ancestor; larval for...
Vertebrata Groups <ul><li>Agnathans – lampreys and hagfish </li></ul><ul><li>Gnathostomes – “jaw opening” cartilaginous fi...
Hagfish    vs  Lampreys <ul><li>No jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>No paired or dorsal fin...
Hagfish
Lampreys
Gnathostomes – Animals with Jaws <ul><li>Hinged jaws were the most important evolutionary development </li></ul><ul><li>Ja...
Jaw Development
Development of Paired Fins <ul><li>Paired fins include the pectoral and pelvic fins. </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoral fins are u...
Pitch, Yaw, and Roll?!?
Origin of Paired Fins <ul><li>Paired fins might have evolved from the most posterior gill arch, folds of the body wall, or...
Acanthoidians (“spiny sharks”) that support the idea of fins from spines
Paired Fins – continued <ul><li>Once paired fins arose, wide radiation of fish groups occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Many fis...
Osteichthyes Chondrichthyes
Placoderms – Mean and Extinct
Class Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fish Sharks Rays Skates Chimaeras (Ratfish)
Chondrichthyan characteristics <ul><li>Cartilaginous skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>No bony structures except in the teeth and...
Subclasses of the Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Elasmobranchii – sharks, skates, rays </li></ul><ul><li>Holocephali – chimaeras (...
Skates vs Rays
Skates   vs Rays <ul><li>Dorsoventrally flattened </li></ul><ul><li>Hugely enlarged pectoral fins </li></ul><ul><li>More m...
Chimaera Facts <ul><li>Males have a single clasper on the head used for clenching the female during mating. </li></ul><ul>...
Shark Facts <ul><li>Have 5 to 7 gill slits. </li></ul><ul><li>Range in size from 7 inches long (dwarf lanternshark) to 39 ...
Birth Patterns <ul><li>Oviparous – laying eggs outside of the body, most often with external fertilization (salmon, gray n...
Structures Unique to Fish that Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes Share <ul><li>Lateral line system to detect pressure waves....
Osteichthyes – The Bony Fish <ul><li>“ Bony Fish” have skeletons made of bone. </li></ul><ul><li>The two subclasses exist:...
Sarcoptyergii <ul><li>Lobe-finned fish have fleshy fins with internal bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Lungfish and coelacanths be...
 
Lungfish <ul><li>“ Lung” is a highly vascularized swim bladder. </li></ul><ul><li>They do also have gills. </li></ul><ul><...
The Ray-Finned Fish <ul><li>“ Ray finned” means the fins are webs of membrane supported by internal bony spines called fin...
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Fish Unit

