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  1. 1. Somalia Conflict “Black Hawk Down”
  2. 2. Background Siad Barre Longstanding dictator forced out of power in 1991 Overthrown by United Somalia Congress Power struggle ensues and the Congress splits into two main factions: - The Somalia National Movement - and the Aidid’s Party Internal fighting leads to chaos in capital and across the country
  3. 3. Power Struggle in mogadishu Internal fighting between the factions leads to chaos in the capital of Mogadishu
  4. 4. Drought and Conflict led to widespread famine Roughly 300,000 civilians died of starvation
  5. 5. un intervenes United Nations recognizes the problem and wants to help August of 1992 the UN begins there humanitarian relief efforts, a project also known as UNOSOM I. Food and aid was looted due to minimal security UN sends out plea to member states for military assistance
  6. 6. Us Gets involved George H. W. Bush responds to request December 5, 1992 US sends 25,000 troops into Mogadishu as a part of a international task force(UNITAF) later known as Operation Restore Hope. Goal: to secure the surrounding area for humanitarian relief until the United Nations was ready take over.
  7. 7. Clinton administration President Clinton inaugurated in January Expresses desire to scale down involvement By May 4, 1993, the UN is back in control of Somalia efforts and control shifts from UNITAF to UNISOM II
  8. 8. UNOSOM II A federalist government was agreed upon by the leaders of Somalia's various armed factions. UN objective was to support this new system and initiate nation-building by disarming factions, restoring order, and helping the people to set up a representative government. 28, 000 troops from 36 countries involved.
  9. 9. Mohammed Farrah Aidid, a Somali warlord vying for power June 5th, 24 Pakistan soldiers are killed allegedly by forces of Aidid. "Take all necessary measures against those responsible for the armed attacks.” UN Resolution 837
  10. 10. Conflict increases US troops begin attacking targets in Mogadishu looking for Aidid Incidents of civilian casualties increase tension UN failed attempt at stopping warlords. Somali’s not happy with foreign intervention
  11. 11. Task force rangers In August after increased killing and attacks on both side, the United States deployed the Task Force Rangers by General William Garrison. U.S. intelligence had a tip about the location of Aidid and planned an attack on the Olympic Hotel he was thought to be located.
  12. 12. Battle Of Mogadishu October 3-4, 1993 Using UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters and AH-1 Cobra helicopters US troops released the first round of missiles on the building. Somali militia gathered a counter attack and fired rockets at two Black Hawk helicopters bringing one down and grazing the other. An 18 hour battle follows and the United States troops remain on the defense, using Humvees and trucks on the ground and Little Bird gunships in the air to fight the militia men. Aidid is not actually in the building and remains unfound.
  13. 13. AfterMath 8 U.S. troop members were reported dead and roughly 80 wounded. Over 500 Somalians, both militia and civilians were estimated dead, and over 1,000 were wounded. On October 7, 1993, Clinton began to remove troops from Somalia and all troops were withdrawn by March of 1994. The manhunt for Aidid was officially called off and U.S. diplomats were sent to Somalia to negotiate with warlords
  14. 14. Long term Affected how the administration would respond to future crises. Both UN and US made policy changes. The phrase, “Not crossing the Mogadishu line” coined after the battle The Clinton Administration’s lack of action in the Rwandan Genocide the following April was an instance where the backlash of Somalia affected future action.
  15. 15. image citations http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/africa/somalia/ http://forum.valka.cz/viewtopic.php/t/46613/start/-1 https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/progressive- movement/news/2011/10/03/10521/afterword/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mogadishu_(1993) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/ africaandindianocean/somalia/8691193/US-should-not-have-left-Somalia-after-Black- Hawk-Down-sole-survivor-says.html http://proof.nationalgeographic.com/2014/03/31/revisiting-rwandan-genocide/ http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/Somalia/Somalia.htm http://www.militaryfactory.com/battles/battle_of_mogadishu.asp
  16. 16. Oslo Accords 1993-1995
  17. 17. Two State Solution Implemented by UN in 1947 Supposed to ease conflict Increased tensions, and led to wars for land in 1967 and 1973
  18. 18. Peace ProcessCamp David Accords - paved framework for peace in the Middle East focusing on Israeli relations with Egypt, as well as Jordan, and Syria Madrid Peace Conference 1991, bilateral negotiations led by the United States that had little results but encouraged Israel to pursue direct peace talks with the PLO.
