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Longstanding dictator forced out of power
Overthrown by United Somalia Congress
Power struggle ensues
and the Congress splits into two main
- The Somalia National Movement
- and the Aidid’s Party
Internal fighting leads to chaos in capital and
across the country
Power Struggle in mogadishu
Internal fighting between the factions
leads to chaos in the capital of
Drought and Conflict led to widespread famine
Roughly 300,000 civilians died of starvation
United Nations recognizes the problem and wants to help
August of 1992 the UN begins there humanitarian relief
efforts, a project also known as UNOSOM I.
Food and aid was looted due to minimal security
UN sends out plea to member states for military assistance
Us Gets involved
George H. W. Bush responds to request
December 5, 1992 US sends 25,000 troops into
Mogadishu as a part of a international task
force(UNITAF) later known as Operation Restore
Goal: to secure the surrounding area for
humanitarian relief until the United Nations was
ready take over.
inaugurated in January
Expresses desire to
scale down involvement
By May 4, 1993, the
UN is back in control of
Somalia efforts and
control shifts from
UNITAF to UNISOM II
A federalist government was agreed
upon by the leaders of Somalia's
various armed factions.
UN objective was to support this
new system and initiate
nation-building by disarming
factions, restoring order, and helping
the people to set up a
28, 000 troops from 36
Aidid, a Somali
warlord vying for
June 5th, 24 Pakistan
soldiers are killed
allegedly by forces of
"Take all necessary measures
against those responsible for the
armed attacks.” UN Resolution
US troops begin attacking
targets in Mogadishu
looking for Aidid
Incidents of civilian
casualties increase tension
UN failed attempt at
Somali’s not happy with
Task force rangers
In August after increased killing and
attacks on both side, the United
States deployed the Task Force
Rangers by General William
U.S. intelligence had a tip about the
location of Aidid and planned an
attack on the Olympic Hotel he was
thought to be located.
Battle Of Mogadishu
October 3-4, 1993
Using UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters and AH-1
Cobra helicopters US troops released the first
round of missiles on the building.
Somali militia gathered a counter attack and
fired rockets at two Black Hawk helicopters
bringing one down and grazing the other.
An 18 hour battle follows and the United States
troops remain on the defense, using Humvees
and trucks on the ground and Little Bird
gunships in the air to fight the militia men.
Aidid is not actually in the building and remains
8 U.S. troop members were reported
dead and roughly 80 wounded.
Over 500 Somalians, both militia
and civilians were estimated dead,
and over 1,000 were wounded.
On October 7, 1993, Clinton began
to remove troops from Somalia and
all troops were withdrawn by March
The manhunt for Aidid was
officially called off and U.S.
diplomats were sent to Somalia to
negotiate with warlords
Affected how the administration
would respond to future crises. Both
UN and US made policy changes.
The phrase, “Not crossing the
Mogadishu line” coined after the
The Clinton Administration’s lack
of action in the Rwandan Genocide
the following April was an instance
where the backlash of Somalia
affected future action.
Two State Solution
Implemented by UN in 1947
Supposed to ease conflict
Increased tensions, and led to wars for land in 1967
Peace ProcessCamp David Accords - paved framework for peace in
the Middle East focusing on Israeli relations with
Egypt, as well as Jordan, and Syria
Madrid Peace Conference 1991, bilateral negotiations
led by the United States that had little results but
encouraged Israel to pursue direct peace talks with the
Palestinian Liberation Organization
Yasser Arafat Yitzhak Rabin
Israeli prime minister
Secretly carried out in Oslo, Norway
First gathered in 1992, 14 meetings were held
Came up with “Declaration of principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements (DOP)”
United States not present in Oslo
Secret Diplomacy- away from public and political
officially signed on August 20, 1993
PLO acknowledges Israel’s right to exist renounces use of violence and
Israel recognizes the PLO as Palestine’s representative and agrees to withdrawal
from Gaza and the Jericho area of the West Bank
Five year interim period was to be set in place where they would discuss Israeli
withdrawals, final borders, and make sure each side was holding their end of the
Signing Ceremony by Arafat and Rabin on the White
House lawn in September of 1993, facilitated by
Implementing the accords
Israeli forces withdrew from Jericho in 1994 and in September of 1995 they
withdrew from the largest cities in the West Bank, giving the Palestinians
control over Gaza and Jericho (Cairo Agreement)
The PLO was now referred to as the Palestinian Authority and began to
remove anti Israel sentiments from their charter
Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli radical and violence
returned to the area with the increase in terrorist attacks from radical
Palestinian group, Hamas.
Gaza strip and the West Bank were to be
divided into three zones:
•Area A – which would be under the Palestinian
Authority's full control =
•Area B – which would be shared under the Palestinian
Authority's civil control and Israel's security control
•Area C – which would be under full Israeli control
Benjamin NetanyahuTemporary successor
Shimon Peres decided to call
early elections in order to give the
government a mandate to advance
the peace process.
Netanyahu won election and
became Prime Minister in June
From the Likud Party
Previously opposed Palestinian
Peace process was headed for
destruction and the United States
decided to get involved in the
United States Involvement
US Presidents have maintained a policy that Israel has
an unconditional right to exist.
In 1998 Clinton held a summit at Maryland’s Wye
River Plantation, where Arafat and Netanyahu agreed
on a memorandum that called for further Israeli pull out
of the West Bank, and the Palestinian Authority agreed
to increase their efforts in combating terrorist groups,
and to collect illegal weapons and explosives.
Both leaders left the summit with intentions of carrying
out the final stages of the Oslo Accords, but little of the
memorandum is actually done.
United States is pro-Israel, but they have been the
leading nation in facilitating cease-fire agreements
between the two groups.
In party fighting over the memorandum, the 1999 election brought Labor
Party candidate Ehud Barak to power in Israel. He requested a meeting, and
in 2000 Clinton called for the Camp David Summit.
Move essentially failed and the al-Aqsa Intifada soon ensued.
The Oslo Accords were a step towards progress, but they did not
bring lasting peace or a finalization to the conflict. It did however
provide important groundwork towards diplomatic relations between
Palestinian and Israeli authorities.
Effected the boundaries and landscape of the area.
Conflict over Palestinian and Israel lands still exists today