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Greening the Life Cycle of Polylactide

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[avniR] Conference, November 2015

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Greening the Life Cycle of Polylactide

  1. 1. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Greening the Life Cycle of Polylactide: Why we need transparency in LCA Olivier Talon, Björn Bergmann Lille, 05/11/2014
  2. 2. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Polylactide (PLA) Major producer NatureWorks (US), Ingeo made from corn. Biobased plastic Made from corn starch, cane sugar, beet sugar… or any fermentable sugar. corn production starch extraction lactic acid fermentation / purification lactide oligomerization / cyclization PLA Ring Opening Polymerization
  3. 3. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. InnoREX in one picture « Continuous, highly precise production of PLA using alternative energies and metal-free catalysts for reactive extrusion »
  4. 4. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. InnoREX consortium For more information about InnoREX: www.innorex.eu Info@InnoREX.eu
  5. 5. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. InnoREX project: From a Life Cycle point of view crop (corn) sugar lactic acid use chemical recycling other EOL PLA Life Cycle InnoREX focus lactide PLA synthesis pelletization shaping
  6. 6. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Expected environmental benefits Highly targeted energy use By-pass of pelletization step Alternative catalysts  energy for synthesis  diminution of energy-related impacts (climate change, …) energy saving  diminution of energy-related impacts (climate change, …)  toxicity  diminution of toxicity-related impacts for production and use steps, possible indirect impact on end-of-life
  7. 7. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. LCA, a tool for answering 2 questions How much could we lower the impact? How much do we lower the impact? LCA should help us quantifying the contribution of the steps we work on to the overall impact of the Life Cycle of PLA 1st step: Focus on cradle-to- gate inventory for PLA pellets
  8. 8. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. What we expect LCI data to be… corn production wet milling lactic acid production lactide production PLA production - Modular - Disaggregated - Transparent
  9. 9. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. …so that we can: corn production wet milling lactic acid production lactide production InnoREX PLA production - Identify hotspots and major contributors - Replace process steps in new models
  10. 10. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. What LCI data are… NatureWorks eco-profile 1 kg PLA Ecoinvent 3 dataset 1 kg PLA - slightly less aggregated - 1,507 kg corn
  11. 11. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. It looks like data are not always as modular, disaggregated and transparent as we expect
  12. 12. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Transparency: the keyword of LCA? « Transparency is the quality of being done in an open way without secrets » Cambridge online dictionary « Transparency: open, comprehensive and understandable presentation of information » ISO 14040 & 14044 standard The word transparency appears 7/8 times in the text of the standards… … but NOT in the « inventory » section So… the way data are used has to be transparent… … but opacity can be admitted for the way data are obtained???
  13. 13. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Who guarantees the reliability of the data we use? Trust in my data… Only trust does, because lack of transparency prevents us from checking them Feedback on databases for continuous improvement is encouraged (and mostly efficient)… but opacity makes it uneasy and time-consuming for practitioners. Third part review may confirm that data were generated following best practices, but are « best practices » enough strictly defined?
  14. 14. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Let’s say we trust. How can we go on further with our study?
  15. 15. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Home-made disaggregation based on published studies and inventories?
  16. 16. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Almost impossible…(and highly time-consuming) NatureWorks eco-profile 1 kg PLA EI3 dataset 1 kg PLA Different goals and scopes… Different (and not really transparent) modelling hypotheses… Different mass balances !!!
  17. 17. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Different mass balances??? The strange case of Dr. Corn and Mr. PLA How much corn is needed to produce 1 kg PLA?
  18. 18. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. And yet, corn in itself is a major contributor to the impact of the Life Cycle of PLA…
  19. 19. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. EI3 PLA impacts: corn contribution calculation with ILCD2011 Midpoint+ v1.04
  20. 20. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. But how to correct this in EI3 dataset? Change corn input? Modify all other inputs and emissions accordingly? Results would obviously not be the same…
  21. 21. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. PLA vs. modified PLAs calculation with ILCD2011 Midpoint+ v1.04
  22. 22. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. The next PLA eco-profile: A new hope?
  23. 23. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. The case of PLA may not be representative of all data… … but it is for sure not isolated.
  24. 24. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. The strange case of Dr. Styrene and Mr. PS Is polymerization the answer to global warming? datasets from EI3, calculation with ILCD2011 Midpoint+ v1.04
  25. 25. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Seems nonsensical… To say the least, these datasets are not compatible…
  26. 26. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. What could possibly go wrong with opacity, anyway?
  27. 27. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Case study: substitution of PET by PLA for bottle application. Evaluation with a LCA webtool. results interpretation decision
  28. 28. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. But… what are these data? Non transparent (and obviously not compatible) datasets used in the same database... results interpretation decision
  29. 29. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. The quest for transparency: an ancient history…
  30. 30. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. What could be done? 1. Rethink the definition of transparency in the standards 2. Put some of it in the « inventory » section of the standards 3. Define more strictly the methodology for data generation… 4. …thus ensuring compatibility of datasets and interoperability of databases LCA should become a science. Verifiability and refutability should be guaranteed by enhanced transparency. A compromise between transparency and confidentiality shall be reached to preserve intellectual property. But confidentiality cannot always win.
  31. 31. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Who could benefit from more transparency? Industrial data provider Database provider User of LCA results LCA practitioner - less risk of greenwashing accusation - less risk of misuse of data by others - more reliable input data from suppliers - less time wasted - better models - sounder interpretations - better trust in the results - wiser decisions - more reliable DB - better compatibility of datasets - better modularity
  32. 32. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova This project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° [309802]. Thanks for your attention contact: olivier.talon@materianova.be InnoREX coordinator: bjoern.bergmann@ict.fraunhofer.de

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