  19. 19. Key Players Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yasser Arafat Yitzhak Rabin Israeli prime minister
  20. 20. The Accords Secretly carried out in Oslo, Norway First gathered in 1992, 14 meetings were held Came up with “Declaration of principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements (DOP)” United States not present in Oslo Secret Diplomacy- away from public and political pressures
  21. 21. Initial agreement officially signed on August 20, 1993 PLO acknowledges Israel’s right to exist renounces use of violence and terrorism Israel recognizes the PLO as Palestine’s representative and agrees to withdrawal from Gaza and the Jericho area of the West Bank Five year interim period was to be set in place where they would discuss Israeli withdrawals, final borders, and make sure each side was holding their end of the deal.
  22. 22. Map of Israel
  23. 23. Signing Ceremony by Arafat and Rabin on the White House lawn in September of 1993, facilitated by President Clinton.
  24. 24. Implementing the accords Israeli forces withdrew from Jericho in 1994 and in September of 1995 they withdrew from the largest cities in the West Bank, giving the Palestinians control over Gaza and Jericho (Cairo Agreement) The PLO was now referred to as the Palestinian Authority and began to remove anti Israel sentiments from their charter Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli radical and violence returned to the area with the increase in terrorist attacks from radical Palestinian group, Hamas.
  25. 25. Gaza strip and the West Bank were to be divided into three zones: •Area A – which would be under the Palestinian Authority's full control = •Area B – which would be shared under the Palestinian Authority's civil control and Israel's security control •Area C – which would be under full Israeli control
  26. 26. Benjamin NetanyahuTemporary successor Shimon Peres decided to call early elections in order to give the government a mandate to advance the peace process. Netanyahu won election and became Prime Minister in June 1996 From the Likud Party Previously opposed Palestinian independence Peace process was headed for destruction and the United States decided to get involved in the negotiations.
  27. 27. United States Involvement US Presidents have maintained a policy that Israel has an unconditional right to exist. In 1998 Clinton held a summit at Maryland’s Wye River Plantation, where Arafat and Netanyahu agreed on a memorandum that called for further Israeli pull out of the West Bank, and the Palestinian Authority agreed to increase their efforts in combating terrorist groups, and to collect illegal weapons and explosives. Both leaders left the summit with intentions of carrying out the final stages of the Oslo Accords, but little of the memorandum is actually done. United States is pro-Israel, but they have been the leading nation in facilitating cease-fire agreements between the two groups.
  28. 28. Short term In party fighting over the memorandum, the 1999 election brought Labor Party candidate Ehud Barak to power in Israel. He requested a meeting, and in 2000 Clinton called for the Camp David Summit. Move essentially failed and the al-Aqsa Intifada soon ensued. VIOLENCE ESCALATES
  29. 29. Long Term The Oslo Accords were a step towards progress, but they did not bring lasting peace or a finalization to the conflict. It did however provide important groundwork towards diplomatic relations between Palestinian and Israeli authorities. Effected the boundaries and landscape of the area. Conflict over Palestinian and Israel lands still exists today
  30. 30. Image Citations http://justicewithpeace.org/node/1312 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yitzhak_Rabin https://www.smartraveller.gov.au/zw-cgi/view/advice/Israel_Gaza_Strip_and_West_ Bank?template=~map http://blogs.reuters.com/photographers-blog/2013/09/13/the-arafat-rabin-handshake-20- years-on/ http://blogs.reuters.com/photographers-blog/2013/09/13/the-arafat-rabin-handshake -20-years-on/ http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/arafat-poisoning-theory-called-into-question/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrid_Conference_of_1991#mediaviewer/File:Israel- Palestine_peace.svg www.foxnews.com/world/2014/07/05/israeli-police-palestinian-protesters-clash-after-teen-fu neralhttp://www.librarising.com/astrology/celebs/benjaminnetanyahu.html
  • SalaadKheyre

    Jan. 31, 2021

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