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Fish Unit

  1. 1. Directional Terms You Must Know <ul><li>Caudal – towards the tail </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral – towards the belly </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal – towards the back </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior – towards the head </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior – towards the rear </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral – to the sides </li></ul><ul><li>Medial – towards the middle </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Distal – farther from the core of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal – closer to the core of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Buccal – mouth region </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal – muscular swallowing region of throat </li></ul><ul><li>Integumentary – the skin system </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory – dealing with gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular – dealing with circulation of blood </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chordate Evolution
  4. 4. Four defining characteristics of the phylum Chordata <ul><li>Notochord </li></ul><ul><li>Post-anal tail </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal gill slits or pouches </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal hollow nerve cord </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advantages of Chordate Characteristics <ul><li>Notochord – provides stabilizing structure and muscle attachment = mobility in water </li></ul><ul><li>Gill slits/pouches – efficient oxygen delivery system in large bodied organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Post-anal tail – propulsion </li></ul><ul><li>DHNC – No clear hypothesis why dorsal would be any better than ventral </li></ul>
  6. 6. Subphyla of the Chordates <ul><li>Urochordata – tunicates (sea squirts) </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalochordata – Lancelets (amphioxus) </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrata – more accurately called “Craniata”, including anything with a cranium </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hypotheses on Vertebrate Evolution <ul><li>Urochordate Ancestor: (1928) proposes larval tunicates are ancestor; larval forms retained form into adulthood and gained gonads to reproduce (“paedomorphosis”) </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalochordate Ancestor: (1991) proposes a lancelet ancestor due to many fossil forms that show notochord, myomeres, gill structure, and caudal projections. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vertebrata Groups <ul><li>Agnathans – lampreys and hagfish </li></ul><ul><li>Gnathostomes – “jaw opening” cartilaginous fish, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, & mammals </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hagfish vs Lampreys <ul><li>No jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>No paired or dorsal fins </li></ul><ul><li>No eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Many mucus glands </li></ul><ul><li>No jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>No paired fins, but dorsal fin present </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes well developed </li></ul><ul><li>No mucus glands </li></ul>AGNATHA
  10. 10. Hagfish
  11. 11. Lampreys
  12. 12. Gnathostomes – Animals with Jaws <ul><li>Hinged jaws were the most important evolutionary development </li></ul><ul><li>Jaw structure is thought to be derived from the first gill arch </li></ul><ul><li>Jaw was probably at first a hinged mechanism that prevented reflux of water during breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws allowed new sources of food and new niches </li></ul><ul><li>MORE FOOD = BETTER SURVIVAL = MORE BABIES = MORE REPRESENTATIVES WITH THOSE GENES FOR THE “GOOD” TRAIT </li></ul>
  13. 13. Jaw Development
  14. 14. Development of Paired Fins <ul><li>Paired fins include the pectoral and pelvic fins. </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoral fins are used for balancing and turning </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic fins are for stabilizing motion </li></ul><ul><li>Both kinds help control pitch, yaw, and roll </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pitch, Yaw, and Roll?!?
  16. 16. Origin of Paired Fins <ul><li>Paired fins might have evolved from the most posterior gill arch, folds of the body wall, or from spiny appendages along the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The fossil record provides no clear answer to which hypothesis is accurate or if more than one may be accurate. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Acanthoidians (“spiny sharks”) that support the idea of fins from spines
  18. 18. Paired Fins – continued <ul><li>Once paired fins arose, wide radiation of fish groups occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Many fish groups are now extinct, but fish are still the most abundant and widespread vertebrate </li></ul>
  19. 19. Osteichthyes Chondrichthyes
  20. 20. Placoderms – Mean and Extinct
  21. 21. Class Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fish Sharks Rays Skates Chimaeras (Ratfish)
  22. 22. Chondrichthyan characteristics <ul><li>Cartilaginous skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>No bony structures except in the teeth and scales </li></ul><ul><li>Placoid scales (hooked from the side view) </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 850 living species, mostly marine </li></ul>
  23. 23. Subclasses of the Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Elasmobranchii – sharks, skates, rays </li></ul><ul><li>Holocephali – chimaeras (also called ratfish) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Skates vs Rays
  25. 25. Skates vs Rays <ul><li>Dorsoventrally flattened </li></ul><ul><li>Hugely enlarged pectoral fins </li></ul><ul><li>More muscular tail </li></ul><ul><li>Usually 2 dorsal fins </li></ul><ul><li>Lay eggs in cases </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic fin is one lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsoventrally flattened </li></ul><ul><li>Hugely enlarged pectoral fins </li></ul><ul><li>Whip-like tail </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes poisonous </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal fins usually absent </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic fin is 2 lobed </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chimaera Facts <ul><li>Males have a single clasper on the head used for clenching the female during mating. </li></ul><ul><li>The gills are covered with a fleshy flap. </li></ul><ul><li>They have grinding plates rather than separate teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-sea dwellers </li></ul>
  27. 27. Shark Facts <ul><li>Have 5 to 7 gill slits. </li></ul><ul><li>Range in size from 7 inches long (dwarf lanternshark) to 39 feet long (whale shark) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Birth Patterns <ul><li>Oviparous – laying eggs outside of the body, most often with external fertilization (salmon, gray nurse shark) </li></ul><ul><li>Ovoviviparous – eggs are retained in the female body but are not connected to her during development, internal fertilization (dogfish, hammerheads, coelacanths) </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparous – egg is fertilized internally and retains a connection to the mother for nutrients until birth (bull sharks, surf perch, guppies, mollies) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Structures Unique to Fish that Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes Share <ul><li>Lateral line system to detect pressure waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Two chambered heart with single atrium and ventricle. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a range of birth patterns from oviparous, ovoviviparous, to viviparous birth. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Osteichthyes – The Bony Fish <ul><li>“ Bony Fish” have skeletons made of bone. </li></ul><ul><li>The two subclasses exist: the-ray finned fish (Actinopterygii) and the lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii) </li></ul><ul><li>The ray-finned fish comprise 97% of all living species of fish. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Sarcoptyergii <ul><li>Lobe-finned fish have fleshy fins with internal bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Lungfish and coelacanths belong to this group. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Lungfish <ul><li>“ Lung” is a highly vascularized swim bladder. </li></ul><ul><li>They do also have gills. </li></ul><ul><li>Gulp air at surface when oxygen levels drop. </li></ul><ul><li>Can survive droughts by burying themselves into mucus-lined burrows. </li></ul>
  33. 34. The Ray-Finned Fish <ul><li>“ Ray finned” means the fins are webs of membrane supported by internal bony spines called fin rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a bony plate covering the gills, called the operculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a symmetrical homocercal tail. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a swim bladder used for buoyancy and gas exchange. </li></ul>

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